寄托蓝宝书英文释义版
蓝宝书英文解释简化版
(注:这个版本共有35个list 单词总数其实和完整版一样的,只是分list的方式不同,大家放心)
List 1
abandon         (to give up without intent to return)(surrender oneself to)
abase         (to lower in rank, prestige, or esteem)
abash         (to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of)
abate         (to reduce in degree or intensity)
abbreviate     (to make briefer)
abdicate     (to relinquish formally)
aberrant     (deviating from the usual or natural type)
abet         (to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose)
abeyance     (temporary inactivity)
abhor         (to regard with extreme repugnance)
abiding         (to remain stable or fixed in a state)
abject         (cast down in spirit)
abjure         (renounce upon oath)
abnegation     (renunciation;self-sacrifice)
abolition     (the act of doing away with or the state of being done away with; annulment)
abominate     (to hate or loathe intensely)
aboveboard     (be in a straightforward manner)
abrade         (to rub or wear away especially by friction:ERODE)
abridge        (To cut short; curtail)
abrogate     (to abolish by authoritative action)
abscission    (the act of cutting off)
abscond         (to depart secretly and hide oneself)
absolute     (complete;totally unlimited;certain)
absolve         (to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt)
abstain        (to refrain from something by one's own choice)
abstemious     (restraint especially in the consumption of food)
abstract     vt 1 摘要, 提炼, 抽象化 2 心不在焉
abstruse     (difficult to comprehend;recondite)
abuse         (to attack in words;revile)
abut            (to touch along a border or with a projecting part)
abysmal         (immeasurably low or wretched)
accede         (to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand)
accelerate     (to move faster•gain speed)
accessible     (easy to approach;obtainable)
accessory     (additional object;useful but not essential thing)
accidental     (occurring unexpectedly or by chance)
acclimate     (to adapt to a new climate, environment)
accolade       (an expression of praise)
accommodate     (to provide with something desired, needed, or suited
accost         (greet, hail, salute)
accretion     (the process of growth or enlargement by a gradual buildup)
accumulate     (to gather or pile up especially little by little;amass)
acerbic         (acid in temper, mood, or tone)
achromatic     (possessing no hue)
acme         (the highest point or stage)
acquiesce     (to accept tacitly or passively)
acquisition     (the act of acquiring)
acre        (a unit of area in the U.S)
acrid         (sharp and harsh in taste or odor)
acrimonious     (caustic , biting , or rancorous especially in feeling)
acumen          (keenness and depth of perception)
acute          (having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course)
adage          (a saying often in metaphorical form that embodies a common observation)
adamant          (unshakable or immovable especially in opposite)
adapt          (to bring into correspondence or make suitable)
addendum      (a supplement to a book)
addict          (to devote(oneself)to something habitually or obsessively)
adhere          (to hold fast or stick by gluing or grasping)
adjourn        (to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place)
adjunct          (something joined to another thing but not essentially a part of it)
ad-lib          (spoken, composed, or performed without preparation)
admission      (the act or process of admitting)
admonish       (to reprove or express warning in a gentle, earnest manner)
adore          (to regard with loving admiration and devotion)
adulate          (to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly)
adulterate     (to make impure by adding extraneous, improper, or inferior ingredients)
adumbrate      (to suggest or disclose partially)
adversary     (an opponent; an enemy)
advert         (to turn the mind or attention)
advertise     (to announce publicly esp by a printed notice or a broadcast)
advocate     (to plead in favor of)
aerate         (to supply or impregnate with air)
aesthetic    (relating to the philosophy or theories of aesthetics)
affable       (characterized by ease and friendliness)
affected     (assumed artificially or falsely)
affection    (a tender feeling toward another; fondness)
affidavit     (a sworn statement in writing made esp under oath)
affiliate     (to bring or receive into close connection as a member)
affinity     (implies a susceptibility or predisposition on something)
affluent     (having a generously sufficient material possessions)
agenda         (a list or outline of things to be considered or done)
aggrandize     (to make appear great or greater•praise highly)
aggravate   (to make worse, more serious, or more severe)
aggregate     (to collect or gather into a mass or whole)
aggressive     (Inclined to behave in a hostile fashion)
aggrieve        (to give pain or trouble to)
agony         (intense pain of mind or body)
airtight       (impermeable to air or nearly so)
alacrity     (promptness in response•cheerful readiness)
albino         (an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation)
alchemy       (medieval chemistry)
alibi         (an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment)
align        (to arrange in a line or so as to be parallel)
allay         (assuage)
allegiance     (devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause)
alleviate     (as suffering) more bearable
alienate     (to make unfriendly, hostile, or indifferent)
list 2
alliterate     (the repetition of initial consonant sounds)
allowance     (a fixed or available amount)
allude         (to make indirect reference)
ally         (a sovereign or state associated with another by treaty or league)
aloft         (in the air;especially:in flight)
aloof         (removed or distant either physically or emotionally)
alphabetical (arranged in the order of the letters)
altruism     (devotion to the welfare of others)
amalgamate     (to merge into a single body)
ambiguous     (doubtful from obscurity)
amble         (to walk slowly or leisurely;stroll)
ambrosial     (delicious)
ameliorate   (to make better or more tolerable)
amenable       (responsive to advice, authority;tractable)
amenity         (agreeableness)(courtesy)(convenience, facility)
amiable       (being friendly, sociable, and congenial)
amicable     (friendly, neighborly)
amorphous     (having no definite form)
amulet         (an object worn, especially around the neck, as a charm against evil or injury)
anaerobic     (living in the absence of free oxygen)
analgesic     (insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness)
anarchist     (one who rebels against any authority or ruling power)
anathema     (one that is cursed by ecclesiastical authority)
ancillary     (SUBORDINATE, SUBSIDIARY)
anecdote     (a usually short narrative of an interesting incident)
anemic         (lacking force, vitality, or spirit)
anesthetic     (lacking awareness or sensitivity)
anhydrous   (free from water)
animate        (to give life to; fill with life)
animus       (hostile feeling or intent)
annals         (a record of events arranged in yearly sequence)
annoy         (to disturb especially by repeated acts)
annul        (to declare or make legally invalid or void)
anomalous     (abnormal;irregular)
anonymous     (not named or identified)
antagonize   (to incur or provoke the hostility of)
antediluvian (antiquated;ancient)
anterior       (coming before in time or development)
anthology     (a collection of selected literary works of art)
antic        (characterized by clownish absurdity)
antidote      (a remedy to counteract the effects of poison)
apathy          (lack of feeling or emotion)
aphorism      (pithy maxim)
apiary         (a place where bees and beehives are kept, especially a place where bees
are raised for their honey)
apocalyptic      (prophetic)
apocryphal      (untrue;made up)
apophasis     (allusion to something by denying that it will be mentioned, as in  I
will not bring up my opponent's questionable financial dealings)
apoplectic     (greatly agitated)
apostasy     (renunciation of a religious faith)
apostrophe     (')(表示省略或所有格,如 I'M)
apothecary     (one who prepares and sells drugs)
appall         (to overcome with consternation)
apparel        (clothing, especially outer garments; attire)(to adorn or embellish)
appeal          (to make an earnest request)
appealing     (having appeal•PLEASING)
appellation     (a name, title, or designation)
applause     (approval publicly expressed)
apposite     (highly pertinent or appropriate•APT)
appreciable     (capable of being perceived or measured)
apprehension    (suspicion or fear especially of future evil)
apprise         (inform)
approbation     (warmly commending acceptance or agreement)
appropriate     (to take use of without authority)
apron        (a garment, usually fastened in the back, worn over all or part of the front of
the body to protect clothing)
apropos        (with reference to;regarding)
apt            (unusually fitted or qualified)
aquatic        (growing or living in water)
aqueduct    (a conduit for water)
aquifer        (a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock)
arachnid    (including the spiders, scorpions, mites)
arbor        (A shady resting place in a garden or park, often made of rustic work or latticework
on which plants, such as climbing shrubs or vines, are grown)
arboreal    (of a tree)(inhabiting trees)
archaic        (antiquated)
archetype    (prototype;primitive pattern)(paradigm ;model)
archipelago    (group of closely located islands)
archive        (place where public records are kept)
ardor        (heat;passion;zeal)
arduous        (hard to accomplish or achieve)
argot        (secret vocabulary peculiar to a particular group)
arid           (excessively dry)
arrest        (check)(to make inactive)
arresting    (conspicuous;salient)
arrhythmic    (lacking rhythm or regularity)
arrogance    (pride, haughtiness)
arroyo        (a brook;a creek ;a water-carved gully or channel)
arsenal       (a governmental establishment for the storing, development, manufacturing,
testing, or repairing of arms, ammunition, and other war materiel)
artery       (a major route of transportation into which local routes flow)
articulate   (composed of distinct, meaningful syllables or words, as human speech)
artifacts    (products of primitive culture)
artifice    (false or insincere behavior)
artless      (free from guile or craft:sincerely simple)
ascendant    (同ascendent)
ascetic      (austere in appearance, manner, or attitude)
aseptic        (preventing infection)
askew        (out of line:awry)
aspect        (appearance to the eye or mind)
asperity    (sharpness of temper)
aspersion   (slanderous remark)
aspirant   (seeker after position or status)
assert       (state strongly ,demand recognition of rights)
assertive (inclined to bold or confident assertion; aggressively self-assured)
assess       (to determine the importance, size, or value of)
list 3
assiduous   (diligent)
assuage       (ease;lessen pain)
assume       (receive)(undertake)
astounding   (causing astonishment or amazement)
astringent (A substance or preparation, such as alum, that draws together or constricts body
tissues and is effective in stopping the flow of blood or other secretions)
astrology (The study of the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they
have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs)
astute       (having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity)
asunder       adv.(Into separate parts or pieces)
asymmetrical  (not of equal size or similar shape)
asylum        (place of refuge or shelter;protection)
atone       (make amends for;pay for, expiate)
atrocious   (extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel)
atrophy       (wasting away)
attenuate   (to lessen the amount,magnitude, or value of)
audacious   (intrepidly daring)
audition   (a trial performance to appraise an entertainer's merits)
augur        n 预言家 v 占卜
auspicious (affording a favorable auspice)
austere       (markedly simple or unadorned)
authentic   (not false or imitation:real, actual)
authority   (power to influence thought, opinion, or behavior)
autocracy   (government in which a person possesses unlimited power)
autonomy   (the quality or state of being self-governing)
avarice       (excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain)
aver       (to declare positively)(to verify to be true in pleading a cause)
aversion    (firm dislike)
avid        (characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit)
avulse        (to separate by avulsion)
awash        (covered with water)
awe            (an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder)
awkward        (lacking dexterity or skill)
awl             (a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes)
awning         n 雨篷,遮阳篷
awry         (deviating from a straight line or direction)
axiomatic     (self-evident truth requiring no proof)
babble       (to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds)
backhanded   (indirect,devious;especially•sarcastic)
bacteria     n 细菌,培养基
badge        (a device of membership in a society)(a characteristic mark)
badger        (to harass or annoy persistently)
badinage    (playful repartee•banter)
bait        (to persist in tormenting or harassing another;badger)
balance         n 天平,秤 v 平衡, 称, 权衡, 对比, 结算
bale        (great evil)(woe,sorrow)
baleful        (deadly or pernicious in influence)
balk        (block)(refuse to proceed)
balky        (refusing to proceed;restive, wrongheaded)
ballad        (a simple song)(a popular slow sentimental song)
ballast         n 压舱物
ballet         n 芭蕾舞
balloon         (to swell or puff out)(to increase rapidly)
balm         (an aromatic preparation)(a soothing restorative agency)
banal         (lacking originality, freshness, or novelty•trite)
bane         (cause of ruin)
banish         vt 驱逐
banister     (a handrail with its supporting posts)
banquet       (a sumptuous feast)
banter         (to speak to or address in a witty and teasing manner)
barb         (a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment)
barbarous     (mercilessly harsh or cruel)
barefaced     (open, unconcealed)
bargain     (to negotiate over the terms of a purchase)
baroque         (highly ornate)
barrage     (a vigorous projection of many things at once)
barren         (lacking vegetation)
barricade     (to block off with a barricade)
barter         (to trade by exchanging one commodity for another)
base         (lacking of higher qualities of mind or spirit)
baseboard     (a molding covering the joint of a wall)
bathetic     (exceptional commonplaceness)
bawdy         (indecent,lewd)
bedeck         (to clothe with finery)
belabor         (to explain or insist on excessively)
beleaguer     (trouble,harass)
belie         (something) to be false or wrong
bellicose     (inclined to start quarrels or wars)
belligerence    (an aggressive attitude)
bellwether     (one that serves as a leader)
bend         (to make submissive•subdue,compromise)
benediction     (the invocation of a blessing)
beneficent     (doing or producing good)
benign         (showing kindness and gentleness)
bent         (a strong inclination or interest:BIAS)
bequest     (something bequeathed•legacy)
berate         (to scold or condemn vehemently and at length)
beseech         (to request earnestly•implore)
besmirch     (sully,soil)
bibliography (a list of the works)
bibliophile     (a lover of books)
bifurcate     (to cause to divide into two branches or parts)
bigot         (a person obstinately devoted to his own opinions)
blazon       (ostentatious display)
blemish         (to spoil by a flaw)
blighted      adj 植物枯萎的
bliss        (complete happiness)
blithe        (of a happy lighthearted character or disposition)
blueprint     (a detailed plan or program of action)
blunder        (a gross error or mistake)
blunt        (to make less sharp or definite)
blur        (to make indistinct and hazy in outline or appearance;obscure)
blurb        (as on a book jacket)
blurt        (to utter abruptly and impulsively, usually used with out)
blush        (a reddening of the face especially from shame, modesty, or confusion)
List 4
bluster     (to be windy and boisterous)
boast       (the act or an instance of boasting)
boding     (an omen, prediction, or presentiment)
bodyguard (a usually armed attendant whose duty is to protect a person)
boggle     (to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples)
boisterous (noisily turbulent)
bolster     (a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support or bearing)
bombast     (pretentious inflated speech or writing)
bonhomie (good-natured easy friendliness)
bonus      n 奖金,红利
boo         (to deride especially by uttering boo)
boon     (benefit,favor)
boor     (a rude or insensitive person)
bootless (useless,unprofitable)
bore     (to make a hole by or as if by boring)
bound     (to confine, restrain, or restrict as if with bonds)
bouquet      n 花束
boycott      (to act together in abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with as an expression
of protest or disfavor or as a means of coercion)
bracing      (giving strength, vigor, or freshness)
bracket       n 支架, 托架
braid      (made by intertwining three or more strands)
brake      (to retard or stop by a brake)
brash      (done in haste without regard for consequences)
brassy      (being shamelessly bold)
brattish (ill-mannered annoying)
bravado      n, 勇敢,英勇
bravura      (a show of daring or brilliance)
brazen      (marked by contemptuous boldness)
breach     (to make a breach in)
breezeway n 有屋顶的通路
brevity     (shortness or conciseness of expression)
bribe     (to induce or influence by or as if by bribery)
bridle     (to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle)
brisk   (keenly alert)
bristle     (to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance)
brittle     (easily broken, cracked, or snapped)
broach     (open up)
bromide     (a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion)
brook     (to stand for ;tolerate)
browbeat (to intimidate by a stern manner or arrogant speech)
bruit     (to noise abroad)
buck     (to refuse assent;balk)
bucolic (relating to or typical of rural life)
budge     (move;shift)(to give way;yield)
buffoon (a ludicrous figure;clown)
bulge     (a protuberant or swollen part or place)
bully     (one habitually cruel to others who are weaker)
bumptious (presumptuously, noisily self-assertive)
bungle     (to act or work clumsily and awkwardly)
buoy     (support;uplift)
buoyant     (capable of floating)(cheerful,gay)
burgeon     (to send forth new growth)(to grow rapidly)
burlesque (mockery usually by caricature)
burnish    (to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing)
burrow      (hole)
butter       n 黄油
buttress   n扶墙 vt 支持
byline       n 标题下的署名

byzantine     (characterized by a devious manner of operation)
cabal         (small group secretly united to promote their own interests)
cache         (a hiding place used especially for storing provisions)
cacophony     (harsh or discordant sound)
cadge         (beg,sponge)
cajole         (to persuade with flattery especially when reluctance)
calcify         (to make inflexible or unchangeable)
calibrate     (to rectify,mark the graduations of)
calligraphy     (artistic, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering)
callous         (feeling no sympathy for others)
callow         (lacking adult sophistication)
callus         (a thickening of area on skin)
calorie         n 卡路里,热量单位
calumniate     (to utter maliciously false statements about)
camaraderie     (a spirit of friendly good-fellowship)
cameo         n 小雕塑,特写
camouflage     (behavior or artifice designed to deceive or hide)
candor         (unreserved, honest, or sincere expression)
canon         (a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council)
canopy         (a protective covering;awning, marquee)
canvas         (a piece of cloth framed as a surface for a painting)
canvass         (scrutinize; check over)    (to seek votes•solicit)
canyon         (a deep narrow valley with steep sides)
capitulate     (surrender)    (to cease resisting•acquiesce)
caprice         (a sudden, impulsive notion or action)
captivate     (to influence by special charm with an irresistible appeal)
careworn     (showing the effect of grief or anxiety;worn)
caret         (文章中插字使用)
cardinal     (of basic importance • main, chief, primary)
caricature     (exaggeration by means of ludicrous distortion)
list 5
carnal         (bodily, corporeal)
carouse         (to drink liquor deeply or freely)
carp         (to find fault or complain querulously)
cartographer (one that makes maps)
carve         (to cut into pieces or slices)    (to shape by cutting)
cast        (to assign a certain role to (an actor))
castigate     (to subject to severe punishment, reproof)
catalyze     (bring about, inspire)
catastrophe     (a momentous tragic event)
categorical     (absolute, unqualified)
catholic     (comprehensive)    (broad in sympathies, interests)
caustic         (marked by incisive sarcasm)
caveat         (a warning enjoining one from certain acts)
cavern         (one cave of large or indefinite extent)
cavil         (to raise trivial and frivolous objection)
cavort         (to walk or move in a spirited manner)
cede         (to yield or grant typically by treaty)
celebrity     (a celebrated person)
cement         (to unite or make firm by or as if by cement)
censor         (to examine to suppress anything considered objectionable)
censorious     (critical)
censure         (to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy)
census         (a count of the population)
cessation     (a temporary or final ceasing;stop)
chaff         n 谷壳,糠
chagrin         (disquietude of mind caused by humiliation,disappointment, or failure)
chameleon     n 变色龙,善变的人
champion     (to act as militant supporter of)
chaotic         (in utter disorder)
charade         n 看手势猜字谜游戏;装模作样
charlatan     (pretender to knowledge)    (quack)
chary         (discreetly cautious)
chasm         (a deep cleft in the surface of a planet)
chauvinistic adj沙文主义的,爱国主义的
check         (to block the progress of)
chef         (a skilled cook who manages the kitchen)
cherubic     (innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy)
chevron          n v形臂章
chiaroscuro n 明暗对照法
chicanery     (deception by artful subterfuge)
chide         (to reproach in a usually mild and constructive manner)
choleric     (hot-tempered)
choir          n 唱诗班
chord         (three or more musical tones sounded simultaneously)
choreography (the arrangement of dances)    (art of dancing)
chorus         (a body of singers who perform choral compositions)
chromatic     adj 彩色的
chronic         (long established, as a disease)
chuckle         (to laugh inwardly or quietly)
churlish     (lack of civility or graciousness;boorish; rude)
cineast         (a film or movie enthusiast)
cipher         (a method of transforming a text to conceal its meaning)
circuitous     (not being forthright or direct in language or action)
circular     (having the form of a circle;round)
circumference (the perimeter of a circle)
circumlocution (indirect or roundabout expression)
circumscribe (limit; confine)
circumspect     (careful to consider all circumstances
circumvent     (to manage to get around especially by stratagem)
cistern       n 贮水器,水箱
civility     (courtesy, politeness)
claim         (a right to something)
clairvoyant     (unusually perceptive;discerning)
clandestine     (secret ;surreptitious)
clarion         (loud and clear)
clarity         (the quality or state of being clear;lucidity)
clasp         (a device for holding objects or parts together)
cleft         (a usually V-shaped indented formation)
clement         (inclined to be merciful;lenient)
cliche         (a trite phrase or expression)
clique         (a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons)
clog         (something that shackles or impedes)
clot         (a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood)
cloture         (一项议会程序,辩论结束后立即就所辩问题进行投票表决)
cloudburst     (a sudden copious rainfall)
clout         (great influence,especially political or social)
cloying         (excessively sweet or sentimental)
clumsy         (lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace)
coagulant     (something that produces coagulation)
coalesce     (to unite into a whole;fuse)
coax         (to influence or persuade by artful ingratiation)
coda         (a concluding musical section)
coerce         (to bring about by force or threat)
coeval         (of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration)
cogent         (appealing forcibly to the mind or reason)
cognizant     (knowledgeable of something through personal experience)
colander     (a perforated utensil for washing or draining food)
collapse     (to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely)
collude         (conspire,plot)
colonnade     (a series of columns set at regular intervals)
colossal     (of a bulk, extent, power, or effect approaching incredible)
coltish         (not subjected to discipline)
coma         (a state of profound unconsciousness)
combustible     (capable of combustion)
comely         (having a pleasing appearance•not homely or plain)
comity         (friendly social atmosphere•social harmony)
commencement (an act, instance, or time of beginning)
commencement (the ceremonies for conferring degrees or diplomas)
commend         (to mention with approbation)    (praise)
commensurate (equal in measure or extent)
commercial     (an advertisement broadcast on radio or television)
commingle     (to combine into a common fund or stock)
commitment     (an engagement to assume a financial obligation)
committed     (obligate, bind)
commodious     (comfortably or conveniently spacious;roomy)
commonsense     (sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgment)
commotion     (an agitated disturbance)
compendium     (a brief summary of a larger work)
list 6
complacency     (self-satisfaction)
complaisance (disposition to please or comply;affability)
compliant     (ready or disposed to comply;submissive)
compliment     (expressing or containing a compliment)
comply         (to conform one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity)
composed     (freefrom agitation;calm)
compound     v混和 adj复合的
compress    (to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing)
compromise    (to come to agreement by mutual concession)
compunction     (anxiety arising from awareness of guilt)
concatenate     (to link together in a series or chain;articulate)
concave         (hollowed or rounded inward like the inside of a bowl)
conceal         (to prevent disclosure or recognition of)
concede        (to grant as a right or privilege)
concentrate     (focus)    (to make less dilute)
concerted     (mutually agreed on)    (performed in unison)
conciliate      v 安抚,调和
concise        (brief and compact)
concord         (a state of agreement;harmony)
concur         (to act together to a common end or single effect)
condescending adj 谦逊的,故意屈尊的,叫人领情似的
condign         (deserved, appropriate)
condole         (to express sympathetic sorrow)
condone         (to pardon or overlook voluntarily)
conducive    (tending to promote or assist)
confident     (self-reliant)
confine         (something that restrains)
confluence    (a coming or flowing together, meeting, or gathering at one point)
confront     (to face especially in challenge;oppose)
confound     (to fail to discern differences between)
congeal         (to make viscid or curdled;coagulate)
congenial     (sociable,genial)
congruent     (congruous)
conjecture     (inference from defective or presumptive evidence)
connive         (to cooperate secretly or have a secret understanding)
connoisseur     (expert who is competent to act as a critical judge)
conquest     (the act or process of conquering)
conscientious (Thorough and assiduous)
consensus     (group solidarity in sentiment and belief)
conservative (tradiyional)
conservatory (a school specializing in one of the fine arts)
conserve     (to keep in a safe or sound state)
considerable (worth consideration;significant)
console         (to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of)
consolidate     (to join together into one whole;unite)
consonance     (harmony or agreement among components)
conspicuous     (obvious to the eye or mind)
conspiracy     (treacherous plot)
constitute     (to appoint to an office, function, or dignity)
constrained     adj 束缚的,节制
constringe     (to cause to contract; constrict)
construct     (to make or form by combining or arranging parts or elements)
consummate     (complete in every detail; of the highest degree)
contagious     (communicable by contact;catching)
contaminate     (to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact)
content         (manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions)
contentious     (exhibiting an often tendency to quarrels)
contiguous     (being in actual contact)
contort         (to twist into a strained shape or expression)
contract     (to reduce to smaller size by squeezing or forcing together)
contravene     (to oppose in argument•CONTRADICT)
contrite     (grieving and penitent for sin or shortcoming)
control          n 在对照实验中被用作对照标准的一个或一组物体
contumacious (stubbornly disobedient•REBELLIOUS)
conundrum     (a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun)
convalesce     (to recover health gradually after sickness)
convenience     (something conducive to comfort or ease)
convention     (usage or custom especially in social matters)
convergent     (tending to move toward one point;confluent)
conversant     (having frequent or familiar association)
convert        (to change (something) into another form, substance, state, or product; transform)
convertible     adj 能转换的n 能转换的事物,尤指敞篷车
convex         (curving outward)
convey         (to communicate;impart)运输,转移
conviction     (a strong belief)
convoke         (to call together to a meeting;assemble)
convoluted     (complicated; intricately)
convulsion     (violent, involuntary muscular contractions)
coop         (a cage or small enclosure for poultry)
copious         (abundant; plentiful)
coquette     (a woman who flirt insincerely)
cord         n木料计量单位;绳索,束缚
cordon         (extended line of police to prevent access or egress)
cornucopia    (a goat's horn overflowing with fruit, flowers, and grain, signifying prosperity)
corona          n 冠壮物,光环,日冕
coronation     (the act or occasion of crowning)
corporeal    (of, relating to, or characteristic of the body)(of a material nature; tangible)
corroborate     (confirm)
corrosive    (having the capability or tendency to cause corrosion)
corrugated     (wrinkled; ridged)

List 7
cosmopolitan   (pertinent or common to the whole world)
cosset         (to treat as a pet:coddle; pamper)
coterie         (group that meets socially; select circle)
countenance     (approve; tolerate)
counterfeit    (to make a copy of, usually with the intent to defraud; forge)
countermand     (cancel; revoke)
court        (to attempt to gain; seek)(to behave so as to invite or incur)
coven         (an assembly or band of usually 13 witches)
covert        (not openly practiced, avowed, engaged in, accumulated, or shown)
covetous    (excessively and culpably desirous of the possessions of another)
cow             (to destroy the resolve or courage of)
cowardice     (lack of courage or resolution)
cower         (to shrink away or crouch from something that menaces)
cozen         (to cheat; deceive)
cramped         (confined, incommodious)
crass         (without refinement or sensitivity)
craven         (timid)(coward, dastard)
crave         (to yearn for)(to ask for earnestly)
crease        (a line made by pressing, folding, or wrinkling)
credence     (belief,credit,faith)
credulous     (willing to believe or trust too readily)
creek        (a small stream, often a shallow or intermittent tributary to a river)
creep        (to move with the body close to the ground, as on hands and knees)
crescendo     (a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage)
crest         n 鸡冠,顶部,顶峰
crestfallen     (dejected; discouraged)
cronyism    (favoritism shown to old friends without regard for their qualifications, as in
political appointments to office)
croon         (to sing or hum in a soft ,soothing voice)
crouch        (to stoop, especially with the knees bent)
crucial         (of vital importance)
crumple        (to crush together or press into wrinkles; rumple)
crutch         (a support to assist a lame person in walking)
crux         (the central or pivotal point)
cryptic         (mysterious)    (puzzling)
cuisine        (a characteristic manner or style of preparing food)
culpable     (deserving blame or censure)
cultivate     (to foster the growth of)
cumbersome     (unwieldy because of heaviness and bulk)
cunning         (characterized by wiliness and trickery)
curator        (one that manages or oversees, as the administrative director of a museum collection
or a library)
curmudgeon     (a crusty, ill-tempered, and usually old man)
curriculum     (a set of courses constituting an area of specialization)
cursory         (rapidly and often superficially performed or produced)
curt         (rudely brief in speech or abrupt in manner)
curtail         (to cut short;reduce)
cynic        (a person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness)
dabbler         (one not deeply engaged in something)
daft         (silly, foolish)
daguerreotype n 早期银板照相法
dally         (to waste time ;loiter)
damper         (a dulling or deadening influence)
dandy        (a man who affects extreme elegance in clothes and manners; a fop)
dank         (unpleasantly moist or wet)
dapper         (neat ,trim or smart in dress or demeanor)
dappled        (spotted; mottled)
daredevil     (a recklessly bold person)
dart        (a sudden, rapid movement)
daunt         (to overcome with fear; intimidate)
dawdle         (to waste by trifling;idle)
deadpan         (wooden; impassive)
dearth         (an inadequate supply)
debacle         (breaking up; downfall)
debark         (to unload, as from a ship or an airplane)
debase         (to reduce in quality value, or dignity)
debilitate     (to make weak;enfeeble)
debris         (the remains of something broken down or destroyed)
debunk         (to expose the sham or falseness of)
debut         (a first public appearance)
decadence     (the act or process of falling into decay)
decant         (to pour liquor gently so as not to disturb the sediment)
decibel         (A unit used to express relative difference in power or intensity, usually between
two acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the
ratio of the two levels)
decipher     (to decode ,as something written in cipher)
decode        (to convert from code into plain text)
decorum         (propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance)
decrepit     (weakened by old age; worn out by long use)
default         (failure to act in meeting financial obligations)
defer        (to put off; postpone)(To submit to the opinion, wishes, or decision of another
through respect or in recognition of his or her authority, knowledge, or judgment)
deference     (respectful regard)
deficiency     (insufficiency, an amount that is lacking or inadequate)
defile         (to make filthy or dirty; pollute)
defoliant      n 脱叶剂, 落叶剂
deforest      vt采伐森林,清除树林
deft         (skillful ,nimble ,facile)
defuse         (to make less dangerous or tense)
defy          vt公然反抗,违抗to resist boldly or openly
dehydrate     (to remove water from)
deify         (to worship or revere as a god)
deject         (to make gloomy in spirits)
deleterious     (injurious to healthy ;harmful)
deliberate     (to think about decisions carefully)
delicacy     (fineness)    (something delightful or pleasing)
delirium     (a mental disturbance)
delusion     (an abnormal mental state)
deluge         (a great flood, inundation)
delve         (to make a careful or detailed search for information)
demagogue     n 煽动者,蛊惑民心的政客
demanding     (making difficult or excessive demands)
demolition      n 破坏,毁坏;毁坏之遗迹
list 8
demonstrate     (to prove or make clear by reasoning or evidence)
demoralize      vt 使道德颓废;使堕落;挫折锐气
demotic         (popular)
demur         (to make objection ,esp on the grounds of scruples)
denigrate     (to cast aspersions on•disparage)
denouement     (小说的)结尾,结局
denounce     (to condemn or censure openly or publicly)
dent         (a depression made by pressure)
denture          n假牙
denude         (to strip of all covering or surface layers; bare)
despise         (to regard with contempt or aversion;scorn)    (to hate)
deplete         (to lessen markedly in content, power, or value)
deplore         (regret)    (to consider deserving of deprecation)
deploy         (有策略性的)    (to spread out strategically)
deportation     (the removal from a country of an alien)
depose         (to testify to under oath or by affidavit)
deposit         (to lay down or leave behind by a natural process)
depravity     (a corrupt act or practice)
deprecate     (to express earnest disapproval of)
depreciate     (to lower the price or estimated value of)
depressed     (low in spirits:SAD; especially:affected by psychological depression)
deprivation     (the state of being deprived) (loss)
deracinate     (uproot)
derelict    (neglectful of duty or obligation; remiss)
deride         (to laugh at in scorn or contempt; mock)
derivative     (lacking originality•banal)
descend         (to pass from a higher place or level to a lower one)
descendant     (one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype)
desecrate     (to treat with sacrilege;profane)
desiccate     (to preserve    (a food)by drying:dehydrate)
designate     (entitle)
despicable    (deserving of contempt or scorn; vile)
despotic     adj 专制的,暴虐的
dessert         n 餐后甜点
desultory     (lacking in consistency or order)
detach         (unfasten or separate)    (to sent on a special mission)
detain         (to keep under restraint)    (to keep from processing)
deter         (to turn aside, discourage, or prevent from acting)
deterioration n 恶化;堕落
detour         (to avoid by going around ;bypass)
detoxification n 解毒
detract         (to take away a part ,as from value or reputation)
detritus     (a product of disintegration, destruction)
devoted         adj 投入的,深爱的,忠诚的
devout         (devoted to religion)
dew              n 露水
dexterous     (skillful and competent with the hands)
diabolic     (devilish; fiendish)
diaphanous     (very sheer and light, nearly transparent)
diatribe     (a abusive denunciation ,criticism or writing)
didactic     (intended for instruction ;moralizing or preaching)
die             模具
diehard         (person who vigorously resists change)
diffident     (hesitant through lack of self-confidence)
diffuse         (being at once verbose and ill-organized)
digit         (a human finger or toe)
digress         (to turn aside especially from the main subject)
dilapidate     (to fallen into of decay or partial ruin)
dilate         (to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent)
dilatory     (tending to delay or procrastination)
dilettante     (dabbler)
diligent     (constant and earnest in effort and application)
dilute         (to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture)
dimension      n 尺寸;维度
diminish     (to make or become smaller ,less, or less important)
din             (a loud continued noise)
dingy         (a dark, dull ,or dirty color)
diocesan     (a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese)
diplomatic     (of or engaged in diplomacy)    (tactful or suave)
dire         (dismal,oppressive)
dirge         (a song or hymn of grief or lamentation)
disabuse     (to free from error, fallacy, or misconception)
disaffected     (discontented especially against authority)
disarm         (to deprive of reason to be hostile)
disarray     (to throw into disorder, confusion)
disavow         (to disclaim responsibility for)
discern         (to recognize or identify as separate and distinct ,discriminate)
discharge     (to dismiss from employment)
disciple      n 信徒,门徒
discombobulate (to confuse or disconcert)
discomfit     (to confuse and deject)
discommode     (to cause inconvenience to;trouble)
discompose     (to destroy the composure of)
disconcert     (to disturb the self-possession of ,perturb)
discord         (lack of agreement or harmony)
discourse     n 演说;论文
discredit     (to injure the reputation)
discrepancy     (divergence or disagreement)
discrete     (apart or detached from others)
discretion     (circumspection)    (ability to make responsible decisions)
discretionary   (exercised at one's own discretion)
discriminate    (to note a difference)
discursive     (moving from topic to topic without aim)
disdain         (treat with scorn or contempt)
disengage     (uncouple; separate; disconnect)
disgorge     (surrender something)    (vomit)
disgruntle     (make discontented)
disguise     (to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity)
disinclination (slight aversion)
disinfect     (to free from infection especially by destroying harmful microorganisms)
disjointed      adj脱节的;杂乱的
list 9
disinter    (to dig up or remove from a grave or tomb; exhume)
disinterested (free from selfish motive or interest;unbiased)
disjunctive     (marked by breaks or disunity)
dismantle     (to take to pieces)
dismay        (to destroy the courage or resolution of by exciting dread or apprehension)
disparage     (belittle)
disparate     (basically different)    (unrelated)
dispassionate (calm)    (impartial)
dispatch     (speedy action)
dispose         (incline)    (to settle a matter finally)
disregard    (to pay no attention or heed to; ignore)
disrupt         (to break apart)    (to disturb or interrupt)
dissect         (to cut apart to examine the structure)
dissemble     (to put on a false appearance)
disseminate     (to scatter or spread widely)
dissension     (strong disagreement or discord)
dissent         (to differ in opinion or sentiment)
dissipate     (dispel)    (squander)    (to be dissolute)
dissolute     (indifferent to moral restrains)
dissolve     (to cause to pass into solution)    (disintegrate)
dissonance     (lack of agreement, harmony)
dissuade     (to deter by advice or persuasion)
distain         v 贬损,伤害名誉
distal         (situated away from the point of attachment or origin)
distend         (expand;swell out)
distill         v 蒸馏
distort         (to reproduce or amplify inaccurately)
distract     (to divert in the mind or attention)    (to disturb or trouble greatly)
distraught     (bewildered)
ditty         (an especially simple and unaffected song)
diurnal         (occurring in the daytime; daily)
diverge         (vary; go in different directionsfrom the same point)
diversity      n 差异;多样性
divert        (to turn from one course or use to another,deflect)
divestiture     (the act of divesting)
divulge         (to make known as a secret)
dodder         (to progress feebly and unsteadily)
dodge        (to evade (an obligation, for example) by cunning, trickery, or deceit)
doff         (to take off)
dogged         (marked by stubborn determination)
doggerel     (crude or trivial poetry)
dogma         (something held as an established opinion)
doldrums     (a dull, depressed mood)
dolorous     (full of or cause pain or sorrow)
dolt         (a blockhead ;dunce)
domicile     (a dwelling place•place of residence)
domination     (supremacy or preeminence over another)
don             (to put on or dress in an article of clothing)
donor         (one that gives, donates, or presents something)
doodle         (to draw or scribble idly)
dormant        (lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive)
dour         (sullen; gloomy; severe ;stern)
downpour     (a heavy , drenching rain)
doyen         (the senior member of a body or group)
doze         (to fall into a light sleep; nap)
draconian     (cruel; severe)
drawl         (to utter in a slow lengthened tone)
dreary         (having nothing likely to provide cheer)
drench         (to wet thoroughly)
drivel         (silly or meaningless talk)
drizzle         (a very light rain)
droll         (having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality)
drone         (to make a continued ,low, monotonous sound)
dross         (waste or foreign matter)
drudgery     (dull, irksome, and fatiguing work)
dubious         (inclined to doubt ;questionable)
ductile         (capable of being drawn out or hammered thin)
dulcet         (pleasing to the ear; melodious)
dullard         (a stupid or insensitive person)
dune         (a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind)
dupe         (to delude by underhand methods)
dwindle        (to become gradually less until little remains)
dyspeptic    (of or displaying a morose disposition)
dyslexia     n 阅读障碍
eaglet         (a young eagle)
earnest         (proceeding from an serious state of mind)
earplug         (an ornament inserted in the lobe of the ear to distend it)
earshot         (the range within which the voice may be heard)
earsplitting (distressingly loud or shrill)
easel         (a frame for supporting something as an artist's canvas)
eavesdrop     (to listen secretly to what is said in private)
ebullient     (showing excitement)
eccentric     (odd;whimsical;irregular)
eclat         (a notable success)
eclipse         (darken; extinguish)
ecstasy         (a state of being overwhelming emotion)
ecumenical    (of worldwide scope or applicability; universal)
eddy        (a current, as of water or air, moving contrary to the direction of the main current,
especially in a circular motion)
edible        (fit to be eaten)
edifice        (a building, especially one of imposing appearance or size)
efface         (rub out)
effervesce     (show liveliness or exhilaration)
effete         (no longer fertile)
effluvium     (noxious smell)    (pleffluvia)
effulgence     (radiant splendor;brilliance)
effusive     (pouring forth; gushing)
List 10
egalitarian    (affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic,
social, and civil rights for all people)
egoism         (a doctrine that self-interest is the valid end)
elaborate     (full of detail)
elastic        (easily resuming original shape after being stretched or expanded; flexible)
elate         (elated) (to fill with joy)
elbow         (the joint of the human arm)
eleemosynary (supported by charity)
elegy         (poem or song expressing lamentation)
elephantine     (having enormous size or strength)
elevate         (rank or status)    (moral,intellect,culture,spirits)
elicit         (draw out by discussion)
ellipsis     (marks indicating an omission or a pause)
elliptical    (of, relating to, or having the shape of an ellipse)
elucidate     (explain;enlighten)
emaciate     (to make feeble)
emancipate     (to free from bondage)
embargo         (ban on commerce)
embark         (commence)
embarrass    (to cause to feel self-conscious or ill at ease; disconcert)
embed         (enclose; place in something)
embezzle     (to appropriate fraudulently to one's own use)
embolden     (to instill with boldness or courage)
emboss         (to ornament with raised work)
embrace         (to take up especially readily or gladly)
embroider     (to ornament with needlework)
emigrate    (to leave one country or region to settle in another)
eminence     (a position of prominence or superiority)
emollient    (softening and soothing, especially to the skin)
emulate         (to strive to equal or excel)
enact         (to cause to be by legal and authoritative act)
enamel         (a usually opaque vitreous composition)
encomium     (glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise)
encompass     (surround)    (include)
encumber    (to put a heavy load on; burden)
endemic         (epidemic)
endorse         (to approve openly)
enervate    (to weaken or destroy the strength or vitality of)
enfranchise    (to bestow a franchise on)
effrontery    (brazen boldness; presumptuousness)
engender    (cause; produce)
engross        (occupy fully)
enigma         (puzzle)
enlighten    (to give spiritual or intellectual insight to)
enmity         (ill will; hatred)
ennoble         (to make noble)
ennui         (a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction)
ensemble     (a work for two or more vocalists or instrumentalists)
ensconce      (to establish or place firmly, comfortably, or snugly)
ensue          (follow)
entangle     (to twist together or entwine into a confusing mass; snarl)
enthusiasm     (great excitement for or interest in a subject or cause)
entice          (lure; attract; tempt)
entrance     (carry away with emotion)
entrap         (to lure into a compromising statement or act)
entreat         (to make an earnest request)
enunciate     (articulate)
epaulet         (something that ornaments the shoulder)
ephemeral     (lasting a very short time)
epic         n 史诗 adj史诗的;英勇的;超出正常范围的
epicure         (one with sensitive tastes especially in food or wine)
epidermis      n 表皮;上皮
epigram         (a terse, sage, or witty and often paradoxical saying)
epilogue     n 收场白;尾声
episode         (one event in a chain of events)
epistemology (a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge)
epitaph       n 墓志铭;碑文
epithet         (a disparaging or abusive word or phrase)
epitome         (summary)    (a typical or ideal example)
equable       adj稳定的;温和的
equipoise     nv平衡
equity         (freedom from bias or favoritism)
equivocate     (prevarication)
erode          v 使腐蚀;使侵蚀
errant         (moving about aimlessly or irregularly)    (fallible)
erratic         (having no fixed course)
erudite         adj 博学的 n博学之士
escalate     (to increase in amount, intensity, or scope)
eschew         (to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds)
esoteric     (understood by the specially initiated alone)
espouse         (adopt; support)
list 11
esteem         (repect; value)
estimable     (worthy of esteem)
estrange     (separate; alienate)
etch         n腐蚀剂 v蚀刻
eternal         adj永恒的
ethereal    (light; heavenly)
ethics         n 伦理学
eulogize    (to praise highly in speech or writing)
euphemism     (mild expression in place of an unpleasant one)
euphonious    (pleasing or agreeable to the ear)
euphoria     (a feeling of well-being or elation)
evacuate    (to empty or remove the contents of)(to withdraw or depart from; vacate)
evanescent     (fleeting; vanishing)
evasion        (a means of evading; a subterfuge)
everlasting    (lasting forever; eternal)
evict        (to put out (a tenant, for example) by legal process; expel)
evince         (show clearly)
evoke         (call forth)
ewe              n 母羊
exacerbate     (worsen; embitter)
exacting     (extremely demanding)
exalt         (raise in rank or dignity; praise)
exasperate    (to make very angry or impatient; annoy greatly)
excavate    (to make a hole in; hollow out)
exceptional    (well above average; extraordinary)
excerpt        (selected passage(written or musical))
excoriate    (to tear or wear off the skin of; abrade)
excrete        (to separate and discharge (waste matter) from the blood, tissues, or organs)
excruciate    (to inflict severe pain on; torture)
exculpate     (clear from blame)
excursive    (Of, given to, characterized by, or having the nature of digression)
execrate     (curse; express abhorrence for)
exemplary    (worthy of imitation; commendable)
exempt        (to free from an obligation, a duty, or a liability to which others are subject)
exhaust        (to wear out completely)
exhilarate    (to cause to feel happily refreshed and energetic; elate)
exhort         (urge)
exodus         (departure)
exonerate     (acquit; exculpate)
exorbitant    (excessive)
exotic         (not native; strange) n 外国人
expansive    (capable of expanding or tending to expand)(disposed to be open, communicative,
and generous; outgoing)
expedite     (hasten)
expedition    (a journey undertaken by a group of people with a definite objective)
expiate         (a sin)
expire         (to come to an end; terminate)
explicit     (totally clear; definite)
exploit         (DEED, ACT;especially:a notable or heroic act)
exponent    (one that speaks for, represents, or advocates)(one that expounds or interprets)
expurgate     (clean; remove offensive parts of a book)
exquisite    (characterized by intricate and beautiful design or execution)
extant         (still in existence)
extemporize    (to do or perform (something) without prior preparation or practice)
extenuate     (weaken; mitigate)
extinct        (no longer existing or living)
extinguish    (to put out (a fire, for example); quench)
extol         (praise; glorify)
extort         (wring from; get money by threats, etc)
extract        (to draw or pull out, using great force or effort)
extraneous    (inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand; irrelevant)
extravagant    (given to lavish or imprudent expenditure)(exceeding reasonable bounds)
extricate     (free; disentangle)
exuberant     (abundant; effusive; lavish)
exude         (discharge; give forth)
exult         (rejoice)
fable        (a usually short narrative making an edifying or cautionary point and often
employing as characters animals that speak and act like human beings)
fabricate     build; lie
facetious     (humorous; jocular)
facilitate     (make less difficult)
faction         (party; clique; dissension)
fallacy        (incorrectness of reasoning or belief; erroneousness)
fallow         (plowed but sowed; uncultivated)
fail-safe   n自动防故障装置
falsehood    (an untrue statement; a lie)(lack of conformity to truth or fact; inaccuracy)
falter         (hesitate)
fanatic        (a person marked or motivated by an extreme, unreasoning enthusiasm, as for a cause)
fang        (a long, pointed tooth)
fantasy        (the creative imagination; unrestrained fancy)
farce         (broad comedy; mockery)
fascinate    (to hold an intense interest or attraction for)
fast        (the act or practice of abstaining from or eating very little food)
fastidious    (possessing or displaying careful, meticulous attention to detail)
fateful        (vitally affecting subsequent events; being of great consequence; momentous)
fathom         (comprehend; investigate)
fatigue        (physical or mental weariness resulting from exertion)
fatuous         (foolish; inane)
faultfinder     (one given to faultfinding)
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fawn        (to seek favor or attention by flattery and obsequious behavior)
faze         (disconcert; dismay)
feckless     (WEAK, INEFFECTIVE)
fecund         (fruitful in offspring or vegetation)
feeble         (markedly lacking in strength)
feigned         (not genuine or real)
fender         (a device that protects)
feral         (not domesticated or cultivated : WILD)
ferrous         (being or containing divalent iron)
fertilize     (to make fertile)
fervid         (marked by often extreme fervor)
fervor         (intensity of feeling or expression)
fester         (a suppurating sore)    (to cause increasing poisoning)
fetid         (malodorous)
fetter         (hackle)
fiasco         (total failure)
fickle         (given to erratic changeableness)
fictitious     (imaginary)
fidelity     (loyalty)
fidget         (to move or act restlessly or nervously)
figurative     (not literal, but metaphorical)
figurine     (a small carved or molded figure)
filibuster     (block legislation by making long speeches)
filigree     (ornamental openwork of delicate design)
filing         (a fragment rubbed off in filing)
filly         (a young female horse usually of less than four years)
filter          v 过滤 n 滤器
finale         (the close or termination of something)
finch         (如燕雀,金丝雀)
finesse         (delicate skill)
finicky         (too particular; fussy)
flaccid         (flabby)
flag         (droop; grow feeble)
flamboyant    (highly elaborate; ornate)
flatter         (to praise excessively especially from motives of self-interest)
flaw         (a defect in physical structure or form)
flax          n 亚麻
fledge         (to acquire the feathers necessary for flight or independent activity)
fleet         (to fly swiftly)
flexible    (capable of being bent or flexed; pliable)
flinch         (to withdraw or shrink from or as if from pain)
flippancy     (unbecoming levity especially in respect to grave or sacred matters)
flirt         (to behave amorously without serious intent)
flit         (fly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by)
flock        (a group of animals that live, travel, or feed together)
florid         (very flowery in style)
flounder     (to struggle to move or obtain footing)
flourish     (grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures)
flout         (reject; mock)
fluctuate     (wave)
fluent         (capable of moving with ease and grace)
fluke         (unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune)
flush         (to cleanse or wash out with or as if with a rush of liquid)
fluster          (confuse)
fluvial         (of, relating to, or living in a stream or river)
foible         (a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior)
foil         (to bring to naught 零)
foliage         (masses of leaves)
foment         (stir up; instigate)
foolproof    (designed so as to be impervious to human incompetence, error, or misuse)
footloose    (having no attachments or ties; free to do as one pleases)
forebear     (ANCESTOR, FOREFATHER)
forbearance     (the act of forbearing : PATIENCE)
ford         (place where a river can be crossed on foot)
forestall     (prevent by taking action in advance)
foreword    (a preface or an introductory note, as for a book, especially by a person other
than the author)
forgery         (something forged)
formidable     (menacing; threatening)
forthright     (straightforward; direct; frank)
fortify         (to make strong)
foster         (to give parental care to)(ENCOURAGE)
founder         (fail completely)    (sink)
fracas         (brawl; melee)
fracture    (the condition of having been broken or ruptured)
fragile        (easily broken, damaged, or destroyed; frail)
frail        (easily led astray; morally weak)(physically weak; delicate)
fraudulent     (cheating; deceitful)
freelancer     n 自由职业者
frenzy         (a temporary madness)    (to affect with frenzy)
frequent    (to pay frequent visits to; be in or at often)
fresco         (the art of painting on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments)
fret        (to cause to be uneasy; vex)
friable        (readily crumbled; brittle)
friction    (the rubbing of one object or surface against another)
frieze          n  在墙顶与天花板间起装饰作用的横条饰带
frigid         (intensely cold)
fringe         (an ornamental border)
frivolous     (lacking in seriousness;relatively unimportant)

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frond          (fern leaf; palm or banana leaf)
frothy         (made of, covered with, or resembling froth; foamy)
frowsy/frowzy (sordid)
frugal          (characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources)
frustrate     (to prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart)
full-bodied     (having richness and intensity of flavor or aroma)
fulminate     (to issue a thunderous verbal attack or denunciation)
fumble          (to grope for or handle something clumsily or aimlessly)
fungi          n 真菌类;蘑菇 pl
furnace          n 火炉
furor        (a general commotion; public disorder or uproar)
furtive         (stealthy; sneaky)
fury        (Violent anger; rage)
fussy        (easily upset; given to bouts of ill temper)
fusty         (saturated with dust and stale odors)
futile         (ineffective; fruitless)
gadfly         (any of various flies)
gadget        (a small specialized mechanical or electronic device; a contrivance)
gaffe         (a social or diplomatic blunder)
gainsay         (deny)
gait         (manner of walking or running)
galaxy         (the Milky Way)
gall         (annoy; chafe)
gallant        (unflinching in battle or action; valiant)
galley         n 船上厨房
galvanize    (to arouse to awareness or action; spur)
gamble        (to bet on an uncertain outcome, as of a contest)
gambol        (to leap about playfully; frolic)
gangly         adj 身材瘦长的
gangway         n 过道;通路;跳板
garble         (mix up; jumble; distort)
gargantuan     (huge; enormous)
garish         (gaudy)
garment        (an article of clothing)
garrulous     (wordy and rambling)
gash         a long, deep cut)
gasification n 气化
gauche        (lacking social polish; tactless)
gaudy         (ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented)
gauge        (a standard or scale of measurement)
gear        (a toothed machine part, such as a wheel or cylinder, that meshes with another
toothed part to transmit motion or to change speed or direction)
genial        (having a pleasant or friendly disposition or manner; cordial and kindly)
genteel         (well-bred; elegant)
germane         (being at once relevant and appropriate:fitting)
gerrymander    (to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage
to one party in elections.)
geyser         (a gas-operated hot-water heater)
gibe         (to deride or tease with taunting words)
giddy         (lightheartedly silly:frivolous)
girder         (a horizontal main structural member that supports vertical loads)
gist         (the main point or part ;essence)
glacier         (a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope)
glade         (an open space surrounded by woods)
gladiator      n 角斗士
glaze         (a smooth slippery coating of thin ice)
glib         (marked by fluency in speaking or writing)
glisten         (to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection)
glitch         (a usually minor malfunction)
gloat         (to feel or express great, often malicious, pleasure or self-satisfaction)
gloomy         (low in spirits•melancholy)
gloss         (a brief explanation of a difficult;annotate)
glossary     (a collection of textual glosses)
glossy         (having a surface luster or brightness)
glut         (an excessive quantity•oversupply)
glutinous     (having the quality of glue•gummy)
glutton         (one given habitually to greedy and voracious eating)
goad         (to incite or rouse as if with a goad)
gobble         (to swallow or eat greedily)
goggle         n 护目镜
goldbrick     (to shirk duty or responsibility)
gorge         (to eat greedily or to repletion)
gossamer     (sth light, delicate, or insubstantial)
gourmand     (one who is excessively fond of eating and drinking)
gourmet         (a connoisseur of food and drink; connoisseur)
grandeur     (the quality or state of being grand)
grandiloquent     (语言等)夸张的
grandiose     (imposing; impressive)
grandstand     (to play or act so as to impress onlookers)
grate         (irritate,fret)
gratify         (give pleasure or satisfaction to ;please)
gratuitous     (unwarranted)    (given freely)
gravel         (a stratum or deposit of gravel)
green         (deficient in training, knowledge, or experience)
gregarious     (sociable)
grieve         (to cause to suffer)
grimace        (a sharp contortion of the face expressive of pain, contempt, or disgust)
grin         (to draw back the lips to show the teeth in amusement)
gripe         (to complain with grumbling)
list 14
grisly         (inspiring horror or intense fear)
groove         (a long narrow channel or depression)
grotesque     (fanciful, bizarre)
grotto         (a small cave or cavern)
grove         (a planting of fruit or nut trees)
grovel         (crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate)
grueling     (trying to the point of exhaustion)
guarantee     (undertake to do or secure)
guile         (deceitful cunning•Duplicity)
guilt         (feelings of culpability)
gullible     (easily duped or cheated)
gully         (a small valley or gulch)
gum             n 树胶;口香糖
gush         (make an excessive display of feeling)
gust         (a sudden brief rush of wind)
guzzle         (to drink especially liquor greedily)
habitable     (suitable for habitation)
hack         (to cut or sever with repeated irregular blows)
hackneyed     (lacking in freshness or originality)
halcyon        (calm and peaceful; tranquil)
hale         (free from defect;sound)
half-baked     (lacking adequate planning or forethought)
hallmark     (a distinguishing trait, or feature)
hallow         (to make holy or set apart for holy use)
hallucination  (a false or mistaken idea; a delusion)
halting         (marked by a lack of effectiveness)
ham-handed     (lacking dexterity or grace)
hammer          n 铁锤, 槌
hamper        (to prevent the free movement, action, or progress of.)
hamstring     (to make ineffective ;cripple)
hangdog         (sad, dejected)
hankering     (to have a strong or persistent desire)
haphazard     (marked by lack of plan, order, or direction)
hapless         (having no luck)
harangue     (to address in a ranting way)
harass         (to annoy persistently)
harbinger     (one that presages or foreshadows what is to come)
harbor         (to give shelter or refuge to)
hard-bitten     (seasoned or steeled)
hardy         (capable of withstanding adverse conditions)
harmonious     (marked by accord in sentiment or action)
harness         (UTILIZE)
harp          n 竖琴
harrow         (TORMENT, VEX)
harry         (to torment by or as if by constant attack)
harsh         (causing a painful sensory reaction)
hasten         (to urge on)
hasty         (done or made in a hurry)    (fast&typically superficial)
hatch         (门、墙壁、地板上的)开口
haunt        (a place much frequented)
hauteur         (ARROGANCE, HAUGHTINESS)
haven         (a place of safety)
havoc         (great confusion and disorder)
headlong     (lacking in calmness or restraint Impetuous; rash)
hearken         (to give respectful attention)
hearten         (to give heart to)
heartrending (causing intense sorrow or distress)
hedonism     (the doctrine that happiness is the sole good in life)
hegemony     (preponderant influence or authority over others)
heinous         (hatefully or shockingly evil)
heirloom    (a valued possession passed down in a family through succeeding generations)
helmet         n 头盔
hem           (an edge or a border on a piece of cloth, especially a finished edge, as for a garment
or curtain, made by folding the selvage edge under and stitching it down)
herald         (to give notice of)
herbicide     n 除草剂
heresy         (an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma)
heretical     adj 异教的,异端的
hermetic    (having to do with the occult sciences, especially alchemy; magical)
hermit         n 隐士,隐居者
herpetologist     (dealing with reptiles and amphibians)
hesitance     (the quality or state of being hesitant)
heterodox     (not in agreement with accepted beliefs)
hidebound     (having an inflexible character)
hideous         (exceedingly ugly)
hie             (to go quickly)
hieroglyph     (a character used in a system of hieroglyphic writing)
hike         (to rise up)
hilarious     (marked by or affording hilarity)
list 15
histrionic     (of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater)
hive         (a place swarming with activity)
hoard         (to keep (as one's thoughts) to oneself)
hoary         (extremely old)
hoax         (an act intended to deceive or trick)
hodgepodge     (a heterogeneous mixture)
homage         (expression of high regard)
homely         (not attractive or good-looking)
homily         (a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme)
homogenize     (to blend     (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture)
hone         (to make more acute;whet)
honorarium   n.酬劳
hoodwink     (to deceive by false appearance)
hortative     (giving exhortation)
horticulture n 园艺
hovel         (a small, wretched, and often dirty house)
hub              n 车轴,中心
hubris         (exaggerated pride or self-confidencehubristic)
humble         (ranking low in a hierarchy or scale)
humor         (to soothe or content by indulgence)
hurricane      n 飓风
husbandry     (the control or judicious use of resources)
husk         (果类或谷物的)    (通常用复数);皮;无价值之物
husky         (hoarse with or as if with emotion)
hybrid         (something heterogeneous)
hymn         (a song of praise or joy)
hypnotic     (tending to produce sleep)
hyperbole     (extravagant exaggeration)
hypocritical     (characterized by hypocrisy; also:being a hypocrite)
ichthyologist     (one that deals with fishes)
iconoclast     (one who attacks settled beliefs)
idolatrize     (admires intensely and often blindly)
idyll          n田园诗,牧歌;田园生活
ignite         (to set afire)
ignominy     (deep personal humiliation and disgrace)
illiteracy      n 文盲
illuminati     (persons who claim to be unusually enlightened)
illumination n 照明;阐明;启发;装饰图案
illusory     (based on or producing illusion)
imbibe         (to absorb or take in as if by drinking)
imbroglio     (a violently confused altercation)
imitation      n 模仿,效法;冒充,赝品
immaculate     (having no stain or blemish)
immanent     adj 普遍存在的,内在的
immaterial     (of no substantial consequence)
immature     adj 不成熟的, 未完全发展的
immemorial     (existing since beyond the reach of memory, record)
immune          adj 免疫的,免除的,不受影响的
immure         (to enclose within or as if within walls)
immutable     (not capable of or susceptible to change)
imp             (a mischievous child)
impassive     adj 冷漠的,无感情的 ,平静的
impeccable     a.没缺点的,正直的
impecunious     (having very little or no money)
impede         (to interfere with or slow the progress of)
impend         (to be about to occur)
impenetrable (incapable of being penetrated or pierced)
impenitent     (not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain)
imperative     (expressive of a command)
imperial     adj 帝王的,至尊的;壮丽的,堂皇的
imperious     (marked by arrogant assurance)
impertinent     (characterized by insolent rudeness)
imperturbable (marked by extreme calm)
impervious     (not capable of being damaged or harmed)
impetuous     (marked by impulsive vehemence or passion)
impiety         (the quality or state of being impious)
implacable      adj 不易抚慰的
implement      n 工具,器具v 实现,使生效,执行
implode         (to collapse inward as if from external pressure)
imposing     (impressive in size, dignity, or grandeur)
impostor     (one that assumes false identity for deception)
impotent     (lacking in power, strength)
imprecise     adj 不严密的,不精确的
impresario     (剧院、乐团等的)经理人
impromptu     (composed without previous preparation;extemporaneous)
improvise     (to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously)
imprudent     (not prudent:lacking discretion)
impudent     (marked by contemptuous or boldness)
impugn         (to assail by words or arguments)
impuissance     n 无权;无力;虚弱
inadvertent     (not focusing the mind on a matter)
inalienable     (incapable of being alienated or transferred)
inane         (lacking significance, meaning, or point)
inanimate     (not animated or lively)
inaugurate     (to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies)
incandescent     (strikingly bright, radiant, or clear)
incantation n 咒语
incarnate     (invested with bodily and especially human nature)
incendiary     (involving a deliberate burning of property)
incense         (to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of)
inception     (an instance of beginning;commencement)
incessant     (continuing without interruption)
inch         (to move by small degrees•progress slowly)
inchoate     (being only partly in existence or operation)
incinerate     (to cause to burn to ashes)
incipient     (beginning to come into being or to become apparent)
incite         (to move to action•stir up•spur on•urge on)
inclement     (lacking mildness)
incogitant     (THOUGHTLESS, INCONSIDERATE)
incongruent     (not superposable to be coincident throughout)
inconsequential     (of no significance)
incontrovertible (not open to question)
incorrigible     (incapable of being corrected or amended)
incriminate      (to proof of involvement in a crime or fault)
incubator      n 培养的器具, 孵卵器, 早产儿保育器
inculpate     (to incriminate)
incursion      (a hostile entrance into a territory)
indelible      adj 擦试不掉的,不可磨灭的
indemnity      (security against hurt, loss, or damage)
indict          vt 起诉,控告,指控
indifferent     (marked by a lack of interest)
indigenous     (INNATE, INBORN)
indigent     (suffering from indigence)
indispensability     (absolutely necessary)
industriousness     (constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied)
indoctrinate     (to instruct especially in fundamentals)
indolent         (averse to activity)
inducement         n.引诱物
indulgent          adj放纵的
indurate         (to make hard)
ineffable     (incapable of being expressed in words)
ineluctable     (not to be avoided,resisted)
inept         (generally incompetent)
inert         (deficient in active properties)
inevitable     (incapable of being avoided or evaded)
inexorable     (not to be persuaded by entreaty)
infamy         (evil reputation)
infatuate     (to cause to be foolish)
inferno         (a place that resembles or suggests hell)
infiltrate     (to passsurreptitiously into enemy-held territory)
infinite     (immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive)
infirm         (of poor or deteriorated vitality)
inflame         (to excite to uncontrollable action or feeling)
infelicitous (not appropriate in application)
influx         (a coming in)
infuse         vt 灌输,使…充满,鼓舞
infuriate     (to make furious; enrage)
ingenious     adj 聪明的,有独创性的
ingenuous     (showing innocent simplicity and candidness)
ingest         (to take in for or as if for digestion)
ingrained     (to work indelibly into the natural texture)
ingrate         (an ungrateful person)
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ingratiating     (capable of winning favor•pleasing)
inherent     (belonging by nature or habit)
inimical     (having the disposition of an enemy)
inimitable     (not capable of being imitated)
iniquity     (gross injustice)
initiate     (to cause or facilitate the beginning of)
inkling         (a slight knowledge or vague notion)
innocuous     (行为,言论等)    (not likely to give offense)
innovation     (the introduction of something new)
inquisitive     (inordinately or improperly curious about the affairs of others)
insight          n 洞察力
insipid         (lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate)
insolent     (exhibiting boldness or effrontery)
insouciant     (lighthearted unconcern)
instate         (to set or establish in a rank or office)
instigate     (to goad or urge forward)
instill         (to impart gradually)
institute     (to originate and get established)
instrumentalist n 乐器演奏家
insubordinate     (disobedient to authority)
insular         adj 岛的,孤立的,岛特有的
insulate     (to place in a detached situation)
insurgent     adj 叛乱的,起事的n 叛乱分子
intangible     adj 难以明了的,无形的
integral     (essential to completeness)
integrity     (the quality or state of being complete or undivided)
intelligible    (capable of being understood)
intemperate     (not temperate especially)
intensify     (to make intense or more intensive)
inter         (to deposit     (a dead body) in the earth or in a tomb)
intercede     (to intervene between parties to reconciling differences)
interdict     (to forbid in a usually formal or authoritative manner)
interim         (an intervening time)
interlock     (to become locked together or interconnected)
interminable    (having or seeming to have no end)
intermittent    (coming and going at intervals)
interregnum n 过渡政府
interrogate     (to question formally and systematically)
intimate     (a friend or confidant)
intimate     (to make known especially publicly or formally)
intimidate     (to make timid or fearful)
intransigent   (refusing to moderate a position, especially an extreme position; uncompromising)
intrepid     (characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and endurance)
intrigue     (to arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of)
intrinsic     (the essential nature or constitution of a thing)
intuitive     (known or perceived by intuition:directly apprehended)
inundate     (to cover with a flood:overflow ;overwhelm)
inure         (to accustom to accept something undesirable)
invective     (insulting or abusive language)
inveigh         (to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently:rail)
inveigle     (to win over by wiles:entice;to acquire by ingenuity or flattery)
inventory     (an itemized list of current assets)
inveterate     (firmly established by long persistence)
invidious     (tending to cause discontent,animosity,or envy)
invigorate     (to give life and energy to•animate; also•stimulate)
invincible     (incapable of being overcome or defeated; unconquerable)
invoke         (to put into effect or operation•implement)
irascible     (marked by hot temper and easily provoked anger)
irate         (arising from anger)
iridescence     (a lustrous rainbowlike play of color)
irk             (to make weary, irritated, or bored)
ironclad     (so firm or secure as to be unbreakable:as binding)
irradicable     (impossible to eradicate:deep-rooted)
irreducible     (数)不可约的
irritate     (to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in•annoy)
isthmus         (a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas)
itinerary     (a travel diary;a traveler's guidebook)
jabber         (to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly)
jaded         (fatigued by overwork•exhausted)
jape         (to make mocking fun of)
jargon         (specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, similar group)
jarring         adj刺耳的
jaundice     vt 使怀偏见
jaunty         (sprightly in manner or appearance•lively)
jejune         (devoid of significance or interest•dull)
jest         (an utterance intended to be taken as mockery or humor)
jeopardy     (exposure to or imminence of death, loss, or injury:danger)
jettison     (to get rid of as superfluous or encumbering:discard)
jibe         (to be in accord:agree)
jingoist     n 沙文主义者
jitter        (to be nervous or act in a nervous way)
jocular        (given to jesting • habitually jolly or jocund; playful)
jocund        (suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness)
jog            (a movement, pace, or instance of jogging as for exercise)
jolt        (to cause to move with a sudden jerky motion)
jot            (to write briefly or hurriedly•set down in the form of a note)
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jovial         (markedly good-humored esp as evidenced by jollity and conviviality)
jubilant     (exultant)
judicious     (sound judgment•discreet)
juggernaut     (a massive inexorable force that crushes everything in its path)
kangaroo      n 袋鼠
ken             (the range of vision)
kidnap         (to detain by unlawful force and often with a demand for ransom)
kindle         (to stir up)
kindred         (of a similar nature or character)
knack         (a clever trick or stratagem)
knave         (a tricky deceitful fellow)
knead         (to work and press into a mass with or as if with the hands)
knit         (to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles)
knotty         (intricate; difficult; tangled)
kudos         (award, honor; compliment, praise)
labile         (likely to change ;unstable)
labored         (lacking ease of expression)
labyrinth     (maze; intricacy, perplexity)
lackluster     (lacking in sheen, brilliance, or vitality:dull, mediocre)
laconic          简洁的
lachrymose     (tearful; mournful)
lambaste     (to attack verbally•censure)
lamentable     (expressing grief)
lampoon         (a harsh satire usually directed against an individual)
landfill     (a system of trash and garbage disposal)
languid         (drooping or flagging from or as if from exhaustion)
languish     (to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated)
languor         (listless indolence or inertia)
lank         (not well filled out:slender, thin)
lapse         (a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention)
larder         (a place where food is stored:pantry)
largesse     (generosity)
lariat         (a long light rope used with a running noose to catch livestock:lasso)
lash         (to bind with or as if with a line)
lassitude     (a condition of weariness or debility•fatigue)
latent         (present and capable of becoming though not now visible)
lathe         n 车床
latitude     (freedom from normal limitations, or regulations)
laudatory     (expressing praise)
lavish         (expended or produced in abundance)
leaven         (to raise as bread with a leaven)
leer         (to cast a sidelong glance)
leery         (suspicious or distrustful;wary)
legacy         n.遗产
legend         (an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart)
legion         (a very large number:multitude)
lenient         (inclined not to be harsh or strict)    (merciful)
lethal         (capable of causing death)
lethargic     (being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent)
levee         (an embankment for preventing flooding)
levelheaded     (having sound judgment:sensible)
levity         (excessive or unseemly frivolity;lack of steadiness)
lexicographer     (an author or editor of a dictionary)
liability     (something for which one is liable; esp pecuniary obligation)
liberalist     (the quality or state of being liberal)
libertine     (a person who is unrestrained by convention or morality)
libretto     (the text of a work as an opera for the musical theater)
licentious     (disregarding sexual restraints)
lien         (legal claim until a debt on it is repaid)
liken         (compare)
limber         (capable of being shaped•flexible)
limerick      n 打油诗
limousine      n 豪华轿车
limp         (lacking firm texture, substance, or structure)
limpid         (marked by transparency:pellucid)
linen         n 亚麻布
linger         (tarry;saunter; to be slow to act:procrastinate)
linoleum     n 油布
lint         (fuzz consisting especially of fine ravelings and short fibers)
lissome          adj 柔软的,敏捷的
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list         (a deviation from the vertical:tilt; to tilt to one side)
lithe         (characterized by easy flexibility and grace)
loath         (unwilling to do something contrary to one's ways of thinking)
loathe         (to dislike someone or something greatly; abhor)
loathing     (extreme disgust:detestation)
lode         (an ore deposit)
lofty         (elevated in status:superior)
loll         (to act or move in a lax, lazy, or indolent manner:lounge)
lopsided     (lacking in balance, symmetry, or proportion)
loquacious     (given to fluent or excessive talk•garrulous)
lottery         (contest in which winners are selected in a drawing of lots)
loutish         (resembling or befitting a clumsy,stupid fellow)
lubricate     (to make smooth or slippery)
lucid         (clear to the understanding•intelligible)
lucubration     n 刻苦钻研,苦心的着作laborious or intensive study
lug             (to carry laboriously)
lugubrious     (尤指装出来的)    (mournful;esp exaggeratedly or affectedly mournful)
lull         (to cause to sleep or rest•soothe)
lullaby         (a song to quiet children or lull them to sleep)
lumber         (to move ponderously; stumble)
lumen         (a unit of luminous)
luminary     (a person of prominence or brilliant achievement)
lurch         (to move forward unsteadily while swaying from side to side)
lurk         (to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose)
lush         (growing vigorously especially with luxuriant foliage)
lustrous     (reflecting light evenly and efficiently without glitter or sparkle)
luxury         (a condition of abundance or great ease and comfort)
lyric         n 抒情诗, 歌词
macabre         (gruesome; grisly)    (having death as a subject)
macerate     (steep, soak)
maculate     (marked with spots:blotched ;impure, besmirched)
maelstrom     (violent whirlpool; violent or tublent situation)
magnificent     (grand or noble in thought or deed; exalted)
maladroit     (lacking adroitness:inept)
malaise         (uneasiness; vague feeling of ill health)
malcontent     (dissatisfied ;discontented)
malicious     (given to, marked by, or arising from malice)
malign         (intense often vicious ill will•malevolent)
malinger     (to pretend incapacity as illness to avoid duty or work)
malleable     (capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces)
malodor         (an offensive odor)
mandatory     (containing or constituting a command:obligatory)
mangle         (to spoil, injure, or make incoherent especially through ineptitude)
mangy         (having many worn or bare spots•seedy, shabby)
mania         (excessive or unreasonable enthusiasm)
manifest      n 载货清单
manifest     (easily understood or recognized by the mind•obvious)
manipulate     (control or change by artful means)
manumit         (to release from slavery)
manuscript   n 手稿
mar             (to impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil)
marsh          n 沼泽,湿地
marsupial      n.有袋类动物
martial         adj 战争的, 军事的
martinet     (a strict disciplinarian)
marvel         (something that causes wonder or astonishment)
masquerade     (to disguise oneself)
masticate     (chew)
matriculate     vt 入学
mattress      n 床垫
maudlin         (weakly and effusively sentimental)
maven         (one who is experienced or knowledgeable:expert)
maverick     (an independent individual not go along with a group)
mawkish         (sickly or puerilely sentimental)
meager         (deficient in quality or quantity)
meander         (to wander aimlessly without urgent destination • ramble)
measly         (contemptibly small)
measured     (marked by due proportion)
meddle         (interfere without right or propriety)
media         (a nutrient system for the artificial cultivation of cells or bacteria)
mediate          vt 调解,调停
mediocre     (of moderate or low quality,value, ability, or performance)
medley         (a musical composition made up of a series of songs)
meet         (very proper)
meliorism     (the belief of tendency toward improvement)
mellifluous     (having a smooth rich flow)
melody         (tunefulness)
melodrama      n 情节剧
membrane     (a thin soft pliable sheet or layer especially of animal or plant origin)
menace         (to make a show of intention to harm)
mendacious     (deception/falsehood/divergence from absolute truth)
mentor         (a trusted counselor or guide•tutor, coach)
mercenary     (one that serves merely for wages)
mercurial     (rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood)
merited         (deserved, be worthy of or entitled or liable to)
mesh         (to cause as gears to engage)
mesmerism      n 催眠,着迷
metaphor     (figurative language)
metamorphose (change strikingly the appearance of• transform)
meteoric     (resembling a meteor in speed and temporary brilliance)
meteorology     (a science that deals with weather and weather forecasting)
meticulous     (extreme care in the consideration of details)
metrical     (of, relating to, or composed in meter)
mettle         (staying quality • stamina)
miff         (a trivial quarrel)
migratory     (wandering, roving)
mime         (to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words)
minaret         (a tall slender tower of a mosque)
minatory     (having a menacing quality•threatening)
mince         (to walk with short steps in a prim affected manner)
mindful         (inclined to be aware)
mingle         (to bring or mix together)
minion       (a servile dependent, follower, or underling)
mint         vt 铸造;n 巨额
minuscule     (very small)
minutia         (a minute or minor detail)
miraculous     (of the nature of a miracle • supernatural)
mirage         (something illusory and unattainable)
mire         (to hamper or hold back as if by mire • entangle)
mirth         (gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter)
misanthrope     (a person who hates or distrusts mankind)
misbehave      v 行为不端
mischievous     (able to cause trouble, or minor injury)
misconstrue      vt 误解, 曲解
miscreant     (one who behaves criminally or viciously)
misdemeanor     (a crime less serious than a felony)
miser         (one who is extremely stingy with money)
misfortune     (a distressing or unfortunate incident or event)
misgiving     (a feeling of suspicion especially concerning a future event)
mishap         (an unfortunate accident)
misrepresent     (to give a false or misleading representation)
mite          n 微生物,□虫
mitigate     (to make less severe or painful)
mnemonics     (a technique of improving the memory)
mobility        n 灵活性
mockery         (a subject of laughter, derision, or sport)
moderate     (to lessen the intensity or extremeness of)
modicum         (a small portion•a limited quantity)
molar         (a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food)
molding         (a decorative plane or curved strip used for ornamentation or finishing)
mollify         (to soothe in temper or disposition•appease)
mollycoddle     (a pampered or effeminate man or boy)
molt         (ecdysis)
momentous     (important, consequential)
momentum      n 势头,动力
mongrel          n 杂种,混血儿         adj杂种的, 混血儿的
monochromatic     (having or consisting of one color or hue)
monocle         (an eyeglass for one eye)
monologue     (soliloquy; a dramatic sketch performed by one actor)
monotone     (monotonic)
montage          n蒙太奇
moratorium     (a suspension of an ongoing or planned activity)
morbid          adj 疾病的,病态的
mordant         (biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style•incisive)
moribund     (being in the state of dying•approaching death)
morose         (having a sullen and gloomy disposition)
mortar         (a strong vessel in which material is pounded/rubbed with a pestle)
mosaic         (一种装饰品由某种材料拼成的图)
mosque         (a building used for public worship by muslims)
moth-eaten     adj 虫蛀的,过时的
motile         (exhibiting or capable of movement)
motivate     (to provide with a motive•impel)
motley         (variegated in colorcomposed of diverse elements)
mottle         (to mark with spots of different color or shades of color as if stained)
mournful     (causing sorrow or melancholy•gloomy)
movement      n 乐章
muddy     (lacking in clarity or brightness)
muffle     (to wrap up so as to conceal or protect)    (to deaden the sound of)
mulish     (unreasonably and inflexibly obstinate)
mumble     (to utter with a low inarticulate voice)
mundane     (worldly as opposed to spiritual)    (commonplace)
munificent     (characterized by great liberality or generosity)
mural     (a mural work of art as a painting)
murky     (dark and gloomy; thick with fog; vague)
murmur     (a low indistinct but often continuous sound)
mutate     (to cause to undergo change)
mute     (to muffle the sound of)    (to tone down:soften, subdue)
mutter     (to utter sounds or words indistinctly or with a low voice)
myopic     (a lack of foresight or discernment)
myriad     (having innumerable aspects or elements)
nadir     (the lowest point)
naive     (deficient in worldly wisdom or informed judgment; credulous)
narcissism     (love of or sexual desire for one's own body)
nascent     (coming or having recently come into existence)
natty     (trimly neat and tidy•smart)
nauseate     (to feel disgust)
naysay     (denial, refusal)
nebulous     (indistinct, vague)
needy     (being in want)
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nefarious     (flagrantly wicked or impious•evil)
negation     (a negative statement, judgment, or doctrine)
negligence     (the quality or state of being not taking prudent care)
neologism     (a new word, usage, or expression)
negotiate     (to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter)
neophyte     (a new convert•proselyte)
nepotism     (favoritism as in appointment to a job based on kinship)
nerve         (to give strength or courage to)
nettle         (to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger)
nexus         (connection,link; a connected group or series; center, focus)
nibble         (to eat or chew in small bits)
nil             (NOTHING, ZERO)
nip             (to take liquor in nips)
nitpick         v 挑剔,吹毛求疵
nocturnal     (of, relating to, or occurring in the night)
noisome         (noxious)    (highly obnoxious or objectionable)
nomad         (a member of a people who have no fixed residence)
nominal         (trifling, insignificant)
nonchalant     (having an air of easy unconcern or indifference)
nondescript     (lacking distinctive or interesting qualities)
nonentity     (a person of little consequence or significance)
nonplus         (a state of bafflement or perplexity:quandary)
nonsense        (words or language having no meaning or conveying no intelligible ideas)
notch         (to cut or make a notcha usually v-shaped depression in an edge or surface)
novelty         (something new or unusual)
noxious         (physically harmful or destructive to living beings)
nuance         (a subtle distinction or variation)
nucleate        (to form into a nucleus)
nudge         (seek the attention of by a push of the elbow)
nugatory        (of little or no consequence;trifling, inconsequential)
nurture         (to supply with nourishment)
oasis         (a fertile or green area in an arid region as a desert)
oath         (solemn promise)
obdurate        (resistant to persuasion or softening influences);冷酷的
obedient        (submissive to the restraint or command of authority)
obeisance       (a movement of the body made in token of 表示respect or submission)
obfuscate       (to make obscure)
obituary     (a notice of a person's death usually with a short biographical account)
obligatory     (binding in law or conscience; mandatory, required)
obliging     (willing to do favors)
oblique         (not straightforward•indirect)
obliterate     (to remove from existence)
oblivious     (lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention)
obloquy         (abusively detractive language or utterance; calumny)
obscure         (not clearly seen or easily distinguished)
obsequious      (marked by or a fawning attentiveness)
observatory      n 天文台
obsess          (to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of)
obstinate      (perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course)
obstruct     (to hinder from passage, action, or operation)
obtuse         (lacking sharpness or quickness of sensibility or intellect)
obviate         vt 除去,排除
occlude         (to close up or block off•obstruct)
occult         (not easily apprehended or understood)
ode             n 颂诗,赋
odium         (hatred and condemnation accompanied by loathing or contempt)
offbeat         (eccentric, unconventional)
offhand         (without premeditation or preparation•extempore)
officious     (meddlesome)
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offish         (somewhat cold and reserved•standoffish)
off-key         (varying in pitch from the proper tone of a melody)    (irregular)
olfaction     (the sense of smell)
ominous         (being or exhibiting an omen)
omniscient     (having infinite awareness/understanding/ insight)
onerous         (involving, imposing, or constituting a burden:troublesome)
opaque         (exhibiting opacity)
opine         (to express opinions)
opportune     (suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence)
opprobrious     (expressive of opprobrium•scurrilous)
oracle         (a person through whom a deity is believed to speak)
oration         (an elaborate discourse delivered in a formal and dignified manner)
orient         (get one's bearings;adjust; make familiar with a situation)
original     (not secondary, derivative, or imitative)
ornithology     (a branch of zoology dealing with birds)
orthodoxy     (quality of being conforming to established doctrine)
oscillate     (swing like a pendulum;vary between opposing beliefs)
ossify         (to become hardened or conventional and opposed to change)
ostentatious     (fond of conspicuous and sometimes pretentious display)
ostracism     (exclusion by general consent from common privileges)
oust         (to remove from or dispossess of property by legal action or force)
outgoing     (openly friendly and responsive•extroverted)
outlandish     (strikingly out of the ordinary • bizarre)
outmaneuver     (to maneuver with better effect than; outwit)
outset         (beginning, start)
outwit         (to get the better of by superior cleverness)
overbearing     (harshly and haughtily arrogant)
overlap         (to occupy the same area in part•lap over)
overt         (open to view:manifest)
overture     (something introductory•prelude)
oxymoron     (a combination of contradictory or incongruous words)
pachyderm     n 厚皮类动物, 迟钝的人
pacify         (to allay the anger or agitation of•soothe)
pack         (a group of often predatory animals of the same kind)
padding         (material with which something is padded)
paean         (a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph)
painstaking     (taking pains)
palatable     (agreeable to the palate or taste)
palatial     (magnificent)
alette         (a particular range, quality, or use of color)
pall         (to lose in interest or attraction)
palliate     (to reduce the violence of     (a disease)
pallid         (having an abnormally pale complexion)
palmy         (marked by prosperity)
palpable     (easily perceived)
palter         (to act insincerely or deceitfully)
paltry         (practically worthless; trifling)
pan             (to criticize unfavorably, as in reviewing)
panache     (dash or flamboyance in style)
pancreas     n 胰腺
pandemic    (widespread; general)
pandemonium     (wild uproar or noise)
panegyric     (a eulogistic oration or writing)
panoramic     (an unobstructed or complete view of an area in every direction)
pantry         (a room  (as in a hotel or hospital) for preparation of foods on order)
parable        (a simple story illustrating a moral or religious lesson)
paradigm     (example, pattern)
paradise     (a place or state of bliss, felicity, or delight)
paradox         (a statement that is seemingly contradictory to common sense and yet is perhaps
true)
paragon         (a model of excellence or perfection)
paramount     (superior to all others)
paranoia     (a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational
suspiciousness and distrustfulness of others)
paraphrase     (to make a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another
form)
parch         (to dry or shrivel with cold)
parenthesis     n 插入语;附带;插曲;圆括号
pariah         (a member of a low caste of southern india)
parity         (the quality or state of being equal)
parlance     (manner or mode of speech)
parody          n.诙谐改编的诗文 v 做模仿诗文
paroxysm     (a sudden violent emotion or action)
parquetry     (inlaid woodwork in geometric forms, usually of contrasting woods, used esp in
flooring)
parrot         (to repeat by rote)
parry         (to evade especially by an adroit answer)
parse         (to resolve    (as a sentence)into component parts of speech and describe them
grammatically)
parsimony     (unreasonable economy; stinginess)
partial         (inclined to favor one party more than the other•biased)
particularize (to state in detail)
partisan     (a firm adherent to a party, faction)
pastiche     (a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of
previous work)
partition     n 分割,划分,瓜分 vt区分,隔开,分割
patent         (readily visible or intelligible)
pathology     n 病理学;病状
patina         n 铜绿;薄层;光泽
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patrician     (a person of high birth•aristocrat)
patriot         (one who loves his or her country)
patronize     (to be kind or helpful to, but in a haughty or snobbish way, as if dealing with
an inferior)
paucity         (smallness of number:fewness)
paunchy         (having an enlarged or protruding abdomen)
pebble         (a small usually rounded stone)
peccadillo     (a slight offense)
peck        (to kiss briefly and casually)
pedagogue     (a dull, formal, or pedantic teacher)
pedant        (one who pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules)
pedestal     n 基架,底座,基础
predestine    (to fix upon, decide, or decree in advance; foreordain.)
pedestrian     (commonplace;unimaginative)
pediatrics     n[医]小儿科
peep         (to look cautiously or slyly)
peer        (a person who has equal standing with another or others, as in rank, class, or age)
peerless     (matchless;imparable)
peeve         (to make peevish or resentful)
pejorative     (having negative connotations)
pelf        (wealth or riches, especially when dishonestly acquired)
pellucid     (easy to understand)
pen             (a female swan)
penalty        (a punishment established by law or authority for a crime or an offense)
penchant     (a strong and continued inclination)
penitent     (feeling or expressing regretful pain)
pensive         (musingly or dreamily thoughtful)
penury         (severe poverty)
perambulate     v 巡行
perceptible     (capable of being perceived)
peremptory     (imperious or arrogant self-assurance)
perfervid     (marked by overwrought emotion)
perfidy         (the quality or state of being faithless)
perforate     (to make a hole through)
perfunctorily (lacking in interest or enthusiasm)
perimeter     (the boundary of a closed plane figure)
periodical     adj周期的n期刊,杂志
peripatetic     (moving or traveling from place to place)
peripheral     (a periphery or surface part)
perish        (to die or be destroyed, especially in a violent or untimely manner)
perjury        (the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or
by omission to do what has been promised under oath)
permanence     (the quality or state of being permanent)
permeable     (penetrable;having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through)
pernicious     (highly injurious or destructive)
peroration     (演讲的)结束语;演讲高谈阔论
perpetual     (continuing forever•everlasting)
persecute     (to come to mind continually)
persevere     (to persist in a state)
persiflage     (to provide with an incentive)
persistence      n 坚持, 持续
personable     (pleasant or amiable in person)
perspicacious (of acute mental vision•keen)
perspicuity     (plain to the understanding)
pertain          v 适合,属于
pertinacious (stubbornly unyielding or tenacious)
pertinent     (having a clear decisive relevance)
perturb         (to disturb greatly in mind•disquiet)
peruse         (to examine with attention and in detail)
pervade         (to become diffused)
pesticide     (an agent used to destroy pests)
pestle         (grinding substances in a mortar)
petition     (to make a request)
petrify         v石化;吓呆
petrography     (研究岩石分类和体系)
petty         (having secondary rank or importance)
phenomenal     adj显着的,非凡的,杰出的
philanthropic (characterized by philanthropy)
philatelist      n集邮家
philistine     (a person who is guided by materialism and is usually disdainful of artistic values)
phlegmatic     (stolid temperament)
piddling     (trivial, paltry)
piebald         (spotted with black and white)
pixel         (显示器或电视机图象的)象素
pigment          n颜料,色料
pilfer         (to steal stealthily in small amounts)
pillar         (a firm upright support)
pillory         (to expose to public contempt)
pilot         (one employed to steer a ship•helmsman)
pine         (to yearn intensely and persistently)
pinnacle     (an upright architectural member generally ending in a small spire and used
especially in gothic construction to give weight especially to a buttress)
pinpoint     (to locate or aim with great precision)
piquant         (agreeably stimulating to the palate)
pique         n不满,愤怒vt伤害自尊心,使生气
pirate         n海盗;盗版者vt盗版,翻印;掠夺
pitch         n音品;程度
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pithy         (having substance and point)
pitiless     (devoid of pity:merciless)
placate         (to soothe or mollify)
placebo          n.安慰剂
plagiarize     (to steal as one's own)
plangent     (having a loud reverberating sound)
plantation     n 大农场,种植园
plasticity     n可塑性,塑性
plateau         (上升后的)    (或时期、状态)
platitude     (a banal, trite, or stale remark)
plausible     (superficially fair)
pleat         (to arrange in pleats)
plentitude      n充分
plethora     (excess, superflutty;profusion, abundance)
pliable          adj 易曲折的,柔软的,易受影响的,温顺的
pliant         (easily influenced)
plight         (to put or give in pledge•engage)
plodding     (working laboriously monotonously)
pluck         (courageous readiness to fight)
pluck         n猛拉;动物内脏;弹奏
plumb         (to measure the depth of with a plumb)
plummet         (to drop sharply and abruptly)
plump         (having a full rounded)
plutocracy     n 富豪统治
podiatrist     n 足病医生
polarize     (to break up into opposing factions or groupings)
polemic         (the art or practice of disputation)
polished     (highly developed, finished)
politic         adj 精明的,圆滑的,慎重的,策略的
pollster     n 民意测验专家
pompous         (self-importance;arrogant)
ponderable     (significant enoug•appreciable)
ponderous     (of very great weight)
pontificate     (to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way)
porcelain     n瓷,瓷器
pore         n毛孔,气孔,细孔
porous         (capable of being penetrated)
portentous     (eliciting amazement or wonder)
portfolio     n 部长职务;公事包
poseur         (a person who pretends to be what he is not)
posit         (to assume or affirm the existence of•postuate)
postulate     (depend upon or start from the postulate of)
posture         (to assume an artificial attitude)
potable         (suitable for drinking)
potboiler     (a literary or artistic work of poor quality, produced quickly for profit)
potentate     (one who wields great power or sway)
potentiate     (to make more effective or more active)
pout         (to show displeasure by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression)
prairie         n 大草原,牧场
prate         (to talk long and idly)
preach         (to deliver a sermon)
precarious     (characterized by a lack of security)
precedent     (prior in time, order)
precipice     (a very steep or overhanging place)
precipitate     (to bring about abruptly)
precipitation (something precipitated)
precipitous     (very steep, perpendicular)
preclude     (prevent)
precursor      n 先驱者,先导
predecessor      n 前任,先辈
predilection n爱好,偏袒
preeminent     (having paramount rank,dignity)
preempt         (to replace with something considered to be of greater value or priority:take
precedence over)
preen         (to dress or smooth up•primp)
preface         (the introductory remarks of a speaker)
pregnant     (inventive)
premeditated adj 预想的,有计划的
preoccupation n当务之急
preponderant (having superior weight)
prepossessing (attractive)
preposterous (contrary to nature, reason, or common)
presage         (foretell, predict)
prescience     (foreknowledge of events)
prescription n 处方;命令,指示
preservative n 预防法,预防药,防腐剂
prestige     (standing in the eyes of people)
presumptuous (taking liberties)
pretense     n 虚假,伪装
preternatural adj超自然的
prevail         (to gain ascendancy through strength)
prevalent     (generally or widely accepted)
prevaricate     (to deviate from the truth)
primordial     (existing in the beginning)
primp         (to dress, adorn in a finicky manner)
principal     (most important, consequential)
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pristine     (not spoiled, corrupted)
privation     (the state of being deprived)
probe         (to make a searching exploratory investigation)
probity         (adherence to the highest principles)
proclivity     (a natural propensity or inclination)
procrastinate v 耽搁,拖延
procure         (to get possession of)
prod         (to incite to action:stir)
prodigal          adj 浪费的,挥霍的,放荡的
prodigy         n 惊人的事物,不凡的人,神童
profane         v亵渎,玷污
proffer         (to present for acceptance)
proficient         adj熟练的,精通的
profligate     (wildly extravagant)
profundity      n 深奥,深刻
profusion     (great quantity•lavish)
proliferate     (to increase in number by proliferating)
prolix         (marked by or using an excess of words)
prologue      n序言
prolong          (to lengthen in extent, scope, or range)
promulgate      vt发布,公布,传播
propagate     (to cause to spread out)
propensity     (an often intense natural inclination)
prophetic     (foretelling events)
propitiate     (to gain or regain the favor)
propitious     (favorably disposed)
proponent      n建议者,支持者
propriety      n适当
prosaic          adj单调的,无趣的
proscribe     (to condemn or forbid)
prosecution      n 实行;经营;起诉
proselytize     (to recruit or convert especially to a new faith, institution, or cause)
prospect     (to search for or explore for mineral deposits or oil)
prosperous     (enjoying vigorous and healthy growth)
prostrate     (stretched out with face on the ground in adoration or submission)
protean         (displaying great diversity)
protocol     n 外交礼节,协议
protract     (to prolong in time or space)
protuberant     (thrusting out from a surrounding or adjacent surface often as a rounded mass)
provident     adj 深谋远虑的;节俭的
providential (happening as if through divine intervention; opportune)
provincial     (limited in outlook)
provisional     (serving for the time being)
provisory     adj 有附文的,有附带条件的,暂时的
provoke         (to call forth)
prowess         (distinguished bravery)
prowl         (to move about or wander stealthily in or as if in search of prey)
prude          n 装成规矩的女人,过分正经的女人
prudent         (marked by circumspection)
prudish         (marked by prudery)
prune         (to remove as superfluous)
pry             (to look closely or inquisitively)
pseudonym     n 假名;笔名
psychology     n 心理学,心理状态
pucker         (to contract into folds or wrinkles)
puckish         adj 爱恶作剧的,淘气的,顽皮的
puerile         adj 幼稚的,儿童的
puissance     (power; might)
pulchritude     (physical comeliness)
pullet          n 小母鸡;小姑娘
pulverize     (to reduce  (as by crushing, beating, or grinding) to very small particles:atomize)
pun             (a joke using words with similar sounds or two different meanings)
punch line     (the sentence, statement, or phrase     (as in a joke) that makes the point)
punctilious     (marked by precise accordance with  the details of codes or conventions)
pundit          n.权威人士,专家
pungent         (causing a sharp or irritating sensation)
puny         (slight or inferior in power, size, or importance)
purity         (the quality or state of being pure)
purlieu         (a frequently visited place)
purloin         (to appropriate wrongfully and often by a breach of trust)
purvey        (to supply (food, for example); furnish)
pusillanimous (lacking courage and resolution)
quack        (a charlatan; a mountebank)
quaff         (to drink    (a beverage)deeply)
quail         (to recoil in dread or terror)
qualified     (limited or modified in some way)
quandary     (a state of perplexity or doubt)
quarantine     (to isolate from normal relations)
quarry         (one that is sought or pursued)
quash         (to suppress or extinguish summarily and completely)
quell         (to thoroughly overwhelm and reduce to submission or passivity)
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quench     (to cool     (as heated metal) suddenly by immersion     (as in oil or water)
querulous     (habitually complaining)
quibble         (to evade the point of an argument by caviling about words)
quiescent     (marked by inactivity or repose)
quixotic     (foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals)
quota         (a proportional part or share)
quotidian     adj.每日的,平凡的
rabble         n 乌合之众,暴民,下等人
rabid         (extremely violent)
raconteur      n.善于讲故事的人
racy         (having a strongly marked quality)
raffish         (marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness)
raffle         n 抽彩售货,废物
rafter         n 椽;椽架屋顶;筏夫
rage        (violent, explosive anger)
ragged         (torn or worn to tatters)
rail         (to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language)
rakish         (of, relating to, or characteristic of a rake ;dissolute)
ramble         (to move aimlessly)
rambunctious   (boisterous and disorderly)
rampart         (a protective barrier;bulwark)
ramshackle     (appearing ready to collapse)
rancid         (offensive in odor or flavor)
rancor         (bitter deep-seated ill will)
randomize     (to make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in
an experiment)
ranger          n 守林人,骑警,徘徊者
rankle         (to cause irritation)
rant         (to scold vehemently)
rapacious     (excessively grasping)
rapport         (relation marked by harmony, conformity)
rapprochement n 建立或恢复友谊或和睦关系
rapscallion      n 流氓,恶棍
rapt         (wholly absorbed)
rash         (proceeding from undue haste)
raisin          n 葡萄干
rarefy         (to make thin, less compact, or less dense)
raspy        (rough; grating)
ratify         (to approve and sanction formally)
ratiocination (the process of exact thinking)
ration         (a food allowance for one day)
rationalize     (to bring into accord with reason something to seem reasonable)
ravel         (to separate the texture)
rave         (an extravagantly favorable criticism)
ravenous     (very greedy for food or gratification)
ravish         (to seize and carry away by force)
raze         (to destroy to the ground;demolish)
reactant      n 反应物
reactionary    (characterized by reaction, especially opposition to progress or liberalism;
extremely conservative)
ream         (a quantity of paper)
reap         (to gather by reaping)
reassure     (to restore to confidence)
rebuff         (to reject or criticize sharply)
recalcitrant   (marked by stubborn resistance to and defiance of authority or guidance)
recant          vi 放弃信仰,撤消声明,公开认错
recessive     (生物)隐性的
recidivism     (relapse into criminal behavior)
reciprocate     (to move forward and backward)
reckless     (careless of consequences)
recluse         (a person who leads a secluded life)
recoil         (to fall back under pressure)
reconcile     (to make consistent or congruous)
recondite         adj 深奥的,难解的
reconnaissance     (an exploratory military survey of enemy territory)
reconstitute vt 重新组成,重新设立;加水使恢复
reconvene     vt 重新集合,重新召集
rectify     v 订正,校正
rectitude     (moral integrity)
recumbent          adj 靠着的,斜躺着的,不活动的,休息的
recuperate     (to regain a former state or condition)
redistribution n 重新分配,再区分
redolent     (exuding fragrance)
redoubtable     (worthy of respect)
redundant     adj 多余的,过多的,冗长的
reel         n 卷轴;一卷;蹒跚;旋转;纺车
referee         n 仲裁人,调解人;裁判员
refinery     n精炼厂,提炼厂
reflective     adj 反射的;反映的;熟虑的
refractory     (病)难治的
refulgence     (a radiant or resplendent quality or state)
refute         (to deny the truth or accuracy of)
regenerate     (restored to a better, higher, or more worthy state)
regimen          n 养生法,生活规则
regress         (to tend to approach or revert to a mean)
rehabilitate    (身体)康复,使复职
rehearsal      n 排演, 演习, 预演, 试演
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reign     (royal authority)
rein     n 缰绳 vi驾驭,控制
reiterate v 重申,反复地说
rejoice     (to feel joy or great delight)
relapse         (to slip or fall back into a former worse state)
release         (to set free from restraint)
relentless    (unyielding in severity or strictness; unrelenting)
relevant    (having a bearing on or connection with the matter at hand)
religion      n 宗教,信仰
relinquish     (to give over possession)
relish         (an appetite for something; a strong appreciation or liking)
reluctant     (unwilling; disinclined)
remiss         (showing neglect or inattention:lax)
remodel         (to alter the structure of)
remonstrance    (an earnest presentation of reasons for opposition or grievance; especially:
a document formally stating such points)
remorse         (a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt for past wrongs:self-reproach)
remunerate     (to pay an equivalent to for a service, loss, or expense:recompense)
rend         (to split or tear apart or in pieces by violence)
renounce     (to give up, refuse or resign usually by formal declaration)
renovate     (to restore to a former better state)
repartee     (a succession or interchange of clever retorts:amusing and usually light sparring
with words)
repatriate     (to restore or return to the country of origin or citizenship)
repeal         (to rescind or annul by authoritative act; to revoke or abrogate by legislative
enactment)
repel         (repulse;resist)    (to cause aversion in:disgust)
repertoire     (a list or supply of dramas)
repine         (to feel or express discontent or dejection)
replete         (fully provided ;full)
reportage     n报道, 报道的消息, 报告文学
repose         (to lie at rest ;to take a rest)
reprehend     (to voice disapproval of ;censure)
repress         (to put down by force)    (to hold in by self-control)
reprieve     (to delay the punishment of a condemned prisoner)
reproach     (an expression of rebuke or disapproval)
reprobate    (to disapprove of; condemn)
reproof         (criticism for a fault:rebuke)
reprove         (to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent;to express disapproval
of:censure)
reptile     n爬虫动物, 卑鄙的人
repudiate    (to reject the validity or authority of)
repugnant     (exciting aversion)    (incompatible)
repulse         v/n 厌恶,令人厌恶;驱逐,击退
repute         (the character or status commonly ascribed to one)
requite         (to make return for:repay)
requisite     (essential, necessary)
rescind         (abrogate;cancel)
reserved     (restrained in words and actions)
residue         (something that remains after a part is taken)
resign         (give up one's office)
resilience     (an ability to recover from)
resin         n 树脂
resolute     (marked by firm determination)
resonant     (echoing; resounding; deep and full in sound)
resourceful      adj 策略的,机智的,资源丰富的
respite         (a period of temporary delay;an interval of rest or relief)
respire         (breathe; specifically:to inhale and exhale air successively)
resplendent     (shining brilliantly)
responsive     (quick to respond sympathetically)
restive         (marked by impatience)    (stubbornly resisting control)
restless     adj得不到休息的, 不平静的
restrain     vt阻止,限制,使受控制
resurgence      n 复活,重新活跃,复兴
resuscitate    (to restore consciousness, vigor, or life to)
retainer     (servant)
retaliate     (to repay    (as an injury)in kind)
retard        (to cause to move or proceed slowly; delay or impede)
reticent     (inclined to be silent or uncommunicative in speech)
retort         (a quick, witty, or cutting reply)
retouch         (to rework in order to improve)
retract        (to take back; disavow)
retrench     (cut down, reduce)
retribution     (recompense, reward;punishment)
retrograde     (go backwards; recede; degenerate; deteriorate)
retrospective (looking back on the past)
revelry         (noisy partying or merrymaking)
revenge        (to inflict punishment in return for (injury or insult))
revere         (to show devoted deferential honor to)
revise         (to make a new, amended, improved, or up-to-date version of)
revive        (to bring back to life or consciousness; resuscitate)
revoke         (to annul by recalling or taking back)
ribald         (crude,offensive)
rickety         (shaky:in unsound physical condition)
rider         (a clause appended to a legislative bill to secure a usually distinct object)
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ridicule     n v 嘲笑,笑柄
rife         (prevalent)    (copiously supplied)
rift         (a clear space or interval)
rile         (to make agitated and angry:upset)
ripen         v 使成熟
riot         (public violence, tumult, or disorder)
rite         (a ceremonial act or action)
rive         (to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces ;rend)
riveting     (to attract the attention completely)
rivulet         (a small stream)
robust        (full of health and strength; vigorous.)
rodent         (Any of various mammals of the order Rodentia, such as a mouse, rat, squirrel, or
beaver, characterized by large incisors adapted for gnawing or nibbling)
roil         (to make turbid by stirring up the sediment or dregs of)
roister         (to engage in noisy revelry:carous)
rookie         (recruit;also:novice)
roster         (a roll or list of personnel)
rostrum         (a stage for public speaking)
rouse         (to stir up:excite)
royalty         (royal status or power)  (a payment to an author or composer for each copy of a
work sold or to an inventor for each item sold under a patent)
rubicund     (ruddy)
rudimentary     (fundamental)    (of a primitive kind)    (very imperfectly developed or
represented only by a vestige)
rue             (to feel penitence, remorse, or regret for)
ruffle         n 皱褶, 生气 v使皱,使生气
ruminate     (to chew repeatedly for an extended period)    (to go over in the mind repeatedly
and often casually or slowly)
rumple         (fold,wrinkle)
run             (an unbroken course of performances or showings)
rupture         (to part by violence)
ruse         (trick to deceive; stratagem)
rustic         (lacking in social graces or polish)
rustle        (to steal livestock, especially cattle)
sabbatical     adj 安息日的,周期性休息的
sabotage      vt 妨害,破坏
saccharine      n 糖精
sacrilege      n 亵渎圣物,冒渎,悖理逆天的行为
saddle         (oppress,burden)
safeguard     n 保护措施,护照
sagacious     (of keen and farsighted penetration and judgment)
salient         (standing out conspicuously • prominent)
salmon         n 大马哈鱼
salubrious     (favorable to or promoting health or well-being)
salutary     (promoting a beneficial effect or health)
salutation     (a polite expression of greeting or goodwill)
salvage         (从灾难中)抢救,海上救助
salve         (quiet, assuage)
sanctify     vt 使神圣,敬神,使成为神圣之物
sanctuary     (a place of refuge and protection)
sanction     (to give effective or authoritative approval or consent to)
sanctimonious (hypocritically pious)
sand         v 磨光 n 沙
sanguine     (red)    (hopeful)    (cheerful)
sanitation     n卫生,卫生设施
sap             (weaken) (bodily health and vigor)
sapient        (possessing or expressing great sagacity)
sarcasm        (cutting ironic remark; scornful remarks)
sartorial     adj 裁缝匠的,缝工的,裁缝的
sate         (satisfy to the full; satisfy to excess; cloy)
satiate         (to satisfy fully or to excess)
satire         (a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn) (trenchant
wit, irony, or sarcasm used to expose and discredit vice or folly)
saturate     (full of moisture•made thoroughly wet)
saturnine    (of a gloomy or surly disposition)
saunter        (to walk about in an idle or leisurely manner•stroll)
savanna         (a treeless plain especially in Florida)    (a tropical or subtropical grassland
containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth)
savant         (a person of learning)
savory         (appetizing to the taste or smell)
savvy         (practical know-how)
sawdust         (as of wood) made by a saw in cutting
scabbard     (a sheath for a sword, dagger, or bayonet)
scads         (a large number or quantity)
scale          n 天平,秤盘;音阶
scalpel         (a small straight thin-bladed knife used especially in surgery)
scan         (to read or mark so as to show metrical structure)
scant         adj 不足的,缺乏的
scathing     (bitterly severe)
schism         (division, separation)    (discord, disharmony)
school         n 学派,鱼群
scintillate     (to throw off as a spark or as sparkling flashes)
scion         (descendant, child)
scission     (a division or split in a group or union:schism)
scissor         n 剪刀
scoff         (to treat or address with derision:mock)
scooter          n 滑行车,踏板车
scorch         (sear)
score          n 乐谱,分数
scorn         (reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy)
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scotch         (hinder, thwart)
scour         (to go through or range over in or as if in a search)
scowl         (to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure)
scrappy         (quarrelsome;having an aggressive and determined spirit)
scrap         (discard;to abandon as no longer of enough worth to retain)
scrawl         (to write or draw awkwardly, hastily, or carelessly)
scribble    (to write hurriedly without heed to legibility or style)
script         (the written text of a stage play, screenplay, or broadcast)
scrupulous     (having moral integrity;painstaking)
scrutable     (comprehensible)
scrutinize     (to examine closely and minutely)
scuff         (to become scratched, chipped, or roughened by wear)
sculpt         (carve, sculpture)
scurrilous     (using or given to coarse language containing obscenities, abuse, or slander)
scurvy         (disgustingly mean or contemptible• despicable)
scythe          n 长柄的大镰刀,战车镰
seascape     (a view of the sea)    (a picture representing a scene at sea)
seamy         (degraded, sordid)
secluded     (screened or hidden from view; sequestered;solitary)
secrete         (to form and give off a secretion)
sedate         (keeping a quiet steady attitude)
sedentary     (not migratory:settled)
seduce         (to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty)
sedulous     (diligent in application or pursuit)
seemly         (conventionally proper;fit)
segment         (to separate into segments:give off as segments)
seminal         (containing or contributing the seeds of later development:creative, original)
seminary     n 神学院
sensation     n 感觉,知觉,轰动事件
sensitive     (receptive to sense impressions)
sentinel     n 哨兵,看守
sepulchral     (suited to or suggestive of a sepulchre)
septic         (of, relating to, or causing putrefaction)
sequela         n 后继者, 后遗症
sequester     (to set apart:segregate;seclude, withdraw)
seraph         (one of the 6-winged angels standing in the presence of God)
sere         (being dried and withered)
serrated    (notched like the edge of a saw; saw-toothed; serrate)
serendipity     (the faculty or phenomenon of finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for)
serene         (marked by or suggestive of utter calm and unruffled repose or quietude)
serfdom     n 农奴身份, 农奴境遇
sermon        (an often lengthy and tedious speech of reproof or exhortation)
serpentine    (of or resembling a serpent, as in form or movement; sinuous)
serrate         (notched or toothed on the edge)
serried         adj 密集的,林立的,重重叠叠罗列的
servile         (meanly or cravenly submissive:abject)
severe         (of a strict or stern bearing or manner:austere)
shackle         (to deprive of freedom especially of action by means of restrictions or handicaps)
shadow         (to follow especially secretly:trail)
shallow         (lacking in depth of knowledge, thought, or feeling)
shale         n 页岩,泥板岩
sham         (not genuine:false, feigned)
shard         (陶瓷器、瓦等的)破片,碎片
shiftless     (lacking in ambition or incentive:lazy)
shipshape     (trim, tidy)
shirk         (responsibility, work, etc); malinger
shoal         (shallow)
shopworn     (尤指在商店中陈列久的货物)
shrewd         (marked by clever discerning awareness and hardheaded acumen)
shrine         神殿,圣地
shrug         (the shoulders)especially
shun         (to avoid deliberately and especially habitually)
sidereal     (in relation to stars or constellations:astral)
sidestep     (avoid;bypass, evade)
signal         (distinguished from the ordinary)
simper         (to smile in a silly manner)
simpleton     (缺乏常识)
simulate     (to assume the appearance of often with the intent to deceive)
sin             (an offense against religious or moral law)
sincere         (honest;pure; true)
sinecure     (well-paid position with little responsibility)
sinew         (solid resilient strength:power)
singe         (to burn superficially or lightly • scorch)
sinuous         (winding; intricate, complex)
sip             (to drink in small quantities)
siren       n塞壬;海妖之一,用歌声诱惑海员,使船只在岛屿周围触礁沉没
skeleton     (a usually rigid supportive or protective structure of an organism)
skeptic         (a doubting or incredulous person)
skimp         (provide scantily;live very economically)
skirmish     (a minor fight in war usually incidental to larger movements)
skirt         (to avoid especially because of difficulty or fear of controversy)
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skit         (a satirical or humorous story or sketch)
slack         (not tight or taut)
slab         (a broad, flat, thick piece)
slake         (quench)    (satisfy as thirst)
slant         (to interpret or present in line with a special interest:angle)
slate         (a tablet used for writing on)
slew         (a large number)
slight         (TRIVIAL)    (SCANTY)
slight         (to treat with disdain or indifference)
slink         (to go or move stealthily or furtively)
slippery        (causing or tending to slide or fall;unstable)    (tricky)
slipshod        (careless, slovenly)
sloppy         (slovenly, careless)
sloth         (disinclination to action or labor • indolence)
slouch          n 懒惰无能的人 v 懒散
slovenly        (untidy; careless in work habits; slipshod)
sluggard        (an habitually lazy person)
sluggish        (indolent,torpid;slow to respond;markedly slow in movement, flow, or growth)
slumber         (sleep;a light sleep)
slur         (obscure;to pronounce indistinctly)
sly             (lacking in straightforwardness and candor•dissembling)
smarmy      (revealing by a smug, ingratiating, or false earnestness)
smart         (to cause or be the cause or seat of a sharp poignant pain)
smart         (neat,trim)    (stylish or elegant in dress or appearance)
smattering     (superficial piecemeal knowledge)
smirk         v.假笑,得意地笑    (to smile in an affected or smug manner • simper)
smother         vt 窒息,压抑
smug         (highly self-satisfied)
smuggle         (to import or export secretly and in violation of the law)
snare          v 诱捕 n陷井
snarl          vi n 缠结,咆哮
sneer         (to laugh with facial contortions that express scorn or contempt)
snobbish     (snobby)
snub         (to treat with contempt or neglect)
soak         (to permeate so as to wet, soften, or fill thoroughly)
sober         (abstemious; unhurried, calm; serious)
sodden         (heavy with or as if with moisture or water)
solace         (alleviation of grief or anxiety)
solder         (to unite or make whole by solder)
solemnity     (seriousness;gravity)
solicitous     (worried,concerned)
solidify    (to make solid, compact, or hard)
soliloquy     (talking to oneself ;a dramatic monologue)
solitude     (state of being alone or remote from society)
solvent         (able to pay all legal debts)
somatic         (relating to the the body; physical)
somber        (gloomy; dismal or depressing)
somnolence     (a state of drowsiness; sleepiness)
sonata         n 奏鸣曲
sonnet         n 十四行诗
soothe        (to ease or relieve)(to calm or placate)
sop             (a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture) (to wet thoroughly:soak)
sophism        (a plausible but fallacious argument)
sophistication n 诡辩;久经世故,精明
soporific    (inducing or tending to induce sleep)
sordid         (base,vile; dirty, filthy)
sound        (free from defect, decay, or damage; in good condition)
sparse         (not thickly grown or settled)
spartan         (lacking luxury and comfort;sternly disciplined)
spat         (a brief petty quarrel or angry outburst)
spate         (sudden flood; a large number or amount)
specious     (having a false look of truth or genuineness)
speck         (a very small amount:bit)
spectator     (one who looks on or watches)
spectrum     (colored band produced when a beam of light passed through a prism)
speculate     (to meditate on or ponder a subject • reflect)
spendthrift     (a person who spends improvidently or wastefully)
spent         (drained of energy or effectiveness• exhausted)
spindly         (frail or flimsy in appearance or structure)
spiny         (abounding with difficulties or annoyances•thorny)
spire         (the upper tapering part of something; pinnacle)
spleen         (feelings of anger or ill will often suppressed)
splint         (material or a device used to protect and immobilize a body part)    (a thin piece
split or broken off lengthwise;sliver)
spoke         (any of the small radiating bars inserted in the hub of a wheel to support the rim)
spontaneous     (acting or activated without apparent thought or deliberation)
spoof         (a light humorous parody)
sporadic     (occurring occasionally)
sprain         (to injure by a sudden or severe twist)
sprightly     (marked by a gay lightness and vivacity)
spur        (to incite or stimulate)
spurious     (false; forged)
spurn         (to reject with disdain or contempt•scorn)
squabble     (a noisy altercation or minor quarrel)
squalid         (marked by filthiness and degradation from neglect or poverty)
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squall         (a short-lived commotion)
squander     (to spend extravagantly or foolishly•dissipate)
squat         (marked by disproportionate shortness or thickness)
squint         (to look or peer with eyes partly closed)
squelch         (to completely suppress:quell)
stabilize     (to make stable, steadfast, or firm)
stagnant     (not flowing in a current or stream)
staid         (marked by settled sedateness and often prim self-restraint)
stalemate     (a drawn contest•deadlock)
stalk         (to pursue quarry or prey stealthily)
stalwart     (marked by outstanding strength and vigor)
stamina         (staying power, endurance)
stammer         (to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking•halt)
stanza         (a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines)
startle         (to frighten or surprise suddenly and usually not seriously)
static         (a lack of movement, animation, or progression)
stature         (as of a person) in an upright position
steadfast     (firm in belief, determination, or adherence•loyal)
stealth         (the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly)
steep         (to cover with or plunge into a liquid)
stench         (to emit a strong offensive odor•stink)
stencil         (用以刻写文字、图案的)模版 v用模版刻写
stentorian     (extremely loud)
sterile         (unproductive of vegetation)    (free from living organisms and especially
microorganisms)
stickler     (one who insists on exactness or completeness in the observance of something)
stiff         (lacking in suppleness or responsiveness)
stifle         (to withhold from circulation or expression:repress; to kill by depriving of
oxygen :suffocate)
stigma         (a mark of shame or discredit:stain)
stilted         (pompous, lofty ;formal, stiff)
stint         (to be sparing or frugal)
stingy         (not generous or liberal)
stipple       (to engrave by means of dots and flicks)
stipulate     (to lay down as a condition of an agreement; require by contract)
stitch         (a single complete movement of a threaded needle in sewing or surgical suturing)
stock         (commonly used or brought forward)
stockade     (an enclosure or pen made with posts and stakes)
stodgy         (boring, dull)    (extremely old-fashioned: HIDEBOUND)
stoke         (to poke or stir up     (as a fire):supply with fuel)
stoic         (not showing passion) n 坚忍克己的人
stolid         (expressing little or no sensibility:unemotional)
stomach      (to bear without overt reaction or resentment)
stonewall     (to refuse to comply or cooperate with)
stouthearted (having a stout heart or spirit:stubborn)
stratagem     (a cleverly contrived trick or scheme for gaining an end)
strait         (a comparatively narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water)
stratify     (to divide into classes, castes, or social strata)
stray         (separated from the group or the main body;to wander from company, restraint, or
proper limits)
strength     (degree of potency of effect or of concentration)
striate         (to mark with striations or striae)
stricture     (an adverse criticism•censure;restriction)
stride         (to move with or as if with long steps)
strident     (sound harsh, insistent, and discordant)
strike         (to form by stamping, printing, or punching)
stringent     (tight, constricted)
strip         (to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from)
strut         (to walk with a pompous and affected air)    (a structural piece designed to resist
pressure in the direction of its length)
studio         (the working place of a sculptor or photographer)
stultify     (to have a dulling or inhibiting effect on)
stupor         (a condition of greatly dulled or completely suspended sense or sensibility)
stun         (to make senseless or dizzy by :daze)
stunt         (to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of)
sturdy         (marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor)
stygian         (extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding)
stylus         (an instrument for writing, marking, or incising)
stymie         (to present an obstacle to•stand in the way of)
subdue         (to conquer and bring into subjection•vanquish;to bring under control especially
by an exertion of the will:curb;to reduce the intensity or degree of)
subject     n 臣民,受支配的人 vt使屈从于…,使隶属
subjugate     (to bring under control and governance as a subject)
sublime         (lofty, grand, or exalted in expression or manner)
subliminal     (below the threshold of conscious perception)
submerge     (to cover or overflow with water)
submissive     (submitting to others)
subordinate     (inferior)    (secondary)    (submissive to or controlled by authority)
subpoena     (a writ commanding a person designated in it to appear in court under a penalty
for failure)
subservient     (obsequiously submissive)
subside     (to let oneself settle down :sink;to sink or fall to the bottom)
subsidiary     (of secondary importance)
subsidy        (direct financial aid by government)
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substantial     (consisting of or relating to substance)    (not imaginary or illusory:real,true)    
(important, essential)
substantiate (verify)    (to give substance or form to:embody)
subterfuge     (a deceptive device or stratagem)
subvert         (to overturn or overthrow from the foundation•ruin)
succinct     (compact precise expression without wasted words)
succor         (to go to the aid of:relieve;aid, help)
suffocate     (to stop the respiration of)
suffuse         (to spread over in the manner of fluid or light•flush)
sulk         (to be sullen or morose in mood usually because of a grievance)
summary         (an abstract)    (done without delay or formality)
summit         (top, apex; especially •the highest point:peak)
summon         (to command by service of a summons to appear in court)
sumptuous     (extremely costly, rich, luxurious, or magnificent)
sunder         (to break apart or in two ;separate)
supercilious (coolly and patronizingly haughty)
superficial     (lying on the surface • external)
superfluous     (exceeding what is sufficient or necessary:extra)
superimpose     (to place or lay over or above something)
supine         (exhibiting indolent or apathetic inertia)    (lying on back)
supple         (easy and fluent without awkwardness)
supplant     (to supersede especially by force or treachery)
supplement     (something that completes or makes an addition)
supplicate     (to make a humble entreaty; to ask for earnestly and humbly)
supposition     (something that is supposed :hypothesis)
suppress     (to restrain from a usual course or action;subdue)
surcharge     (an excessive load or burden)
surfeit         (an overabundant supply:excess)
surrender     (to yield to the power)
surreptitious (doing something clandestinely)
suspend         (to cause to stop temporarily)    (hang)
suture         (to unite, close, or secure with sutures)
svelte         (slender, lithe;urbane, suave)
swagger         (to walk with an air of overbearing)
swear         (to use profane or obscene language:curse)
sweltering     (oppressively hot)
swerve         (to turn aside abruptly from a straight line or course)
swill         (to drink great drafts of:guzzle)
swindle         (to obtain money or property by fraud or deceit)
swing         (something that swings freely from or on a support)
sybarite     (voluptuary, sensualist)
sycophant     (a servile self-seeking flatterer)
syllabus     (a summary outline of a discourse, treatise, or course of study)
syllogism      n 三段论法,演绎;诡辩
symbiosis     (the living together in more or less intimate association or close union of two
dissimilar)
symmetry     (balanced proportions)
symphony     (consonance of sounds;symphony orchestra)
synchronous     (happening or arising at precisely the same time)
synergic     (working together:cooperating)
synonymous     (alike in meaning or significance)
synopsis     (a condensed statement or outline:abstract)
synthesis     (the composition or combination of parts or elements so as to form a whole)
tacit         (expressed or carried on without words or speech)
taciturn     (temperamentally disinclined to talk)
tackle         (an assemblage of ropes and pulleys arranged to gain mechanical advantage for
hoisting and pulling)
tact         (a keen sense of what to do or say in order to maintain good relations with others
or avoid offense)
tactile         (perceptible by touch:tangible)
tactless     (marked by lack of a keen sense of what to do or say in order to maintain good
relations with others or avoid offense)
tadpole         n 蝌蚪
talisman     (an object held to avert evil and bring good fortune)    (a moral defect considered
as a stain or spot)
talon         (the claw of an animal and especially of a bird of prey)
tamper         (to alter improperly)
tangent         (diverging from an original purpose of course:irrelevant)
tangible     (capable of being perceived;palpable)     (substantially real :material)
tangy         (having or suggestive of a tang)
tantalize     (to tease or torment by or as if by presenting something desirable to the view but
continually keeping it out of reach)
tantamount     (equivalent in value, significance, or effect)
tantrum         (a fit of bad temper)
taper         (progressively narrowed toward one end)
tapestry     (a heavy handwoven reversible textile used for hangings, curtains, and upholstery
and characterized by complicated pictorial designs)
tardy         (moving slowly :sluggish)
tarnish         (to dull or destroy the luster of by or as if by air, dust, or dirt)
tarpaulin     (a piece of material as durable plastic used for protecting exposed objects or areas)
tasty         (strikingly attractive or interesting)
tatty         (rather worn, frayed, or dilapidated•shabby)
taunt         (to reproach or challenge in a mocking or insulting manner•jeer at)
taut         (having no give or slack:tightly drawn)
tawdry         (cheap and gaudy in appearance or quality; ignoble)
list 32
taxing         (onerous, wearing)
taxonomist     (one who study the general principles of scientific classification)
tear         (to move or act with violence, haste, or force)
tedious         (tiresome because of length or dullness•boring)
teeter         (to move unsteadily:wobble)
teetotalism     (the principle or practice of complete abstinence from alcoholic drinks)
telling         (carrying great weight and producing a marked effect• effective, expressive)
temerity     (boldness; nerve)
temporize     (to draw out discussions or negotiations so as to gain time dominant opinion)
temperate     (marked by moderation)
tempestuous     (of, relating to, or resembling a tempest)
tenable         (capable of being held or defended;reasonable)
tenacious     (persistent in maintaining something valued or habitual)
tendentious     (marked by a tendency in favor of a particular point of view:biased)
tepid         (moderately warm, lukewarm)
terminology     (the special terms used in a business, art, science, or special subject)
terminus     (The final point; the end)
terror         (a state of intense fear)
terse         (devoid of superfluity ; also• short, brusque)
testator     (a person who dies leaving a will or testament in force)
testimony     (a solemn declaration usually made orally by a witness under oath in response to
interrogation by a lawyer or authorized public official)
testy         (easily annoyed•irritable)
tether         (to fasten or restrain by or as if by a tether)
theatrical     (marked by pretense or artificiality of emotion)
theology     (the study of religious faith, practice, and experience)
therapeutic     (of or relating to the treatment of disease or disorders by remedial agents or
methods)
thorny         (full of thorns;full of difficulties or controversial points:ticklish)
threadbare     (exhausted of interest or freshness)
throng         (to crowd together in great numbers)
thwart         (to oppose successfully:defeat the hopes or aspirations of)
ticklish     (easily offended or upset;touchy, oversensitive)
tiff         (a petty quarrel)
tightfisted     (reluctant to part with money)
timeworn     (hackneyed, stale)
timid         (lacking in courage or self-confidence)
timorous     (of a timid disposition•fearful)
tinge         (to color with a slight shade or stain•tint)
tinker         (to repair, adjust, or work with something in an unskilled or experimental
manner:fiddle)
tint         (to impart or apply a tint to • color)
tirade         (a protracted speech usually marked by intemperate, vituperative or harshly
censorious language)
toady         (one who flatters in the hope of gaining favors•sycophant)
tonic         (increasing or restoring physical or mental tone)
tong          n 钳子,堂, 帮会
tonsorial     (of or relating to a barber or the work of a barber)
topsy-turvy     (being in utter confusion or disorder)
topsoil         (surface soil usually including the organic layer)
tornado         (a violent windstorm • whirlwind)
torque         (force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion)
torpid         (lacking in energy or vigor:pathetic, dull)
torpor         (lethargy; sluggishness; dormancy)
torrid         (giving off intense heat•scorching)
torrential     (caused by or resulting from action of rapid streams)
tortuous     (marked by devious or indirect tactics • crooked, tricky)
tourniquet     (as a bandage twisted tight with a stick) to check bleeding or blood flow
tout         (to praise or publicize loudly or extravagantly)
toy             (to treat something casually or without seriousness)
tractable     (capable of being easily led, taught, or controlled•docile)
tranquility     (the quality or state free from disturbance or turmoil)
transcend     (to rise above or go beyond the limits of , to triumph over the negative or
restrictive aspects of•overcome)
transfigure     (to give a new and typically exalted or spiritual appearance to•transform outwardly
and usually for the better)
transgress     (to go beyond limits set or prescribed by•violate)
transient     (passing especially quickly into and out of existence• transitory)
transitory     (tending to pass away•not persistent)
translucent     (permitting the passage of light•clear, transparent)
transparent     (obvious)    (free from pretense or deceit)
travail         (work especially of a painful or laborious nature • toil)
traverse     (to go or travel across or over)
travesty     (a debased, distorted, or grossly inferior imitation)
treacherous     (characterized by or manifesting treachery:perfidious)
treasurer     (an officer entrusted with the receipt and disbursement of funds)
treaty         (an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation)
trenchant     (keen, incisive; sharp)
trepidation     (timorous uncertain agitation:apprehension)
trespass     (to enter unlawfully upon the land of another;err, sin;to make an unwarranted
or uninvited incursion;violate)
tribute        (a gift, payment, declaration)
list 33
trickle         (to issue or fall in drops)
trite         (hackneyed or boring from much use•not fresh or original)
trivial         (commonplace, ordinary)
troupe         (a company or group, especially of touring actors, singers, or dancers)
trophy         (something gained in victory)
truant         (shirking responsibility)
truce         (a suspension of or an agreement for suspending hostilities)
truculent     (cruel, savage)    (aggressively self-assertive)
trudge         (to walk or march steadily and usually laboriously)
trumpet         (a wind instrument consisting of a conical or cylindrical usually metal tube, a
cup-shaped mouthpiece, and a flared bell)
truncate     (to shorten by or as if by cutting off)
twig         (a small shoot)
truss           (a rigid framework, as of wooden beams or metal bars, designed to support a
structure, such as a roof)
tugboat         (a strongly built powerful boat used for towing and pushing)
tumult         (disorderly agitation or milling about of a crowd usually with uproar and confusion
of voices:commotion)
turbulent     (causing unrest, violence, or disturbance)
turgid         (excessively embellished in style or language)
turmoil         (a state or condition of extreme confusion, agitation, or commotion)
turncoat     (one who switches to an opposing side or party; specifically)
turpitude     (inherent baseness:depravity; a base act)
turquoise     (a mineral that is a blue, bluish green, or greenish gray)
turret         (an ornamental structure at an angle of a larger structure)
typo         (an error in typed or typeset material)
tyro         (a beginner in learning:novice)
ubiquitous     (being everywhere at the same time)
uncanny         (seeming to have a supernatural character or origin)
uncouth         (awkward in appearance, manner, or behavior)
unctuous     (fatty, oily)    (revealing or marked by a smug, ingratiating, and false
earnestness or spirituality)
undermine     (to weaken or ruin by degrees)
underscore     (emphasize, stress)    (line drawn  under a word or line especially for emphasis)
underdog     (a victim of injustice or persecution)
understudy     (one who is prepared to act another's part)
unexceptionable     (not open to criticism•beyond reproach)
unflappable     (marked by assurance and self-control)
ungainly     (lacking in smoothness or dexterity•clumsy)
unimpeachable (not to be called in question)
unkempt         (deficient in order or neatness)
unlettered     (lacking facility in reading and writing and ignorant of the knowledge to be gained
from books)
unpretentious (free from ostentation, elegance, or affectation)
unproductive adj 徒然的,无效的
unrequited     (not reciprocated or returned in kind)
unruly         (not readily ruled or managed;presumptuous)
untenable     (not able to be defended)
untold         (incalculable, vast)
untoward    (not favorable; unpropitious)
unwitting     (not knowing•unaware)
unwonted     (not accustomed by experience)
upbraid         (severely reproach;scold vehemently)
uphold         (to support against an opponent)
urbane         (notably polite or finished in manner•polished)
usurp         (to seize or exercise authority or possession wrongfully)
usury         (lending money at illegal high rates of interest)
utter         (pronounce, speak)    (absolute, total)
vaccinate    (to inoculate with cowpox virus to produce immunity)
vacillate     (in opinion); fluctuate; sway to and fro
vacuous         (marked by lack of ideas or intelligence•stupid, inane)
vagary         (capricious happening; caprice)
vague         (not thinking or expressing one's thoughts clearly or precisely)
valediction     (an act of bidding farewell)
valiant         (courageous;heroic)
valid         (logically correct)    (well-grounded)    (effective)
varnish         vt涂上清漆 ;掩饰;修饰
vanquish     (to defeat in a conflict or contest)
vapid         (lacking liveliness, tang, briskness, or force•flat, dull)
vaporize     (to convert as by the application of heat or by spraying into vapor)
variance     (difference, variation)
variegation     (the diversity of colors)
varnish         (to apply varnish to)
vault         (a room or compartment for the safekeeping of valuables)
vaunt         (to make a vain display of one's own worth or attainments•brag)
veer         (to change direction or course)
vehement     (intensely emotional:impassioned, fervid)
venal         (capable of being bribed; corrupt)
vendor         (one that sell especially as a hawker or peddler)
veneer         (a layer of wood of superior value or excellent grain to be glued to an inferior
wood)
venerate     (regard with reverential respect)
venial         (forgivable, pardonable)
venom         (poison of an animal)    (hatred)
veracious     (truthful, honest)
verbatim     (following the exact words•word-for-word)
verbose         (containing more words than necessary•wordy)
verdant         (green with growing plants)
list 34
verify         (to establish the truth, accuracy, or reality of)
veritable     (being in fact the thing named and not false, unreal, or imaginary)
verisimilar     (having the appearance of truth • probable)
vernacular     (the standard native language of a country or locality)
versatile     (having many uses or applications)
versed         (acquainted through experience; knowledgeable or skilled)
vertigo         (a disordered state in which the individual or the individual's surroundings seem
to whirl dizzily)
verve         (the spirit and enthusiasm animating artistic composition or performance:vivacity;
energy, vitality)
vessel         n 船只,容器,脉管
vestige         (the smallest quantity or trace)
vestigial     (small and degenerate or imperfectly developed)
veteran         (an old soldier of long service)
veto         (to refuse to admit or approve:prohibit)
vex             (to bring trouble, distress, or agitation to)
viable         (capable of living)
vicarious     (performed or suffered by one person as a substitute for another or to the benefit
or advantage of another:substitutionary)
vicious         (having the nature or quality of vice or immorality:depraved)
vicissitude     (natural change or mutation visible in nature or in human affairs)
victimize     (to subject to deception or fraud•cheat)
vigilant     (alertly watchful especially to avoid danger)
vignette     (as in a play or movie)
vigorous     (full of physical or mental strength or active force)
vilify         (to utter slanderous and abusive statements against:defame)
vim             (robust energy and enthusiasm)
vindicate     (to free from allegation or blame)
vindictive     (disposed to seek revenge:vengeful)
virtuoso     (an experimenter or investigator especially in the arts and sciences:savant)
virtuous     (morally excellent:righteous)
virulent     adj 有毒的,有害的
viscous         (having a glutinous consistency:viscid)
viscid         (having a glutinous consistency:viscous)
visionary     (incapable of being realized or achieved:utopian)
vitality     (capacity to live and develop)
vitiate         (to make faulty or defective:impair)
vitrify         (to convert into glass or a glassy substance by heat and fusion)
vitriolic     (bitterly scathing; caustic)
vituperate     (to abuse or censure severely or abusively: berate)
vivacious     (lively in temper, conduct, or spirit:sprightly)
vociferous     (marked by or given to vehement insistent outcry)
volatile     (inconstant; fickle)
volition     (an act of making a choice or decision)
voluble         (glib, fluent)    (talkative)
voluminous     (having or marked by great volume or bulk:large)
voluptuous     (given to or spent in enjoyments of luxury, pleasure, or sensual gratifications)
voracious     (excessively eager:insatiable;having a huge appetite)
votary         (enthusiast, devotee;a devout or zealous worshiper)
vouch         (to summon into court to warrant or defend a title)
vulgar         (lacking in cultivation, perception, or taste:coarse)    (open to attack or damage:
assailable)
waffle         (to talk or write foolishly:blather)
waft         (to move or go lightly on or as if on a buoyant medium)
wag             (wit, joker)
wan             (suggestive of poor health•sickly, pallid)
wanderlust     (strong longing for or impulse toward wandering)
wane         (dwindle;to fall gradually from power, prosperity, or influence)
want         (grave and extreme poverty that deprives one of the necessities of life)
wardrobe     (a room or closet where clothes are kept:clothespress)
warmonger     (one who urges or attempts to stir up war:jingo)
warp         (to twist or bend out of a plane)
warrant         (to guarantee to a person good title to and undisturbed possession of as an estate)
wary         (very cautious; watchful)
wastrel         (one who dissipates resources foolishly and self-indulgently)
watershed     (a crucial dividing point:turning point)
wax             (to increase in phase or intensity ,used chiefly of the moon, other satellites,
and inferior planets)
waylay         (to lie in wait for or attack from ambush)
welter         (a chaotic mass or jumble)
wheedle         (to influence or entice by soft words or flattery)
whet         (to make keen or more acute:excite, stimulate)
whiff         (a quick puff or slight gust especially of air, odor, gas, smoke, or spray)
whimsical     (fanciful)
wholesome     (promoting health or well-being of spirit,body or morals)
wickedness     (the quality or state of being morally very bad)
wince         (to shrink back involuntarily     (as from pain)•flinch)
windbag         (an exhaustively talkative person)
windy         (verbose, bombastic)
winnow         (to remove     (as chaff) by a current of air)
winsome         (generally pleasing and engaging often because of a  childlike charm and innocence)
list 35
wit             (mental capability and resourcefulness•ingenuity)
withdraw     (to take back or away :remove;to become socially or emotionally detached)
wither         (to become dry and sapless; especially :to shrivel from or as if from loss of bodily
                 moisture)
withhold     (to refrain from granting, giving, or allowing)
wizen         (to become dry, shrunken, and wrinkled often as a result of aging or of failing
vitality)
wobble         (to move or proceed with an irregular rocking or staggering motion or unsteadily
and clumsily from side to side; tremble, quaver)
woo             (to sue for the affection of and usually marriage with:court)
worldly         (of, relating to, or devoted to this world and its pursuits rather than to religion
or spiritual affairs)
worship         (extravagant respect to an object of esteem)
wrangler     (a ranch hand who takes care of the saddle horses)
wretched     (deeply afflicted, dejected, or distressed in body or mind)
wry             (having a bent or twisted shape or condition)    (cleverly and often ironically
or  grimly humorous)
yoke         (to join as if by a yoke)
yokel         (a naive or gullible inhabitant of a rural area or small town)
zeal         (eagerness and ardent interest in pursuit of something:fervor)
zenith         (the highest point reached in the heavens by a celestial body)
zesty         (having or characterized by keen enjoyment)
xiexindeboke   2010-03-27 23:22:39 评论:5   阅读:3611   引用:0

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