寄托蓝宝书类反大全
寄托蓝宝书 (7月20日)  机考类反单词精简版  (edited by hi2003)
List 1  abandon-----align

abandon (to give up without intent to return)
abandon•inhibition=voluble•terse  放纵•压抑=罗嗦的•简洁的(反义)
abandon•inhibition=conscious•numbness 放任•压抑=有意识的•麻木(反义)
abandon•inhibition=tranquility•agitation  放纵•压抑=冷静•激动(反义)
abandon•inhibition=despair•hope  放纵•压抑=绝望•希望(反义)
salvage ◆ abandon  救助 ◆ 放弃(to withdraw one's support or help from)

abase  (to lower in rank, prestige, or esteem)
abase•prestige=damp•ardor  降低•声望=抑制•热情 (动作及其相关对象)
abase•status=shorten•length  降低•地位=缩短•长度 (动作及其相关对象)
curtail•duration=abase•strength  缩减•持续时间=降低•力量 (动作及其相关对象)

abash  (to destroy the self-possession沉着 or self-confidence of)
unabashed•embarrassment=unheralded•announcement
不知羞耻的•局促不安=未预告的•宣告(反义)
【注:unabashed:not abashed 意思是不知羞耻的。同undisguised, unapologetic, brazen,
shameless, barefaced, blatant, brassy, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold, unblushing】
embolden ◆ abash/ faze 使大胆 ◆ 使不安/ 使狼狈

abate  (to reduce in degree or intensity)
abate•tax=alleviate•distress  减轻•税=减轻•压力(动作与其相关对象)
abate•force=fade•loudness  减轻•力量=减弱•声音(动作与其相关对象)
abate•intensity=taper•width  减轻•强度=逐渐变细•宽(动作与其相关对象)
abate•degree=discount•price  减轻•程度=减价•价格(动作与其相关对象)
intensify 强化  promote促进  augment 增加  increase in intensity  剧烈增长

abbreviate  (to make briefer)
abridge•word=abbreviate•letter
删减•词语=简化•文字(动作及其相关对象)
abbreviation•sentence=synopsis•narrative
句子缩写•句子=叙述摘要•叙述(动作及其相关对象)
abbreviation•sentence=abridgment•essay
句子缩写•句子=文章删节•文章(动作及其相关对象)
extend 扩增  protract 延长

abdicate  (to relinquish formally)
abdicate•throne=recant•belief
让位•王位=放弃信仰•信仰(动作及其相关对象)
abdicate ◆ constitute  让位 ◆ 任命
abdicate ◆ assume  放弃 ◆ 采纳
abdicate ◆ usurp  让位 ◆ 篡位

aberrant  (deviating from the usual or natural type)
aberrant•standard=digressive•topic  异常的•标准=离题的•主题
aberrant ◆ normal  异常的 ◆ 正常的

abet  (to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose)
abet•assistance=counsel•guidance  协助•帮助=顾问•指导(同义)
abet•encouragement=elucidate•clarity  协助•鼓励=阐明•清晰(行为及其结果)
【stymie;frustrate;obstruct;thwart;impede;forestall】(阻挠)

abeyance  (temporary inactivity)
abeyance ◆ continuance 暂停 ◆ 继续
abeyance ◆ fulfillment 中止 ◆ 施行

abhor  (to regard with extreme repugnance)
abhorrence•dislike=adoration•fondness 厌恶•不喜欢=崇拜•爱(程度)
abhor ◆ greatly admire 痛恨 ◆ 非常崇拜

abiding (to remain stable or fixed in a state)
evanescent;ephemeral(短暂的)
an abiding friendship 永恒的友谊

abject  (cast down in spirit)
exultant(得意洋洋的) spirited(生气勃勃地) exciting(兴奋的)

abjure  (renounce upon oath)
affirm 肯定  espouse支持  embrace支持
【注:迷惑选项insist。Insist虽然翻译成坚持,但与汉语的坚持又有不同。汉语里的坚持其实包含了
affirm和insist的两者的意思,即除了强调态度的强硬也包含一种从理性角度的支持。如:他坚持insist
要去。他坚持affirm/espouse/embrace真理。这样insist翻译成坚持的时候很容易让我们迷惑。所以
这时候查英文字典才显得很重要。】

abnegation  (renunciation;self-sacrifice)
abnegate ◆ reaffirm  放弃 ◆ 重新肯定

abolition  n. 废除,废除奴隶制
anarchist•government=abolitionist•slavery
无政府主义者反政府=废奴主义者反奴隶制
abolition ◆ persist in slavery 废除奴隶制 ◆ 坚持奴隶制

abominate  (to hate or loathe intensely)
abominate ◆ esteem  憎恶 ◆ 尊敬

aboveboard  (free from all traces of deceit or duplicity)adv. 直率地,光明磊落地
(be in a straightforward manner)
surreptitious ◆ barefaced/ aboveboard  暗中的 ◆ 公然的/ 无欺诈的
chicanery ◆ aboveboard action  欺诈 ◆ 光明磊落

abrade  (to rub or wear away especially by friction:ERODE)
abraded•friction=vaporized•heat  磨损由于摩擦=蒸发由于加热
abraded•friction=desiccated•dehydration  磨损产生于摩擦力=干燥产生于脱水
scuff•abrasion=heat•vaporization  使磨损造成磨损=加热造成汽化
lubricate•abrasion=seal•leakage  加润滑油防磨损=密封防渗漏
abrade ◆ augment  磨损 ◆ 增加

abridge v. 删减,缩短
condensed ◆ unabridged 浓缩的 ◆ 未删减的
amplify(扩大)  extend in length;protract(延长)

abrogate  (to abolish by authoritative action)
embrace支持  uphold支持  institute创立

abscission  v. 切断
abscission ◆ process of grafting  切断 ◆ 嫁接

abscond (to depart secretly and hide oneself)
abscond•leave=(steal/ pilfer)•take  潜逃•离开=偷•拿(偷偷与正常)
abscond•depart=secrete•store=lurk•wait  潜逃•离开=隐藏•储藏=埋伏•等待
plot•scheme=follow•shadow=leave•abscond  策划•阴谋=跟随•尾随=离开•潜逃

absolute  (complete;totally unlimited;certain)
absolute ◆ qualified  绝对的 ◆ 有限制的

absolve (to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt)
exculpatory•absolve=motivational•stir=hortative•encourage
辩解的•赦免=激发的•煽动=劝告的•鼓励(目的)
inculpate  治罪  indict起诉

abstain v. 主动戒绝,自我抑制
mandatory•comply=forbidden•abstain  命令的•服从=禁止的•戒除(前者要求后者)

abstemious  (restraint especially in the consumption of food)
reticent•talk=abstemious•gorge  沉默寡言的很少谈论=节制的不贪吃
abstemious•indulge=austere•decorate  节制的不纵容=简朴的不装饰
abstemious ◆ indulgent 节制的 ◆ 放纵的

abstract  vt. 1. 摘要,提炼, 抽象化 2. 心不在焉
abstract ◆ elaborate  提炼 ◆ 使复杂
abstraction ◆ attention  心不在焉 ◆ 关注

abstruse  (difficult to comprehend;recondite)
abstruse•comprehension=indiscernible•vision  深奥的•理解=看不见的•显现(难以)
accessible(可了解的)patent(明显的)
truss (支架:起到支撑,推一把的作用)

abuse  (to attack in words;revile)滥用,虐待
declamation•grandiloquence=diatribe•abuse  雄辩•夸夸其谈=恶骂•辱骂(同义)
【注:grandiloquence:a pompous style in language;declaim:to speak pompously】
polemic•disputatious=invective•abusive  好争论的•好争辩的=漫骂的•辱骂的(同义)
diatribe•abuse=burlesque•mockery  恶骂•辱骂=讽刺的嘲笑•嘲笑(同义)
to abuse a privilege  滥用特权  to abuse a horse虐待一匹马

abysmal (immeasurably low or wretched)
stygian•dark=abysmal•low  极黑的•黑=极深的•低的(程度)
【注:stygian:extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding】

accede  (to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand)
demur (反对)

accelerate  (to move faster:gain speed)
accelerate•speed=prolong•duration  加速•速度=延长•持续时间(动作及其相关对象)
expedite•process=accelerate•pace  促进•过程=加速•步调(动作及其相关对象)
retard(阻碍)

accessible  (easy to approach;obtainable)
cache•hidden=summit•inaccessible  隐藏处是隐藏的=顶点是难以达到的
abstruse ◆ accessible/ patent  深奥的 ◆ 容易理解的/ 明显的

accessory  (additional object;useful but not essential thing)
accessory ◆ of primarily importance  附属的 ◆ 主要的

accidental  (occurring unexpectedly or by chance)
inventiveness•accidental=effect•casual
创造发明•意外的=必然结果•偶然的(反面特征)
【注:effect:something that inevitably follows an antecedent 必然结果】
safeguard•accident=hedge•loss 安全装置•事故=篱笆•丢失(防止关系)
intentional•accidental=arrogant•humble  故意的•意外的=傲慢的•谦逊的(反义)
参考:incident(事件,事变)  deciduous(每年落叶的)

acclimate  (to adapt to a new climate, environment)
acclimate ◆ make unfamiliar with  使适应 ◆ 使不熟悉

accolade  (an expression of praise)
accolade ◆ cutting remark  称赞 ◆ 苛评
accolade ◆ speak ill/ derogate 称赞 ◆ 挑毛病/减损
accolade ◆ disapprobation  赞赏 ◆ 不赞成
accolade ◆ criticism  极力赞扬 ◆ 批评,评论
accolade ◆ excoriate  极力赞扬 ◆ 严厉的责难
accolade ◆ reprobate/ reproof  极力赞扬 ◆ 斥责/谴责
accolade ◆ denigration 极力赞扬 ◆ 毁誉
accolade ◆ swearword  极力赞扬 ◆ 咒骂
accolade ◆ denunciation  赞扬 ◆ 谴责
accolade ◆ castigation 称赞 ◆ 斥责

accommodate  (to provide with something desired, needed, or suited
as a helpful service, a loan, or lodgings)
obliterate•remove=accommodate•supply  删除•除去=提供方便•供给(同义)

accost  (greet, hail, salute)(to approach boldly or in a challenging
or sometimes a defensive manner)
accost•approach =importune•request  大胆靠近•接近=不断要求强求•要求
(前者是后者的特殊方式)
【注:importune:to beg, urge, or solicit persistently or troublesomely】
我们大着胆子靠近一个要钱的乞丐。

accretion  (the process of growth or enlargement by a gradual buildup)
accrete•growth=erode•destruction=inch•advance
渐增是逐渐增长=腐蚀是逐渐破坏=缓慢移动是逐渐前进
accrete ◆ wear away  渐增 ◆ 销蚀
accretion ◆ reduction in substance caused by erosion  渐增 ◆ 因腐蚀减少

accumulate  (to gather or pile up especially little by little;amass)
dissipate ◆ accumulate 消散,浪费 ◆ 积累

acerbic (acid in temper, mood, or tone)
acerbic ◆ sweet  酸的 ◆ 甜的
acerbity ◆ saccharin  酸 ◆ 糖精

achromatic  (possessing no hue)
achromatic•hue=extraneous•essence=transitory•permanence
无色的•色调=无关的•本质=短暂的•永久

acme  (the highest point or stage)
acme•mountain=crest•wave  山顶•山=浪尖•海浪 (事物及其顶点)
acme•surpass=impossible•execute  顶点无法超越=不可能的无法执行

acquiesce  (to accept tacitly or passively)
intransigent•acquiesce=deferential•offend  不妥协的•默许=恭敬的•冒犯(反面特征)
resist 抵制  defy 抗拒

acquisition  (the act of acquiring)
divestiture ◆ acquisition  剥夺 ◆ 获得
【注:divest :v. to deprive or dispossess especially of property, authority, or title】

acre  n. 英亩
ream•paper=acre•land  纸的单位•纸=亩•土地

acrid  (sharp and harsh in taste or odor)
acrid•odor=grating/ piercing•sound=•sound  刺激的•味道=刺耳的•声音
acrid•gentleness=forthright•guile  辛辣的•温和的=直率的•狡诈
stridency•sound=acridity•odor 刺耳•声音=辛辣•味道
acrid ◆ gentle 辛辣的 ◆ 温和的

acrimonious  (caustic especially in feeling, language, or manner)
acrimonious ◆ harmonious  刻薄的 ◆ 和谐悦耳的
说话刻薄的习惯使他疏远了听众。

acumen  (keenness and depth of perception)
alacrity•prompt=acumen•shrewd 敏捷•快速=敏锐•干练
acumen ◆ unable to discerning  敏锐 ◆ 不能辨别的
他在商业上的敏锐帮他在其他人失败的地方获得成功。

acute  (having a sudden onset 发作, sharp rise, and short course)
perspicacity•acute=caprice•whimsical  敏锐•敏锐的=反复无常•多变的(名形同义)
acute ◆ mild  急性的 ◆ 温和的

adage  (a saying often in metaphorical form that embodies a common observation)
【注:谚语:民间流传的简练通俗而富有意义的语句,如“急成婚,长后悔”
格言:motto maxim含有教育意义可为准则的字句,如“谦虚诗人进步”】

adamant (unshakable especially in opposite)
adamant•flexibility=refractory•control  坚固•柔软=难以操作的•可控制
impossible•execute=adamant•moved  不可能的•可操作的=顽固的•动容的
adamant•yield=cautious•gamble 固执的•屈服=谨慎的•孤注一掷
vacillatory动摇incline to yield 容易妥协的
他下了决心,坚决惩治那些贪官污吏。

adapt  (to bring into correspondence or make suitable)
adapt  修改 ◆ remain unchanged 保持不变的

addendum  (a supplement to a book)
addendum•document=postscript•letter 附录附属于文件=附言附属于信件

addict  (to devote(oneself)to something habitually or obsessively强迫性地)
disabuse•error=rehabilitate•addiction
打消错误念头•错误=使复原•上瘾,沉溺(动作与其相关对象)
inured•tolerance=addicted•dependency  习惯的容易忍受=上瘾的容易依赖

adhere  (to hold fast or stick by gluing or grasping)
adhere ◆ detach  依附 ◆ 分离
adherent ◆ forerunner  追随者 ◆ 先行者

adjourn (to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place)
convoke ◆ adjourn  召集,召开会议 ◆ 休会,中止

adjunct (something added to another thing but not essentially a part of it)
adjunct ◆ essential element  附属部分 ◆ 基本部分

ad-lib  (spoken, composed, or performed without preparation)
ad-lib•impromptu=side•divergent  即兴的•即兴的=偏向一侧的•偏离的(同义)

admission  (the act or process of admitting)
lottery•raffle=ticket•admission  彩票•抽彩售货=入场券•入场(行为动作及其凭证)

admonish  (to reprove or express warning in a gentle, earnest manner)
peccadillo•sin=admonishment•castigation  小罪•罪=告诫•苛责(一般•强烈)
admonish•denounce=punish•pillory  告诫•公开责备=惩罚•示众(一般/ 公开关系)
pretense•deceive=admonition•reprove  伪装是一种欺骗=告诫是一种责备
alibi• exculpate=warning•admonish  用托词的方式来辩解=用警告的方式来告诫
他告诫那些疯狂的足球迷们改变那种捣蛋的做法。

adore  (to regard with loving admiration and devotion)
adoration•affection=abhorrence•dislike=fascination•interest
崇拜•好感=痛恨•讨厌=强烈爱好•爱好(程度)
adulate•fawn=woo/ love•adore  阿谀•奉承=热爱•崇拜(同义)

adulate (to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly)
fulminate•criticize=adulate•flatter=scorn•reject
猛烈抨击•批评=谄媚•奉承=轻蔑嘲笑•漫待拒绝(程度)
aversion•disinclination=adulation•admiration  厌恶•没兴致=谄媚•赞赏(程度)
【注:disinclination :A lack of inclination;a mild aversion or reluctance. 不愿,缺少爱好;
比较厌恶或勉强】
scorn 咒骂  disdain 轻蔑蔑视  vituperate辱骂  disparage 贬损
adulation ◆ somber affection  热烈的赞扬 ◆ 低沉的感情

adulterate  vt. 掺杂,掺假  adj. 伪造的,掺杂的
stickler•approximation=purist•adulteration  一丝不苟的人•近似=纯粹主义者•掺杂
embellish•austere=adulterate•pure  装饰•朴素=掺杂•纯净 (消除关系)
adulterate•purity=enervate•vigor  掺杂•纯度=衰弱•活力(消除关系)
adulterate•pure=bolster/ brace•weak=dismantle•unity
掺杂•纯净=振作精神•虚弱=拆除•整体(消除关系)
demanding•satisfactory=adulterate•pristine  苛求的•满意=掺杂的•纯净 (反面特征)
tainted ◆ unadulterated  弄脏的 ◆ 没有搀杂的
adulteration ◆ purification  掺假 ◆ 净化

adumbrate  (to suggest or disclose partially)
revelation ◆ adumbration  显示,揭露 ◆ 有保留的揭示

adversary  (an opponent; an enemy)
supplicant•humility=adversary•resistance  恳求者•谦卑=对手•反抗(人物正面特征)
ally ◆ adversary  联盟 ◆ 敌手,对手

advert  (to turn the mind or attention)
advertent ◆ inattentive  留意的 ◆ 不注意的
inadvertence ◆ careful attention  疏忽 ◆ 仔细留意

advertise  (to announce publicly esp. by a printed notice or a broadcast)
advertising•commercial=publishing•journal  广告•电视或广播广告=出版•期刊(种属)

advocate  (to plead in favor of)
exponent•advocate=pollster•canvass  拥护者•拥护=民意调查家•调查
advocate ◆ denounce  主张 ◆ 谴责

aerate  (to supply or impregnate with air)
aerate•oxygen=hydrate•water  充气•氧气=使成水化合物•水
aerate ◆ remove air from  充气 ◆ 放出空气

aesthetic  n. 美学
aesthetics•beauty=epistemology•knowledge  美学•美=知识起源学•知识
gourmet•food=aesthetic•art  美食家•食物=美学•艺术

affable (characterized by ease and friendliness)
rascible易怒的  testy暴躁的

affected  (assumed artificially or falsely)
posturer•unaffected=bigot•tolerant  装腔作势的人不矫揉造作=顽固不化的人不宽容
affected ◆ natural  做作的 ◆ 自然的
affected ◆ artless  做作的 ◆ 朴实的

affection  n. 爱,情感
kiss•affection=shrug•indifference  吻表达友爱=耸肩表达冷漠
swagger•bravado=caress•affection  大摇大摆出于虚张声势=爱抚出于爱情
mercurial•mood=fickle•affection  多变的情绪=善变的感情
antipathy  厌恶

affidavit  (a sworn statement in writing made esp. under oath)
affidavit•statement=wedding•ceremony  宣誓过的书面陈述•陈述=婚礼•仪式

affiliate  (to bring or receive into close connection as a member)
affiliation ◆ dissociation  结盟 ◆ 分裂

affinity  (implies a susceptibility or predisposition on something)
aversion厌恶  repugnance厌恶  antipathy 厌恶

affluent  (having a generously sufficient material possessions)
needy  非常贫困的  impecunious贫困的

agenda  (a list or outline of things to be considered or done)
minute•agenda=log•itinerary  会议记录•议程=航海日志•行程安排
syllabus•course=agenda•meeting=itinerary•trip=program•concert
教学大纲安排课程=议程安排会议=行程表安排旅程=节目程序安排音乐会

aggrandize  (to make appear great or greater:praise highly)
disparage贬低  relegate降级  efface抹掉  undermine破坏

aggravate  (to make worse, more serious, or more severe)
console ◆ aggravate grief  抚慰,安慰 ◆ 加重悲伤
alleviate 减轻  succor援助,减轻(to go to the aid of :RELIEVE)

aggregate  (to collect or gather into a mass or whole)
disaggregate ◆ coalesce  分散 ◆ 接合
aggregate ◆ isolated units  集合体 ◆ 隔离的单位
aggregate ◆ disperse  聚集 ◆ 分散
disaggregate ◆ join together  分解 ◆ 连接,结合
disintegrate ◆ join together  瓦解 ◆ 连接,结合

list 2  aggressive ------- arachnid

aggressive  (Inclined to behave in a hostile fashion)
even-tempered  性情平和的
【注:even adj. 平的,公平的,偶数的  参考even-handed 公平的】

aggrieve  (to give pain or trouble to)
gratify 使满足

agony  (intense pain of mind or body)
painful•agonizing=important•paramount
痛苦的•极大痛苦的=重要的•最重要的(程度)
agonized•distress=obsessed•concern
痛苦的•苦恼=困扰的•忧虑(形动同义)

airtight  (impermeable to air or nearly so)
foolproof•fail=airtight•leak  极其可靠的不会出故障=密封的不会泄漏
【注:foolproof :adj. so simple or reliable as to leave no opportunity for error or failure】

alacrity  (promptness in response:cheerful readiness)
alacrity•prompt=acumen•shrewd 敏捷•快速=敏锐•干练(同义)
alacrity•apathetic=temerity•timid  渴望•缺乏感情的=卤莽蛮勇的•胆怯的(名形反义)
husbandry•dissipate=alacrity•procrastinate  节约•浪费=敏捷•延迟(反义)
alacrity ◆ hesitance and reluctance  乐意(敏捷,欣然) ◆ 犹豫和不情愿
dilatoriness  迟缓,拖延  hesitance  犹豫,踌躇

albino  (an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation)
albino•pigment=prairie•tree  白化病缺乏色素=大草原缺乏树

alchemy (medieval chemistry)
alchemy•chemistry=false drug•treatment  炼金术•化学=假药•治疗 (种属,特征"假")

alibi  (an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment)
alibi• exculpate=warning•admonish  用托词的方式来辩解=用警告的方式来告诫
alibi•exculpate=sophism•deceive  用托词的方式来辩解=用诡辩的方式来欺骗

align  (to be in precise adjustment or correct relative position)
aligned ◆ improperly adjusted  准确调整的 ◆ 调整不当的
aligned ◆ irregular  排成一行的 ◆ 不规则的
aligned ◆ askew/ awry  排成一行的 ◆ 歪斜的
aligned ◆ warped  排成一行的 ◆ 弯曲的
We must align  ourselves with the workers. 我们必须和工人们站在一起。

allay  (assuage)
(excite/ arouse/ foment)激化  increase the intensity of 加重  exacerbate恶化

allegiance  (devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause)
renegade•allegiance=apostate•faith  背信弃义者缺乏忠诚=背教者缺乏信念
pundits•authoritativeness=partisans•allegiance  博学者权威=拥护者忠诚
比较:allegation•allegiance•allergy•allege  主张/拥护/过敏/宣称

alleviate  to make(as suffering) more bearable
alleviate•strength=dampen•ardor  减轻•强度=使沮丧•热情
alleviate•intensity=console•grief  减轻•强度=安慰•悲痛
exacerbate恶化  increase intensity加强

alienate  (to make unfriendly, hostile, or indifferent)
unite 联合 reunite  重新联合

alliterate  (the repetition of initial consonant sounds)
alliterate•remove=blazon•efface  押头韵难以删除=纹章难以拭除

allowance  (a fixed or available amount)
pittance•allowance=rivulet•stream  少量•定量=小溪•溪流 (小与正常)

allude  (to make indirect reference)
intimate•communicate=allude•refer  暗中传达•传达=间接提到•提及
allude ◆  mention explicitly  暗示,暗指 ◆ 明白的提及

ally  (a sovereign or state associated with another by treaty or league)
adversary / rival  敌手

aloft  (in the air;especially:in flight)
founder ◆ stay aloft  沉没 ◆ 在空中
grounded ◆ aloft  着陆的 ◆ 在空中

aloof  (removed or distant either physically or emotionally)
politic•offend=aloof• associate  精明的难以得罪人=孤高的难以联合
gregarious ◆ aloof  爱社交的 ◆ 孤高的
这个孤高的作曲家既不担心也不关心公众的意见。

alphabetical  (arranged in the order of the letters)
dictionary•alphabetical=annals•chronological
字典按字母顺序排列=编年史按时间顺序排列

altruism  (devotion to the welfare of others)
altruist•selflessness=connoisseur•expertise
利他主义者具有无私品格=鉴赏家具有专门技术
altruism ◆ egocentric 利他主义 ◆ 利己主义 (egoism)

amalgamate  (to merge into a single body)
separate分开  isolate 隔离

ambiguous  (doubtful from obscurity)
equivocation•ambiguous=platitude•banal  模棱两可的话•含糊的=陈词滥调•陈腐的
ambiguous•understand=blatant•ignore  不明确的不容易被理解=明显的不容易被忽视
ambiguous•clarity=mendacious•truth  模棱两可•清楚=虚假的•事实
equivocation•ambiguous=oxymoron•incongruous
模棱两可•不明确的=矛盾修饰法•不调和的
watershed◆routine  重要转折点◆日常生活

amble  (to walk slowly or leisurely;stroll)
amble•walk=chat•talk=doodle •draw  漫步•步行=闲聊•谈话=乱画• 画
tint•suffuse=amble•wander  轻微着色•弥漫充满=溜达•到处溜达,漫游(程度)
amble ◆ step quickly  漫步 ◆ 快走

ambrosial  (delicious)
mellifluous•music=ambrosial•food  悦耳的音乐=美味的食物

ameliorate  (to make better or more tolerable)
ameliorate•improve=admonish•caution  改善•改进=告诫•警示(同义)
ameliorate ◆ aggravate 改善 ◆ 使恶化
damper ◆ amelioration  抑制 ◆ 改进

amenable  (responsive to advice, authority;tractable)
intransigent  不妥协的  inimical 敌意的

amenity (agreeableness)(courtesy)(convenience, facility)
amenity•comfortable=honorarium•grateful  便利设施令人舒适=谢礼用以表达感谢

amiable (being friendly, sociable, and congenial)  inimical  有敌意的

amicable  (friendly, neighborly)
asperity ◆ amicableness  粗暴◆友善
客的,即强调对外界人物的态度友好,而amiable强调本身的性格。

amorphous  (having no definite form)
amorphous•shape=errant•course=wandering•course=equivocal•meaning
无定形的•形状=路线不定的•路线=漫游的•路线=模棱两可的•意义

amulet  (an object worn as a charm符咒 against evil or injury)
amulet•evil=helmet•injury  护身符防邪恶=头盔防伤害

anaerobic  (living in the absence of free oxygen)
anaerobic ◆ living in oxygen  无氧能活的 ◆ 生活在氧气里的
anaerobic ◆ require oxygen  无氧能活的 ◆ 需要氧气的

analgesic  (insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness)
analgesic•pain=anesthetic•sensation=simplify•complexity
止痛剂•疼痛=麻醉剂•感觉=简单化•复杂性(消除关系)
pain•analgesic=sensation•anesthetic=symptom•palliative
疼痛•止痛剂=感觉•麻醉剂=症状•缓和的(消除关系)
tonic•invigorate=analgesic•deaden  补药•使健壮=止痛剂•使麻木(药品及其作用)
soporific•alertment=analgesic•pain  安眠药•警醒=止痛药•疼痛 (药物及其消除对象)

anarchist  (one who rebels against any authority or established order)
anarchist•rebel=apologist•defend  无政府主义者•谋反=辩护者•辩护(人物典型特征)
anarchy ◆ order  无政府状态,混乱 ◆ 次序,规则

anathema  (one that is cursed by ecclesiastical authority)
anathema•curse=theocracy•state  神的诅咒•诅咒=神权国家•国家
panegyric ◆ anathema  赞扬 ◆ 诅咒

ancillary  (SUBORDINATE, SUBSIDIARY)
ancillary◆paramount  辅助的,次要的◆最主要的

anecdote  (a usually short narrative of an interesting incident)
anecdote•amusement=lecture•instruction  轶闻•娱乐=演讲•教导
skit•play=anecdote•narrative  滑稽短剧•戏剧=趣闻•叙事(双重对应:短且有趣)
【注:skit (a brief burlesque) anecdote (a short interesting narrative)】

anemic  (lacking force, vitality, or spirit)
anemic◆strong/ hale  贫血的◆强壮的/ 健康的

anesthetic  (lacking awareness or sensitivity)
analgesic•pain=anesthetic•sensation  止痛剂•疼痛=麻醉剂•感觉
aseptic•disinfections=anesthetic•numbs  防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木
pain•analgesic=sensation•anesthetic  疼痛•止痛剂=感觉•麻醉剂
aseptic•disinfections=anesthetic•numbs  防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木
sensation ◆ anesthesia 感觉 ◆ 麻醉

anhydrous  (free from water)
anhydrous◆wet  无水的◆潮湿的

animate n. 活的,有生气的  v. 鼓励
lassitude◆vim/ animation  疲倦,疲乏◆精力/ 生气

animus  (hostile feeling or intent)
animus ◆ friendliness  敌意 ◆ 友好

annals  (a record of events arranged in yearly sequence)
dictionary•alphabetical=annals•chronological
字典•依字母顺序的=年鉴•按年代顺序的(事物及其编排方式)

annoy  (to disturb especially by repeated acts)
testy•annoy=tractable•control 易怒的•惹恼=易于管教的•控制,管理(容易被)
patronizing•condescending=peeved•annoyed
使领情的•使领情的=气恼的•恼怒的(同义)

annul  (to declare or make legally invalid or void)
annul ◆ make legal  宣告无效 ◆ 使合法
annul ◆ reaffirm  宣告无效 ◆ 重新确认

anomalous  (abnormal;irregular)
anomaly•paradigmatic=blemish•flawless 异常的人•模范的=缺点•无缺点的
anomalous ◆ typical/ conformity to norms  反常的 ◆ 典型的/ 符合规范的

anonymous  (not named or identified)
anonymous•identify=nonchalant•excite  匿名的•识别=冷淡的•使兴奋

antagonize  (to incur or provoke the hostility of)
cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize  懦弱•胁迫=愤怒•使敌对
antagonize ◆ placate/ mollify/ propitiate  引起敌意 ◆ 抚慰,消除敌意
synergic ◆ antagonistic  协作的,合作的 ◆ 敌对的

antediluvian  (antiquated;ancient)
antediluvian•age=colossal•size  古老的•年代=巨大的•尺寸

anterior  (coming before in time or development)
anterior ◆ ensuing  前面的 ◆ 后来的

anthology  (a collection of selected literary works of art)
compendium•summary=anthology•collection  概略•概要=文选•文集(同义)
参考:anthomania 花痴 legion 军团,众多,大批

antic  adj 古怪的, 滑稽可笑的(characterized by clownish absurdity)
facetious•speech=antic•behavior  爱开玩笑的•谈话=滑稽的•行为(修饰关系)

antidote  (a remedy to counteract the effects of poison)
antidote•poisoning=balm•irritation  解毒剂•中毒=药膏•刺激
remedy•disease=antidote•poisoning  治疗法•疾病=解毒剂•中毒

apathy  (lack of feeling or emotion)
ennui•enthusiastic=fervor•apathetic  倦怠•热心的=热情•缺乏感情的
vehement ◆ apathetic  激烈的 ◆ 缺乏感情的

aphorism  (pithy maxim)
brevity•aphorism=distortion•caricature  简短•格言=曲解•漫画(正面特征)
euphemism•offensive=aphorism•diffusive  委婉语•令人不快的=格言•冗长的(反面特征)
pithiness•aphorism=exaggeration•caricature  简洁•警语=夸张•漫画(正面特征)

apiary  n. 养蜂场, 蜂房
apiary•bee=cage•pet  蜂房•蜜蜂=笼子•宠物

apocalyptic  (prophetic)
apocalyptic•prophetic=inconsequential•illogical
启示录的•预言的=不符合逻辑的•不符合逻辑的 (同义)
apocalyptic ◆ inconsequential  天启的 ◆ 不重要的

apocryphal  (untrue;made up)
apocryphal ◆ authentic 假冒的 ◆ 可信的
彼得格勒饿死人的杜撰谣言迅速地在俄军阵营流传开来

apophasis  n. 表面上否认实际要说的话
例如:I will not bring up my opponent's questionable financial dealings.
我不想提我的对手令人怀疑的财政问题。(表面不想提,实际就是要说的话)
apophasis•claim=oxymoron•paradox  婉转表述•表述=用词矛盾•矛盾
【注:oxymoron :a combination of contradictory words 例如:cruel kindness 残酷的温柔】

apoplectic  (greatly agitated)
apoplectic•angry=emaciated•thin  狂怒的•发怒=消瘦的•瘦(程度)
apoplectic•calmness=callow•mature  狂怒的•平静的=幼稚•成熟(反义)
apoplectic ◆ calm  易怒的 ◆ 冷静的

apostasy  (renunciation of a religious faith)
apostasy•faith=recantation•heresy  变节不再忠实=放弃(异端)论调不再异端
apostasy ◆ fidelity  变节 ◆ 忠诚

apostrophe  (')(表示省略或所有格,如 I'M)
apostrophes•word=ellipsis•sentence  撇号•单词=省略号•句子

apothecary  (one who prepares and sells drugs)
apothecary•medicine=butcher•meat  药剂师配药出售=屠夫屠宰肉食出售

appall  (to overcome with consternation)
embolden使大胆  nerve 鼓起勇气  encourage激励

apparel (clothing, especially outer garments; attire)
gaudy•apparel=grandiloquent•speak  俗丽的•装饰=浮夸的•说话
tonsorial•hair=sartorial•apparel  理发师的•头发=裁缝匠的•服装

appeal  (to make an earnest request)
remonstrator•dissuade=applicant•appeal
提出异议的人•劝阻=申请者•请求 (人物特征动作)

appealing  (having appeal•PLEASING)
noisome◆appealing  令人不快的◆引起兴趣的

appellation  (A name, title, or designation)
foreword•introductory=appellation•designate  前言•介绍性的=命名•命名的

applause  (approval publicly expressed)
mirth•laughter=approval•applause  欢乐•笑=赞成•鼓掌(后者表达前者)

apposite  (highly pertinent or appropriate:APT)
apposite ◆ extraneous  合适的 ◆ 无关的

appreciable  (capable of being perceived or measured)
appreciable ◆ imperceptible  可感知的 ◆ 不能感知的
ponderable ◆ inappreciable  有价值的 ◆ 微不足道的

apprehension  (suspicion or fear especially of future evil),逮捕
apprehension•terror=affection•adoration  忧惧•恐怖=好感•崇拜(程度)

apprise (inform)
apprise•information=admonish•warning  通知传达信息=告诫表达警告
apprise ◆ withhold information 通知 ◆ 保留信息

approbation  (warmly commending acceptance or agreement)
praise•approbation=demur•objection  称赞•嘉许=提出异议•反对(同义)
censure•blameless=approbation•reprehensible  指责•无可责难的=嘉许•应谴责的
execration  咒骂

appropriate  n. 围裙
dropclothing•floor=apron•clothing  地板罩单•地板=围裙•衣服(双重对应:覆盖+保护)

apropos (with reference to;regarding)
apropos ◆ irrelevant  相关的◆不切题的

apt  (unusually fitted or qualified)
apt ◆ extremely inappropriate  适当的 ◆ 非常不适当的
apt ◆ unlikely 适当的 ◆ 不可能的
aptness ◆ unsuitability  恰当 ◆ 不适合

aquatic (growing or living in water)
aerial•air=aquatic•water=arboreal•tree  空气中生活的•空气=水栖的•水=树栖的:树

aqueduct  (a conduit for water)
aqueduct•water=pipeline•gas=vessel•blood导水管•水=导气管•气体=脉管•血

aquifer (a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock)
shale•lode=well•aquifer  页岩•矿脉=水源•蓄水层(发源地)
【注:well :an issue of water from the earth:a pool fed by a spring】

arachnid  (including the spiders,scorpions, mites)
spider•arachnid=orange•fruit  蜘蛛•节肢动物=橘子•水果 (种属)

list 3  arbor----- balloon

arbor  n. 树阴,凉亭
arbor•shelter=hedgerow•fence  树荫•掩蔽处=灌木篱墙•围墙(种属)

arboreal  (of a tree)(inhabiting trees)
arboreal•trees=sidereal•stars 树的•树=星的•星星  (形名同义)
aquatic•water=arboreal•tree  水栖的•水=树栖的•树

archaic (antiquated)
evanescent•permanence=archaic•currency  转瞬即逝的•永久=古老的•流行
meteoric•constancy=archaic•currency  昙花一现的•恒久不变=古老的•流行
archaic◆current  古老的◆流行的
archaism◆modern diction  古语◆新语

archetype  (prototype;primitive pattern)(paradigm ;model)
harbinger•presage=archetype•exemplify 预兆•预告=范例•例示
【注:harbinger a:one that pioneers in or initiates a major change:PRECURSOR 先驱
b:one that presages or foreshadows what is to come 预兆】

archipelago  (group of closely located islands)
grove•trees=archipelago•islands  小树林•树木=群岛•岛屿(组成关系)
galaxy•stars=archipelago•islands  星系•恒星=群岛•岛屿(组成关系)
island•archipelago=fish•school=people •crowd

archive (place where public records are kept)
archive•manuscript=arsenal•weapon  档案室•手稿=军械库•兵器
archive•records=museum•artifacts  档案室•记录=博物馆•史前古器物

ardor  (heat;passion;zeal)
assuage•sorrow=dampen•ardor  缓和•悲伤=使沮丧•热情(前者消减后者)
torpor ◆ ardor 不活泼 ◆ 热情

arduous (hard to accomplish or achieve)
arduous ◆ facile  费劲的 ◆ 易做到的

argot  (secret vocabulary peculiar to a particular group)
argot ◆ standard language/ common verbalism  隐语,暗语 ◆ 规则地语言/ 普通地言语

aria  (a solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment, as in an opera)
opera•aria=play•monologue  歌剧•独唱曲=戏剧•独白(双重对应)
biography•nonfiction=aria•opera自传•非小说散文=咏叹调•歌剧
【注:本题也有双重对应的意味 独自+种属】

arid  (excessively dry)
marsh•sodden=desert•arid  沼泽•湿透的=沙漠•干燥的
arid◆damp  干燥的◆潮湿的

arrest  (check)(to make inactive)逮捕
arrest◆vitalize  使不活跃◆使有生气

arresting  (conspicuous;salient)
blatant•arresting=odious•disgusting  炫耀的•引人注意的=可厌的•令人厌恶的
arresting ◆ banal  引人注目的 ◆ 陈腐老套的

arrhythmic  (lacking rhythm or regularity)
arrhythmic•regularity=apathetic•concern  规则的•规则=无动于衷的•关注(形动反义)
arrhythmic ◆ regular  不规则的 ◆ 规则的

arrogance  (pride, haughtiness)
mean•prodigality=meek•arrogance  吝啬的•慷慨=谦恭的•自大
confidence•arrogant=inquiry•interrogatory  自信•傲慢的=询问•质问的(程度)
intentional•accidental=arrogant•humble  故意的•意外的=傲慢的•谦逊的
arrogance•defer=lassitude•stir  傲慢难服从=疲倦难激起
【注:defer:to submit to another's wishes usually through deference or respect】

arroyo  (a brook;a creek ;a water-carved gully or channel)
grotto•cavern=arroyo•channel  小洞穴•巨洞=小河•海峡(小与大)

arsenal n. 兵工厂,军械库
archive•manuscript=arsenal•weapon  档案室•手稿=军械库•兵器

artery  (a major route of transportation into which local routes flow)
artery•plaque=channel•silt  动脉•血小板=河道•淤泥(后者阻塞前者)

articulate  vt. 清晰说话 adj.发音清晰的
ratiocination•thinking=articulation•talking  推理•思考=清晰说话•说话
articulate•clearly=shout•loudly  清晰说话•清晰地=呼喊•大声地
articulate•speech=graceful•movement  发音清晰的•说话=动作优美的•动作
articulate•unclear=elaborate•sketchy  发音清晰的•不清晰的=详尽的•概要的
articulation 关节

artifacts  (products of primitive culture)
archive•records=museum•artifacts  档案室•记录=博物馆•史前古器物
【注:古代西方的艺术是与自然相对的概念。艺术的东西即人工的,非自然的】

artifice  (false or insincere behavior)
artifice ◆ candor  诡计 ◆ 坦白

artless (free from guile or craft:sincerely simple)
blemish•impeccable=guile•artless  污点•无瑕疵的=狡猾•率直的
artlessness•guile=dabbler•dedication  天真者无诡计=涉猎者不投入
【注:dedication:self-sacrificing devotion 有自我牺牲精神的投入】
artlessness ◆ duplicity  朴实 ◆ 口是心非
【注:duplicity:the belying of one's true intentions by deceptive words or action 】
cunning;guileful;sly狡猾的  disingenuous虚伪的  affected做作的
artlessness ◆ objectivity  天真浪漫 ◆ 客观现实

ascendant  (同ascendent)
ascendant ◆ having no influence/ power 占优势的 ◆ 没有影响力的
ascendant ◆ nonentity  优势 ◆ 无足轻重
ascendent ◆ declining  上升的 ◆ 衰退中的

ascetic (austere in appearance, manner, or attitude)
glutton•overindulgence=ascetic•self-denial  暴食者•放纵=苦行者•克己
ascetic•self-denial=busybody•intrusive  苦行者•克己=好管闲事的人•打扰的
【注:busybody:an officious or inquisitive person】
ascetic•luxury=teetotaler•alcohol  苦行者•奢侈=禁酒者•酒(前者反对后者)
sumptuous 奢侈的  sybarite;voluptuary 酒色之徒  hedonist 享乐主义者

aseptic (preventing infection)
aseptic•disinfections=anesthetic•numbs  防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木
aseptic◆contaminated  无菌的◆感染的

askew  (out of line:awry)
aligned◆askew  一行的◆歪斜的

aspect  (appearance to the eye or mind)
transfigure•aspect=transfer•location  使变形•样子=转移•位置

asperity  (sharpness of temper)
mildness of temper 脾气温和  soothingness安抚  amiability 和蔼可亲

aspersion  (slanderous remark)
glowing tribute 厚礼  flattery 谄媚
【注:tribute :a gift or service showing respect, gratitude, or affection】

aspirant  (seeker after position or status)
aspirant•quarry=hunter•prey  有抱负者•目标=狩猎者•猎物(前追求后)

assay  n/v. 化验,检验,评价
encyclopedia•compendious=abstract•concise
=百科全书•扼要的=摘要•简短的(事物典型特征)
【注:assay•objective化验•客观的为干扰选项,化验的本质属性并非客观,有些人为因素会造成
主观,比如化验方法的选择等】

assert  (state strongly ,demand recognition of rights)
calumny•assertion=perjury•testimony  诽谤•断言=伪证•证言(伪与正常)
assert•belabor=tend•fuss  断言•冗长的讨论=关心•过分关心(正常与过分)
【注:fuss :a show of flattering attention 例made a big fuss over his favorite niece】

assertive  adj. 过分自信的,有进取心的
obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive  谄媚的•卑屈的=好战的•有进取心的
【注:卑屈过头表现为谄媚,自信过头表现为好战】
brassy ◆ unassertive  厚脸皮的 ◆ 谦逊的
【注:unassertive :not assertive:MODEST, SHY】

assess  (to determine the importance, size, or value of)
assess•value=plumb•depth  评价•价值=测水深•深度(动作与其相关对象)

assiduous  (diligent)
rakish• restraint=slothful•assiduity  放荡的•抑制=偷懒的•勤勉 (反面特征)
remiss 玩忽职守的  desultory 散漫的  slipshod 草率的

assuage (ease;lessen pain)
gall 使生气  inflame 激怒  intensify 加强  exacerbate 恶化 incite煽动

assume  (receive)(undertake)
abdicate ◆ assume  放弃 ◆ 接受
assume ◆ refuse/ reject  接受 ◆ 拒绝
usurp ◆ assume rightfully  篡权 ◆ 正当的就职

astounding  (causing astonishment or amazement)
indelible•forget=astounding•expect  难忘的•忘记=出乎意料的•预期(难以)
astound•wonder=appall•horror  使吃惊•奇迹=使惊骇•恐怖(前果后因)

astringent  n. 收敛剂  adj. 收敛的
astringent•pucker=coagulant•congeal  收敛剂•收缩=凝结剂•凝结
astringent•contraction=anesthetic•insensibility  收敛剂•收缩=麻醉剂•无知觉
astringent•pucker=spark•ignition  收敛剂•收缩=火花•点火

astrology  n. 占星术
astrology•astronomy=alchemy•chemistry 占星术•天文学=炼金术•化学(伪与正常)

astute  (having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity)
fatuous ◆ astute  愚笨的 ◆ 机敏的

asunder v. 分离
asunder ◆ in a piece  分离 ◆ 一整片

asymmetrical  (not of equal size or similar shape)
circular•asymmetrical=protean•rigid  圆形的•不对称的=变化多端的•僵硬死板的

asylum  (place of refuge or shelter;protection)
refugee•asylum 难民•避难所

atone  (make amends for;pay for, expiate)
guilt•atonement=fatigue•repose  罪行•赎罪=疲劳•休息(消除关系)

atrocious  (extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel)
atrocious•bad=momentous•important  极恶的•恶的=极重要的•重要的(程度)

atrophy (wasting away)
小儿麻痹症患者需要物理疗法防止病肢萎缩。

attenuate  (to lessen the amount,magnitude, or value of)
attenuate•force=decelerate•speed=collapse•volume
减弱•力量=减速•速度=倒塌,崩溃•体积
attenuate•thickness=enervate•vitality=cool•temperature=bluntness•sharpness
使变稀薄•浓度=使虚弱•活力=冷却:温度=钝化:锐利
attenuate•force=simplify•complexity=debase•value=retrenchment•money
减弱•力量=简化•复杂=降低价值•价值=削减•开支

audacious  (intrepidly daring)
audacious•trepidation=laconic•volubility  大胆的•恐惧=说话简洁的•口若悬河(反义)
audacious•caution=inedible•food  卤莽的•谨慎=不能食用的•食物(反面特征)
circumspect 小心的  timid 胆小的

audition  (a trial performance to appraise an entertainer's merits)
interview•applicant=audition•actor  面试:申请者=试听:演员

augur  (to make predictions from signs or omens)
intercessor•mediate=translator•interpret=augur•predict
仲裁者•调解=翻译•解释=占卜者•预言
maven•experience=luminary•eminence=pundit•opine
专家•经验=权威者•显赫=博学者•发表意见
worship•sacrifice=prediction•augury
尊崇•献祭=预言•占卜 【注:通过献祭表达尊崇;通过占卜进行预言】

auspicious  (affording a favorable auspice)
boding ill 不吉祥的 untoward 不幸的 unfavorable 不顺利的 ominous不吉利的

austere (markedly simple or unadorned)
abstemious•indulge=austere•decorate  有节制的•放纵=简朴的•修饰
laconic•speech=austere•design 简洁的•演讲=朴素的•设计
imperial•significant=spartan•austere  至尊的:重要的=简朴的:简朴的(同义)
baroque 结构复杂的  lavish 浪费的

authentic  (not false or imitation: real, actual)
genuine•authenticity=entire•integrity 真实的•真实性=完整•完整
discompose•pacific=fabricate•authentic  使不安•平静的=伪造•真实的
authenticity•fraudulent◆sincerity•hypocritical  真实•欺诈的◆真诚•伪善的
spuriousness◆authenticity  伪造,欺骗◆真实
semblance◆authentic article  伪装◆真实的物品
authentic◆bogus  真实的◆伪造的

authority  (power to influence thought, opinion, or behavior)
authoritative•acceptance=conspicuous•attention
权威的•接受=出众的•注意力(易于)
authoritativeness•pundits=allegiance•partisans
权威性•博学者=忠诚•教徒(人物典型特征)
impostor•identity=usurper•authorization
冒名顶替者•身份=篡位者•权利 (前追求者)
contumacious•authority==conservative•novelty
不听命令的•权威=保守的•新颖(前者否定后者)
recalcitrant•authority=reactionary•change
顽抗的•权威=保守的•改变(前者否定后者)

autocracy  (government in which a person possesses unlimited power)
pundit•knowledge=autocracy•power
博学者•知识=独裁者•权利(前者拥有无限的后者)

autonomy  (the quality or state of being self-governing)
autonomy◆dependence  自治◆独立

avarice (excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain)
avarice•money=gluttony•food  贪婪•钱=贪吃•食物(动作及其相关对象)
stoic•perturb=avaricious•satisfy  冷静的难扰乱=贪婪的难满足
avarice◆generosity  贪婪◆慷慨
contented◆avaricious  满足的◆贪婪的

aver  (to declare positively)(to verify to be true in pleading a cause)
aver◆deny  证明◆否认

aversion  (firm dislike)
aversion•disinclination=adulation•admiration  厌恶•不喜欢=奉承•称赞(褒贬程度)
propensity/ penchant/ inclination/ proclivity 偏好,喜欢  affinity 喜好  court 献殷勤

avid  (characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit)
reverence•respect=avidity•enthusiasm  敬礼•尊敬=渴望•热心(程度类比)
avid◆indifferent  热切的◆冷谈的,漠然的

avulse  (to separate by avulsion)
link 连接  suture 缝合

awash  (covered with water)
awash ◆ dry  浸满水的◆干燥的

awe  (an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder)
redoubtable•regard/ awe=despicable•scorn  令人敬畏的•敬畏=可鄙的•鄙视 (因果)
awe ◆ Irreverence  敬畏◆不尊敬

awkward (lacking dexterity or skill)
craven•admirable=deft•awkward 怯懦的•令人钦佩的=灵巧的•笨拙的(反义关系)
svelte ◆ paunchy and awkward  苗条的,瘦的◆大腹便便且笨拙的
dexterous 灵巧的  lithe 优雅的

awl  (a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes)
awl•pierce=pestle•hash  尖钻•刺穿(洞察)=杵•捣成糊状 (后者是前者的功能)

awning  (a rooflike structure that serves as a shelter)
awning•sun=umbrella•rain  遮阳蓬•太阳=雨伞•雨

awry  (deviating from a straight line or direction)
orderly 有序的  aligned 成一行的

axiomatic  (self-evident truth requiring no proof)
controversial  争议性的

babble  (to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds)
babble•sense=parrot•originality  胡说八道•理性=鹦鹉学舌•创新(前缺乏后)
babble•talk=scribble•write  胡说八道•说=乱涂乱画•写
babble/ waffle ◆ express succinctly  闲聊,胡扯 ◆ 简洁地表达

backhanded  (indirect,devious;especially•sarcastic)
backhanded ◆ forthright  间接的 ◆ 直接的

bacteria  n. 细菌,培养基
bacteria•decomposition=yeast•fermentation  细菌造成腐烂=酵母造成发酵
bacterium•colony=citizen•nation  细菌•菌群=居民•国家(种属)
host•parasite=medium•bacterium  寄主•寄生虫=细菌培养基•细菌

badge  (a device of membership in a society)(a characteristic mark)
chevron•badge=caisson•cart  v型袖章•徽章=载炮车•大车 (种属)
【注:chevron:a sleeve badge that usually consists of one or more v-shaped stripes
caisson:a usually 2-wheeled vehicle for artillery ammunition】

badger  (to harass or annoy persistently)
badger•bother=belabor•mention 不断纠缠•使烦恼=□唆的提示•提示(重复和正常)

badinage  (playful repartee:banter)
badinage ◆ serious discourse  打趣 ◆ 严肃的谈话
badinage ◆ sincere conversation  打趣 ◆ 严肃的交谈
badinage ◆ clear reference  揶揄 ◆ 清晰的指出

bait  (to persist in tormenting or harassing another;badger)
disarm 抚慰,使消除敌意 mollify 抚慰  fortify 使坚强
他们经常用取笑他低下出身的方式折磨他。

balance n. 天平,秤  v. 平衡,权衡
abacus•calculated=balance•weighted  算盘•计算=称•称量(工具及其作用)

bale  (great evil)(woe,sorrow)
bale ◆ mirth  悲哀 ◆ 高兴

baleful (deadly or pernicious in influence)
baleful•menace=solicitous•concern  邪恶的•邪恶=关切的•关心(形名同义)
baleful ◆ beneficent  邪恶的 ◆ 仁慈的

balk  (block)(refuse to proceed)
balk ◆ move ahead willingly  不肯前行 ◆ 欣然前行

balky  (refusing to proceed;restive, wrongheaded)
balky ◆ tractable  倔强的 ◆ 温顺的
balky ◆ acquiesce  不听话的 ◆ 默许

ballad  (a simple song)(a popular slow sentimental song)
ballad•song=lyric•poem=comedian•actor  民谣•歌曲=抒情诗•诗歌=喜剧演员•演员
ballad•stanza=novel•chapter  民谣•诗节=小说•章节(组成)

ballast n. 压舱物
ballast•stability=truss/ girder•support=support  压舱物•稳定=托架/ 大梁•支撑
ballast•instability=purchase•slippage 压舱物•不稳=支点•滑动(前者防止后者)

ballet  n. 芭蕾舞
instrumentalist•symphony=dancer•ballet  演奏家•交响乐=舞蹈家•芭蕾舞

balloon (to swell or puff out)(to increase rapidly)
balloon ◆ decrease slowly  迅速增加 ◆ 缓慢减少

list 4  balm-------- byzantine

balm  (an aromatic preparation)(a soothing restorative agency)
antidote•poisoning=balm•irritation  解毒•毒=安慰剂•刺激(前者消除后者)
balm ◆ piquant/ irritant  香膏 ◆ 辛辣物/ 刺激物 
balmy ◆ inclement  温和的 ◆ 严酷的
balmy ◆ piquant  芬芳的 ◆ 辛辣的
【注:balmy温和的(mild);芬芳的(fragrant)】

banal  (lacking originality, freshness, or novelty•trite)
banal ◆ novel/ arresting  陈腐的 ◆ 有新意的/ 引人注意的
banality ◆ freshness  陈腐 ◆ 新鲜
banality ◆ original/ original expression  陈腐 ◆ 原创

bane  (cause of ruin)
bane ◆ blessing  祸根 ◆ 福根
【注:blessing福根(a thing conducive to happiness or welfare)】
bane ◆ benefit 祸根 ◆ 益处
salubrious ◆ baneful  有益健康的 ◆ 非常有害的
【注:baneful 非常有害的(seriously harmful)】

banish  (exile;to drive away;expel)
evict•residence=banish•country  逐出•住宅=驱逐出•国家

banister  (a handrail with its supporting posts)
staircase•banister=garden•fence  楼梯•扶栏=花园•围墙

banquet (a sumptuous feast)
writer/ author•novel=chef•banquet  作家•小说=厨师•盛宴 (职业及其工作对象)

banter  (to speak to or address in a witty and teasing manner)
playful•banter=exaggerated•hyperbole  玩笑的•玩笑=夸张的•夸张(形名同义)
同学们对老师用风趣的方式讲解他们的错误很感兴趣。

barb  (a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment)
barb•caustic=pan•harsh  尖锐批评•尖刻的=严厉批评•严厉的

barbarous  (mercilessly harsh or cruel)
quiescent 安静的  civilized 文明的

barefaced  (open, unconcealed)
barefaced/ aboveboard ◆ surreptitious  公然的/ 光明正大的◆暗中的

bargain (to negotiate over the terms of a purchase)
debate•issue=bargain•price  争论•议题=讨价还价•价钱

baroque (highly ornate)
baroque◆austere  过分修饰的◆简朴的

barrage (a vigorous projection of many things at once)
barrage•explosives=deluge•rain  枪弹齐发•爆炸物=豪雨•雨

barren  (lacking vegetation)
barren◆prolific  不育的◆大量繁殖的

barricade  (to block off with a barricade)
barricade◆permit passage  阻碍◆允许通过

barter  (to trade by exchanging one commodity for another)
jog•exercise=barter•trade  慢跑•运动=以物易物•交易
correspond•letters=barter•commodities 通信•信=以物易物•商品

base  (lacking of higher qualities of mind or spirit)

baseboard  (a molding covering the joint of a wall)
veneer•furniture=baseboard•wall  木片•家具=护壁板•墙

bathetic  (exceptional commonplaceness)
offbeat◆bathetic  离奇的◆平庸的

bawdy  (indecent,lewd)
bawdy◆decorous 猥亵的◆有品位的

bedeck  (to clothe with finery)
bedeck◆strip  装饰◆剥去 

belabor (to explain or insist on excessively)
assert•belabor=tend•fuss  断言•冗长的讨论=关心•过分关心 (正常与过分)

beleaguer  (trouble,harass)围攻
beleaguer ◆ delight  使烦恼◆使愉悦 

belie  (something) to be false or wrong
belie◆affirm/ confirm/ show to be correct  证明为假◆确认/ 证明为真

bellicose  (inclined to start quarrels or wars)
imperious•servile=bellicose•peaceable 傲慢的•卑屈的=好战的•和平的
bellicose◆appeasing 和平的/  inclined to make pease 和平的/  conciliatory 调和的

belligerence  (an aggressive attitude)
obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive  谄媚的•卑曲的=好战的•攻击性的
belligerent◆peaceful  好战的◆爱好和平的
belligerent◆conciliatory  好战的◆调和的

bellwether  (one that serves as a leader)
bellwether•leadership=advisor•consultant  领导者•领导阶层=顾问•顾问

bend  (to make submissive•subdue,compromise)
bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant  弯曲•刚硬=下沉•浮起(反义)

benediction  (the invocation of a blessing)
curse◆benediction  诅咒,咒语◆祝福

beneficent  (doing or producing good)
beneficent•harm=tenacious•yield  有利的•伤害=顽固的•屈服
philanthropist•beneficence=comedian•humor  慈善家•仁慈=喜剧演员•幽默
noxious◆beneficial  有害的◆有益的
toxic◆beneficial  有毒的◆有益的

benign  (showing kindness and gentleness)
benignant◆vicious  仁慈的◆恶毒的

bent  (a strong inclination or interest•BIAS)
bent◆ineptitude  倾向◆不称职

bequest (something bequeathed•legacy)
heirloom•ancestor=bequest•testator  传家宝•祖先=遗产•立遗嘱的人

berate  (to scold or condemn vehemently and at length)
commend/ praise 称赞

beseech (to request earnestly•implore)
supplicant•beseeching=coquette•flirtatious  恳求者•恳求=轻浮的人•轻浮的

besmirch  (sully,soil)
besmirch◆honor 诽谤◆尊敬

bibliography  (a list of the works)
list•bibliography=painting•portrait  目录•书目=画•肖象画(种属)

bibliophile  (a lover of books)
bibliophile•books=gourmet•food  藏书家•书籍=美食家•食物

bifurcate  (to cause to divide into two branches or parts)
bifurcate◆validate/ coalesce  使分离◆使坚固/ 接合

bigot  (a person obstinately devoted to his own opinions)
bigot•tolerance=turncoat•constancy  顽固者•容忍=背叛者•一致性(前缺乏后)
bigot•tolerance=liar•honesty  顽固者•容忍=说谎者•诚实(前缺乏后)
bigot•dedication=rage•anger  盲信者•奉献=狂怒者•愤怒(程度)
bigoted•advice=conservative•change  顽固的•忠告=保守的•变迁(前者拒绝后者)
posturer•unaffected=bigot•tolerant  装模作样者•不矫饰的=顽固者•忍受的
bigot•tolerant=provincial•cosmopolitan  顽固者•忍受的=乡下人•城市的

bit  (the jaws of tongs or pincers)
bit•drill=blade•razor 钻头是钻的作用部分=刀刃是刮胡刀的作用部分

bland  (not irritating•soothing)
tangy ◆ bland  味道刺激的 ◆ 没有味道的

blandishment  (something that tends to coax or cajole)
blandishment•coax=medal•honor=threat•intimidate
哄骗的话语用来哄骗=奖牌代表荣誉=威胁的作用是胁迫
blandishment ◆ threat  哄骗(软方法)◆ 威胁(手段强硬)

blas□  (bored with pleasure or dissipation)
miser•munificent=zealot•blas□  吝啬鬼不慷慨=狂热者不冷漠

blast  (a violent gust of wind)
blast•whiff=gush•trickle  强风吹•轻轻吹=涌出•缓缓流出(程度)

blatant (completely obvious conspicuous, or obtrusive)
ambiguous•understand=blatant•ignore  模棱两可的不容易理解=显着的不容易忽略
blatant•arresting=odious•disgusting  醒目的引人注意=讨厌的令人厌恶
blatant◆inconspicuous 不明显的 unimpressive 不显眼的  subtle细微而不容易察觉的

blazon  (ostentatious display)v. 刻纹章
alliterate•remove=blazon•efface  头韵难以被删除=纹章难以被拭除
blazon•adorn=pillar•support  纹章用来装饰=柱子用来支持
blazon◆efface  刻纹章◆抹掉
diffidence◆blazonness  缺乏自信而保守◆卖弄的显示

blemish (to spoil by a flaw)
blemish•impeccable=guile•artless  缺点•没有缺点的=狡诈•朴实的
anomaly•paradigmatic=blemish•flawless 异常•典范的=缺点•无缺点的
unequivocable•ambiguous=spotless•blemish  不含糊的•模糊的=无污点的•污点

blight  vt. 破坏,使枯萎;vi.枯萎
blight ◆ flourish 枯萎 ◆ 茂盛(干扰:cause to energetic使精力旺盛)
【注:blight做枯萎意思时指植物,没有引申指人萎靡不振,而茂盛可指植物】
blighted ◆ hale/sound/ robust  枯萎的 ◆ 强壮的,健壮的
blighted ◆ unblemished 毁坏的,枯萎的 ◆ 无损坏的

bliss  (complete happiness)
dislike•loathing=pleasure•bliss  不喜欢•非常厌恶=快乐•极度快乐(程度)

blithe  (of a happy lighthearted character or disposition)
blithe◆grave  愉快的◆沉重的

blueprint  (a detailed plan or program of action)
wood• carpenter=blueprint• architect  木头•木匠(设计图•建筑师人物及其工作对象)

blunder (a gross error or mistake)v. 犯大错
protocol•blunder=bumper•damage  礼节防止犯大错=保险杆防止损坏
【注:bumper:保险杠a usually metal bar at either end of an automobile】

blunt  (to make less sharp or definite)
attenuation•strength=bluntness•sharpness  使浓度变稀薄=使锐利的变迟钝]
blunt◆whet  使变钝◆磨快

blur  (to make indistinct and hazy in outline or appearance;obscure)
blur•definition=subjugate•independence  使模糊以消除清晰度=使屈服以消除独立性

blurb  (as on a book jacket)
blurb•notice=gloss•explanation=cameo•appearance
简短公告•公告=简短解释•解释=简短表演•表演(前者是后者的简化版)
【注:gloss• a brief explanation ;cameo:Broadly:any brief appearance】

blurt  (to utter abruptly and impulsively, usually used with out)
flit•move=blurt•utter 迅速飞过•移动=突然说出•出声(快•正常)

blush  (a reddening of the face especially from shame, modesty, or confusion)
blush•embarrassment=smile•pleasure  因困窘而脸红=因高兴而微笑

bluster (to be windy and boisterous)
blustering•speak=swaggering•walk 狂妄的说话•说话=大摇大摆的走路•走路(种属)
bluster•loud=pontificate•pompous=drawl•slow= prate•aimless
吵闹•高声的=装模做样地说话•华而不实的=懒洋洋的说话•缓慢的=闲聊•无目的的

boast  (the act or an instance of boasting)
boast•pride=complain•discontent  夸耀•骄傲=抱怨•不满(前者表达后者)

boding  (an omen, prediction, or presentiment)
auspicious ◆ boding ill  吉祥的 ◆ 凶兆的

bodyguard  (a usually armed attendant whose duty is to protect a person)
bodyguard•person=soldier•country  警卫保护人=士兵保卫国家

boggle  (to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples)
boggle ◆ embolden  犹豫 ◆ 使大胆

boisterous  (noisily turbulent)
boisterous ◆ quiet  吵闹的 ◆ 安静的

bolster 支持(a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support)
bolster•support=tackle•hoist  支撑物用来支撑=吊索用来提升(事物及其作用)
adulterate•pure=(bolster/brace)•weak  掺杂的•纯净=支持•虚弱(消除关系)
thwart ◆ foment/ foster/ bolster  阻挠 ◆ 煽动/鼓励/支持
bolster ◆  decrease support of  支持 ◆ 减少支持
bolster ◆  undermine  支持 ◆ 破坏

bombast (pretentious inflated speech or writing)
nonsensical•drivel=pompous•bombast  荒谬的•胡言乱语=夸大的•夸大的言辞
bombast•pompous=tirade•critical  夸大的话•夸大的=长篇攻击性的演说•批评的
bombast ◆ down to earth language  夸大的言辞 ◆ 实事求是的话
bombastic  ◆  understated  夸大的 ◆ 不夸张的,朴素的
bombastic  ◆  unpretentious  夸大的 ◆ 谦逊的

bonhomie  (good-natured easy friendliness)
genial•bonhomie=diplomatic•tact  温和的•温和 =老练的•老练(形名同义)

bonus  n. 奖金,红利
bonus•employee=decoration•soldier  奖金•雇员=勋章•战士(奖励关系)

boo  (express contempt, scorn, or disapproval of by booing)
snare ◆ boo  诱捕,诱惑 ◆ 嘘,轰赶
【注:诱惑是往里面拉;嘘是往外头赶】

boon  (benefit,favor)
boon ◆ misfortune  恩惠 ◆ 灾祸

boor  (a rude or insensitive person)
insensitive•boor=mischievous•imp  迟钝的•迟钝的人=淘气的•顽童
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton  迟钝的人不敏感=笨蛋不聪明
boor ◆ civil person  粗人 ◆ 有修养的人

bootless  (useless,unprofitable)
bootless•futility=effulgent•resplendence  无用的•无用的=辉煌的• 辉煌的
interesting•intriguing=bootless•futile  有趣的•有趣的=无用的•无用的
bootless•futility=void•empty  无用的•无用的=空的•空的

bore  (to make a hole by or as if by boring)
die • shaping=drill • boring  冲模用来整形=钻孔机用来打洞
food • hunger=stimulation • boredom  食物消除饥饿=刺激物消除厌倦
entrance ◆ disappoint/ disgust/ repel/ repulse/ bore
使人入神的 ◆ 使失望/使厌恶/抵制/憎恶/使烦扰

bound  (to confine, restrain, or restrict as if with bonds)
boundless•limit=impeccable•flaw  无限制的•限制=没缺点的•缺点
boundless•extensive=interminable•lengthy  无限的•宽广的=无限的•冗长的(程度)
boundless ◆ limited  没有限制的 ◆ 有限制的
boundary ◆ unrestrainedness  界限 ◆ 无限制

bouquet n. 花束
bouquet•flowers=woodpile•logs  花束•花=木料堆•圆木 (组成)
bouquet•flowers=constellation•star  花束•花=星群•星星 (组成)

boycott vt. 联合抵制
boycott ◆ patronize  抵制 ◆ 资助

bracing (giving strength, vigor, or freshness)
bracing ◆ vapid  令人振奋的 ◆ 乏味的
denounce ◆ bracing  指责 ◆ 支持

bracket n. 支架, 托架
buttress•wall=bracket•shelf  扶壁用来支持墙壁=支架用来支撑架子

braid  (made by intertwining three or more strands)
grooved•striated=braided•stranded  开槽的•有条纹的=编织成的•梳成辫子的(同义)

brake  (to retard or stop by a brake)
divert•shunt=retard•brake  转移•使转轨=减速•刹车(行为及其特定目的)
brake•decelerate=clamp•compression  刹车•减速=夹钳•压缩(行为及其后果)
【注:clamp :Any of various devices used to join, grip, support, or compress mechanical or
structural parts. 某种设备用来连接、抓住、支持或压缩结构性的部件】

brash  adj 轻率的,仓促的(done in haste without regard for consequences)
frivolous•gravity=brash•discretion  琐碎的•重大=轻率的•慎重周到
candor•subterfuge=brash•deliberate  坦白•托词=仓促的•深思熟虑的

brassy  (being shamelessly bold)
diffident  羞怯的 furtive  秘密的 humble  谦逊的unassertive  谦逊的

brattish  (ill-mannered annoying)
tightfisted•parsimonious=brattish•mischievous
吝啬的•吝啬的=淘气的•恶作剧的(同义)

bravado n, 假装勇敢,虚张声势
courageous•bravado=complimentary•fulsomeness
勇敢的•虚张声势=称赞的•不真诚的称赞(褒贬)
【注:fulsome:offensively flattering or insincere. 令人不快地恭维的或不真诚的
例:He was too fulsome in his praise. 他的赞美太虚假。】

bravura (marked by contemptuous boldness)
impudence•brazen=deadpan•impassive  厚颜无耻•厚颜无耻的=无表情的脸•冷漠的
brazen ◆ modest  厚颜无耻的 ◆ 谦虚的
brazen ◆ self effacing 厚颜无耻的 ◆ 害羞的
brazen ◆ diffident  厚颜无耻的 ◆ 缺乏自信的

breach  (to make a breach in)
breach•continuity=disturb•repose  破坏连续性 =扰乱休息(动宾关系)
breach ◆ solder  破裂 ◆ 焊合

breezeway  n. 有屋顶的通路
breezeway•building=stairway•floor 有屋顶的通路•建筑物=楼梯•楼层(事物及相关对象)

brevity (to induce or influence by or as if by bribery)
bribe•incorruptible=affect•insensible 不腐败的的不会行贿=无知觉的的不会感动

bridle  (to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle)
bridled ◆ without restraint  受限制的 ◆ 没有限制的

brisk  (keenly alert)
brisk  ◆ ponderous  活泼的 ◆ 沉闷的
【注:ponderous :lacking grace or fluency 缺乏优雅和连贯,沉闷的】

bristle (to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance)
bristle•anger=vacillate•unresolution  怒发冲冠•愤怒=忧郁不定•不坚决(同义)
bristle ◆ cower  怒发冲冠 ◆ 畏缩

brittle (easily broken, cracked, or snapped)
manifest•perceive=brittle•break  明显的容易认识到=易碎的容易破碎

broach  (open up)
broach ◆ close off  开启 ◆ 关闭

bromide (a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion)
equivocation•misleading=bromide•hackneyed
模棱两可的话•易引起误解的=陈腐的意见•陈腐的(事物典型特征)
bromide ◆ unhackneyed 陈腐的 ◆ 新奇的

brook  (to stand for ;tolerate)
brook ◆ refuse to tolerate  容忍 ◆ 拒绝忍受

browbeat  (to intimidate by a stern manner or arrogant speech)
instigator•incite=bully•browbeat  煽动者善于煽动=欺凌弱小者善于威吓

bruit  (to noise abroad)
bruit ◆ keep secret  散播 ◆ 保持秘密

buck  (to refuse assent;balk)
buck ◆ assent to  反对 ◆ 赞成

bucolic (relating to or typical of rural life)
hovel•palatial=city•bucolic  小屋•宏伟的=城市•乡村的
palatial•hovel=bucolic•metropolis  宏伟的•小屋=乡村的•大都市
bucolic ◆ urban  乡村的 ◆ 都市的
bucolic ◆ sophisticated  乡土的 ◆ 世故的

budge  (move;shift)(to give way;yield)
palter•candor=diehard•budge  敷衍不会坦白=顽固分子不会退让
vagary•predict=diehard•budge  奇特行为是难以预知的=顽固的人是难以退让的

buffoon (a ludicrous figure;clown)
ludicrous•buffoon=dissolute•libertine=humorous•wag
滑稽的•小丑=放纵的•放荡的人=幽默的•搞笑者
inexperience•neophyte=ludicrous•buffoon  缺乏经验•新手 =滑稽•小丑

bulge  (a protuberant or swollen part or place)
bulge ◆ depressed region  凸出部分 ◆ 凹陷部分

bully  (one habitually cruel to others who are weaker)
instigator•incite=bully•browbeat  煽动者善于煽动=欺凌弱小者善于威吓
bully•intimidate=stupid•gullibility  欺凌弱小者善于威吓=笨人容易上当
sabotage•subvertness=bull•intimidation  破坏•颠覆=暴力•威吓(前是后的手段)
【注:bull (to act on with violence)】
underdog ◆ bully  被欺负的人 ◆ 欺凌弱小者

bumptious  (presumptuously, noisily self-assertive)
impetuous•vacillation=dour•geniality=bumptious•humbleness
冲动的人不会犹豫=严厉的人不亲切=傲慢的人不谦逊
bumptious•assertive=garish•colourful
自大的•过分自信的=炫耀的•华丽的(同义)

bungle  (to act or work clumsily and awkwardly)
bungle ◆ bring off  失败 ◆ 成功

buoy  (support;uplift)
buoyed ◆ unsupported  支撑的 ◆ 没有支持的

buoyant (capable of floating)(cheerful,gay)  bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant  坚硬的不会弯曲=有浮力的不会沉
buoyant•sink=insoluble•dissolve  有浮力的不会下沉=不溶的不会溶解
buoyant•float=heavy•drop  有浮力的•漂浮=重的•落下(前者容易实现后者)
buoyant ◆  hangdog /aggrieved  快乐的 ◆ 垂头丧气的/ 痛苦的
buoyant ◆  leaden  轻快的 ◆ 沉重的

burgeon (to send forth new growth)(to grow rapidly)
grow•burgeon=beat•palpitate  成长•生长=跳动•跳动(同义)
wither,subside,subdue,wane,waste away  衰退
参考:the germ of a project. 计划的雏形

burlesque  (mockery usually by caricature)滑稽戏
diatribe•abuse=burlesque•mockery  恶骂•辱骂=讽刺的嘲笑•嘲笑(同义)
doggerel•verse=burlesque•play 打油诗•诗=滑稽的戏剧•戏剧(种属)
burra源自 burra(to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing)
numb•insensible=burnish•lustrous  失去知觉•无知觉的=磨光•有光泽的
burnish•dull=mar•flawless  磨光•暗淡的=损坏•无缺点的(前者消除后者)

burrow  (hole)
ditch•canyon=burrow•cavern  沟•峡谷=地洞•大洞(程度)

butter  n. 黄油
butter•margarine=sugar•saccharin  黄油•人造黄油=糖•糖精(天然•人造)

buttress  n. 扶墙 vt. 支持
strut•wing=buttress•wall  支杆用来支持机翼=扶墙用来支持墙壁
buttress•edifice=splint•limb  扶墙用来支持大厦=夹板用来支持四肢
contravene ◆ buttress  反对 ◆ 支持
challenge ◆ buttress  质疑 ◆ 支持
【注:challenge :to take exception to; call into question; dispute:表示异议;质疑;争议】

byline  n. 标题下的署名
article•byline=movie•credits  文章•作者署名=电影•演员署名
【注:credits:recognition by name of a person contributing to a performance as a film】

byzantine  (characterized by a devious manner of operation)
byzantine ◆ straightforward  诡计多端的 ◆ 坦率的

list 5  cabal-------- chagrin

cabal  (small group secretly united to promote their own interests)
cast•actor=cabal•conspirator 剧团•演员=阴谋集团•阴谋家(组成)
cabal•association=plot•plan  阴谋小集团•协会=阴谋•计划(秘密与正常)
cabal•association=spat•quarrel  阴谋小集团•协会=小争吵•吵架(小与正常)

cache  (harsh or discordant sound)
cacophony•sound=malodor•scent 刺耳的声音•声音=恶臭•气味
cacophony•voice=gaucherie•skill  刺耳的声音•语音=笨拙的•技能
cacophony•sound=glare•light  刺耳的声音•声音=耀眼的光•光
cacophonous ◆ dulcet/ euphonious  刺耳的 ◆ 悦耳的/悦耳的

cadge  (beg,sponge)
cadge ◆ earn 乞求 ◆ 赚得

cajole  (to persuade with flattery especially when reluctance)
blandishment•cajole=obstacle•impede  甜言蜜语•哄骗=障碍•阻止(同义)
wheedle•cajolery=extort•coercion  用甜言蜜语骗•诱骗=敲诈•强迫 (同义)

calcify (to make inflexible or unchangeable)
calcium•mineral=sugar•carbohydrate  钙•矿物质=糖•碳水化合物 (种属)
calcify ◆ make malleable /make pliant/ make more flexible  使钙化 ◆ 使柔顺,灵活

calibrate  (to rectify,mark the graduations of)
measure•dimensions•calibrate•diameter=gauge•pressure=plumb•depth
q•尺寸=确定口径•直径=测定•压力=测量深度•深度
calibrated ◆ unstandardized  校准的 ◆ 不标准的
calibrated ◆ unsubstantialized 校准的 ◆ 不标准的

calligraphy  (artistic, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering)
calligraphy•scribble=sonnet•doggerel 书法•乱写=十四行诗•打油诗 (正常•乱)

callous (feeling no sympathy for others)
callous•impassive=dupe•duplicity  冷漠的•冷漠的=欺骗•不诚实 (同义)
callous ◆ sympathetic  无情的 ◆ 有同情心的

callow  (lacking adult sophistication)
frank•secretiveness=callow•maturity  坦白的•隐匿=未成熟的•成熟
apoplectic•calm=callow•mature 狂怒的•平静的=未成熟的•成熟
callow ◆ behaving with adult sophistication  年轻而无经验的 ◆ 行为富于经验的

callus  (a thickening of area on skin)
gully•erosion=callus•friction 小峡谷由冲蚀产生=老茧由摩擦产生

calorie n. 卡路里,热量单位
watt•power =calorie•heat=decibel•sound=volt•electricity
瓦•功率=卡路里•热量=分贝•声音=伏•电流(事物及其度量单位)
heat•calories=liquid•gallons=distance•odometer
热量•卡路里=液体•加仑=距离•里程表

calumniate  (to utter maliciously false statements about)
corroborate•evidence=calumniate•falsehood  用证据证明=用谎言诽谤
calumny•representation=perjury•testimony  中伤•陈述 =伪证•证词(假•正常)
calumniate ◆ vindicate 诽谤 ◆ 辩护
calumnious ◆ flattering  中伤的 ◆ 谄媚的
calumny ◆ approbation  诽谤 ◆ 嘉许

camaraderie  (a spirit of friendly good-fellowship)
camaraderie ◆ enmity 友情 ◆ 敌意

cameo  n. 小雕塑,特写
peccadillo•offense=cameo•sculpture  轻罪•犯罪=小雕塑•雕塑(小•正常)

camouflage  (behavior or artifice designed to deceive or hide)
camouflage•deception=flattery•ingratiating  伪装为了欺骗=奉承为了逢迎
malinger•duty=camouflage•detection  装病以逃避工作责任=伪装防止被发现

canard  n. 谣传,误传
aspersion•discredit=canard•deceive 诽谤•玷辱=谣言•欺骗(行为与目的)

candor  (unreserved, honest, or sincere expression)
palter•candor=diehard•budge  敷衍不会坦白=顽固分子不会退让
candor•subterfuge=brash•deliberate  坦白•托词=仓促•深思熟虑
artifice ◆ candor计谋 ◆ 直率
mendacity ◆ candor谎言 ◆ 诚挚的话

canon  (a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council)
religion•devoutness=canon•orthodoxy  信仰要求虔诚=圣典要求正统
canonical  ◆  heterodox / nontraditional  正统的 ◆ 非正统的/非传统的
canon ◆ apocrypha  正典 ◆ 伪经
canonical ◆ nontraditional  传统的 ◆ 不符合传统的

canopy  (a protective covering;awning, marquee)
canopy•cover=tag•identify  遮篷用以遮盖=标签用以识别

canvas  (a piece of cloth framed as a surface for a painting)
canvas•painter=marble•sculptor  画布•油画家=大理石•雕塑家(前是后的工作用具)
easel•canvas=tripod•camera  画架支撑画布=三角架支撑照相机(前者支撑后者)

canvass (scrutinize; check over)(to seek votes:solicit)
exponent•advocate=pollster•canvass  拥护者•支持=民意调查者•细查

canyon  (a deep narrow valley with steep sides)
ditch•canyon=burrow•cavern  沟渠•峡谷=小山洞•大山洞 (小和大)

capitulate  (surrender)(to cease resisting•acquiesce)  capitulate ◆ resist / oppose  不再抵制 ◆ 抵制 / 反对

caprice (a sudden, impulsive notion or action)
caprice•whimsical=stealth•furtive=discontent•unsatisfied
反复无常• 反复无常的=秘密行动•偷偷摸摸的=不满•不满意的(名形同义)
impromptu•rehearsal=apophasis•claim=caprice•deliberate
即席演出•排练=故抑其词•断言=反复无常•深思熟虑 (反义)
capricious•whim=objective•fact  善变•善变的=客观的•事实的(同义)
caprice•whimsical=insight•discerning  善变•善变的=洞察力•有洞察力的 (同义)
caprice•whimsical=insight/foresight•prudent  任性•反复无常的=洞察力•明智的
caprice ◆ confirmation 善变 ◆ 确认
steadfast /constant  固定不变的 pertinacious 固执的 resolute 坚决的

captivate  (to influence by special charm with an irresistible appeal)  captivate ◆ repulse  着迷 ◆ 厌恶

careworn  (showing the effect of grief or anxiety;worn)
careworn ◆ lighthearted  伤心的 ◆ 心情愉快的

caret  (文章中插字使用)
caret•insertion=comma•pause  插字符号代表插入=逗号代表停顿(符号代表意义)

cardinal  (of basic importance • main, chief, primary)
cardinal  ◆  minor  主要的 ◆ 次要的

caricature  (exaggeration by means of ludicrous distortion)
brevity•aphorism=distortion•caricature  格言比较简短=滑稽模仿比较歪曲
aphorism • pithiness= caricature• exaggeration  格言比较精炼=讽刺画比较夸张
caricaturist•illustrator=satirist•essayist  漫画家属于插图家=讽刺作家属于评论家

carnal  (bodily, corporeal)
carnal ◆ spiritual  物质的 ◆ 精神的

carouse (to drink liquor deeply or freely)
roisterer•carouse=recluse•withdraw  喝酒喧哗者•畅饮=隐士•隐退

carp  (to find fault or complain querulously)
caviler•carping=libertine•licentious  吹毛求疵者•吹毛求疵的=浪荡者•放肆的
complain•carp=drink•guzzle  抱怨•吹毛求疵=喝•狂饮 (程度对比)

carpentry  n. 木工
trade•carpentry=clothing•outfit  职业•木工=服装•整套服装(种属)
【注:trade :an occupation, especially one requiring skilled labor: 职业,尤指需要技术的】
【注:outfit:a set of clothing, often with accessories.】
这个足球队的队员穿着清一色的橘黄色运动服。

cartographer  (one that makes maps)
cartographer•map=tailor•clothing=lexicographer•dictionary
绘制地图者•地图=裁缝•衣服=词典编纂者•词典 (后者是前者的工作对象)

carve  (to cut into pieces or slices)(to shape by cutting)
carve•turkey=slice•cake  切火鸡=切蛋糕

cast  (演员)
appoint•official=cast•actor  任命•官员=选派•演员(动作及其相关对象)
letter•signature=playbill•cast  信•签名=节目单•演员阵容(后者是前者的一部分)

castigate  (to subject to severe punishment, reproof)
castigation•disapproval=crime•misbehave=blasphemy•irreverence
强烈反对•反对=犯罪•举止不当=亵渎:不敬(程度)
castigation•reproof=denunciation•denial=loathing•dislike=soaking•damp
强烈谴责•谴责=指责•否定 =讨厌•不喜欢=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)
peccadillo•sin=admonishment•castigation
小过失•罪过=警告•强烈谴责(程度)
castigation ◆ approbation认可accolade 称赞extol赞美

catalyze  (bring about, inspire)
supervisor•oversight=catalyst•initiate管理者•监督=催化剂•催化
【注:catalyst:agent that brings about a chemical change while it remains unchanged】
enzyme•catalyst=bacterium•microbe  酶属于催化剂=细菌属于微生物
catalyze ◆ retard 阻挠 prevent 阻止  inhibit抑制
inhibitor  ◆  catalyst  抑制剂 ◆ 催化剂

catastrophe  (a momentous tragic event)
catastrophe•mishap=humiliation•embarrassment  大灾难•不幸=羞耻•尴尬(程度)
oxymoron•contradictory=mishap•catastrophic  矛盾修饰法•矛盾的=不幸•灾难的

categorical  (absolute, unqualified)
categorical•qualified/conditional  受限制的/ 有条件的

catholic  (comprehensive)(broad in sympathies, interests)
catholic ◆ narrow  包容的 ◆ 狭隘的

caustic (marked by incisive sarcasm)
barb•caustic=pan•harsh  尖刻的言论•刻薄的=严厉的批评•严厉的
caustic•eat away=desiccant•dry  腐蚀的•腐蚀=干燥剂的•干燥
caustic•burn=solvent•dissolve 腐蚀性的•灼烧=可溶解的•溶解(因果关系)
palliating 减缓的  genial 亲切的  smooth 安详的  kind 仁慈的  innocuous亲切的

caveat  (a warning enjoining one from certain acts)
overture/preamble•introductory=caveat•warning/ cautionary
序曲•介绍性的=告诫•警告的

cavern  (one cave of large or indefinite extent)
cavern•spelunker=ocean•diver  洞穴• 探洞者=海洋•潜水者(后探索前)
cavern•spelunker=star•astronomer  洞穴• 探洞者=星•天文学家(后研究前)

cavil  (to raise trivial and frivolous objection)
cavil•criticize=probe•investigate  吹毛求疵•批评=仔细探察•调查(程度)
nitpick•criticize=cavil•object  吹毛求疵•批评=吹毛求疵•反对(程度)
caviler•carping=libertine•licentious  吹毛求疵者•吹毛求疵的=浪荡子•放肆的
faultfinding•criticize=quibble•cavil  挑毛病:批评=挑剔:吹毛求疵(同义)
encomiast•eulogize=nitpicker•criticize=preacher•sermon=quibbler•cavil
赞美者•赞颂=吹毛求疵的人•批评=传教士•传道=挑剔者•吹毛求疵
【注:quibble:v. 1.to evade the point of an argument by caviling about words 2.cavil,carp】

cavort  (to walk or move in a spirited manner)
dodder•unsteady=cavort•sprightly  摇摆的不稳定=欢跃的很轻快
cavort ◆ trudge  欢跃 ◆ 艰苦跋涉

cede  (to yield or grant typically by treaty)
cede ◆ possess 放弃 ◆ 拥有

celebrity  (a celebrated person)
celebrity ◆ obscurity  名人 ◆ 无名小辈(one that is obscure)

cement  (to unite or make firm by or as if by cement)
cement ◆ fracture  巩固 ◆ 破裂

censor  (to examine to suppress anything considered objectionable)
censorship•communication/information=preservative•decay=sanitation•disease
审查•信息 =防腐剂•腐烂=公共卫生•疾病 (前者防止后者)
vendor•purvey=censor•expurgate  卖主•供应=审查员•删除(人物的典型动作)

censorious  (critical)
pliable•influence=censorious•condemn  易受影响的•影响=挑剔的•谴责
censorious ◆ eulogistic  挑剔的 ◆ 赞美的

censure (to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy)
lamentable•pity=reprehensible•censure 可悲的•可怜=应该谴责的•谴责
remonstrance•dissuade= reprehension•censure  反对•劝阻=斥责•责难(同义)
censure•blameless=approbation•reprehensible  责难•无可指责的=认可•应斥责的
exonerate 免除责备 extol赞美 commend赞美

census  (a count of the population)
census•population=inventory•merchandise=inventory•stock
户口普查•人口=存货清单•商品=存货清单•存货 (前者为后者的清单)

cessation  (a temporary or final ceasing;stop)
cessation ◆ commencement  开始  start 开始  continuation 继续

chaff  n. 谷壳,糠
winnow•chaff=filter•impurities  扬谷为了去除糠=过滤为了去除杂质
chaff•wheat=shell•pecan  糠•小麦=果壳•核桃 (果子及其壳)
dross•metal=chaff•grain  金属屑•金属=谷糠•谷物

chagrin n . 懊恼(distress of mind caused by humiliation, disappointment, or failure)
chagrin•mind=grimace•face  懊恼•情绪=痛苦的表情•脸(行为及其产生部位)
elated  兴高采烈的 cheerful 高兴的 proud satisfaction 非常满足 delight 快乐

list 6  chameleon ------complaisance
chameleon  n. 变色龙,善变的人
salmon•ichthyologist=chameleon•herpetologist  □鱼•鱼类学家=变色龙•爬虫学家

champion  (to act as militant supporter of)
disparage  蔑视  impugn  打击  oppose  反对

chaotic (in utter disorder)
chaos•predictability=pallor•color  无序的不可预言=苍白没有颜色
strictly structured  构造严谨的 strictly featured  特征严谨的

charade n. 看手势猜字谜游戏;装模作样
charade•word=mime•story  用手势表示的字谜•字=哑剧•故事(前者用后者来表达)
charade•dissimulate=void•emptiness  装模作样•假装=空洞•空(同义)

charlatan  (pretender to knowledge)(quack)
juggernaut•crush=charlatan•deceive  压倒一切的力量•压服=骗子•行骗

chary  (discreetly cautious)
chary•caution=imperturbable•composure  谨慎的:谨慎=冷静的:沉着
rash卤莽的  bold大胆的

chasm  (a deep cleft in the surface of a planet)
cleft•chasm=cut•gash  裂缝• 断裂带=小切口•大伤口

chauvinistic  adj. 沙文主义的,爱国主义的
patriotic•chauvinistic=receptive•gullible
爱国主义的•爱国主义的=易受骗的•易受骗的(同义)

check  (to block the progress of)
jolt•move=check•stop  晃动•移动=阻止•停止(同义)
propagate 传播  goad 唆使  hasten 促进

chef  (a skilled cook who manages the kitchen)
author•novel=chef•banquet  作家•小说=厨师•宴会(后者是前者的工作作品)
chef•kitchen=chemist•laboratory  厨师•厨房=化学家•实验室(后者是前者的工作场所)

cherubic  (innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy)
cherubic ◆ somber  天使般可爱的>阴郁的

chevron n. v形臂章
chevron•badge=caisson•cart  v形臂章•徽章=载炮车•大车(种属)

chiaroscuro  n. 明暗对照法
chiaroscuro•contrast=filigree•delicacy  明暗对照法特点是对照=金银丝工艺特点是精美

chicanery  (deception by artful subterfuge)
chicanery•clever=tactlessness•truthful  诡计多端的•机灵的=不圆滑的•真诚的
gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 易受骗的容易被欺骗=易屈服的容易被控制
aboveboard action正大光明的honest dealing诚实forthrightness坦白

chide  (to reproach in a usually mild and constructive manner)
chide•pillory=humor•mollycoddle  责备•示众=迁就•纵容(程度)
chide ◆ praise 责备 ◆ 称赞

choleric  (hot-tempered)
cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize  懦弱会被胁迫=愤怒会产生敌对
choleric ◆ difficult to provoke  难以被激怒的pacific平静的

choir  n. 唱诗班
choir•singer=cast•actor=bouquet •flower
唱诗班•唱诗者=演员表•演员=花束•花(组成)

chord  (three or more musical tones sounded simultaneously)
constellation•star=chord•note=grove•tree
星群•星星=和弦•音符=小树林•树木

choreography  (the arrangement of dances)(art of dancing)
choreography•dance=plot•story 舞蹈编排•舞蹈=小说情节•小说
choreographer•movement=architect•building  舞蹈编排者•舞蹈动作=建筑师•建筑
【注:sculptor•statue 雕塑家•雕像为干扰选项;舞蹈编排者和建筑师管设计不管施工,
雕塑家既设计又施工】

chorus  (a body of singers who perform choral compositions)
troupe•perform=chorus•sing  剧团•表演=合唱队•演唱 (团体及其典型行为)

chromatic  adj. 彩色的
chromatic ◆ colorless  色的 ◆ 无色的

chronic (long established, as a disease)
chronic ◆ sporadic  长期的 ◆ 偶然的

chuckle (to laugh inwardly or quietly)
chuckle•laughing=whisper•speaking  偷着乐:笑=耳语:说话 (小:正常)

churlish  (lack of civility or graciousness;boorish; rude)
uncouth•churl=conspiratorial•conniver 粗俗的•粗野的人=阴谋的•阴谋家
cacophony•melody=genteel•churl  刺耳的音调•悦耳的音调=文雅的•粗野的人
complaisance ◆ churlishness  彬彬有礼的 ◆ 粗野的
genteel ◆ churlish  文雅的 ◆ 粗野的

cineast (a film or movie enthusiast)
cineast•film=gourmand•food  电影迷•电影=美食家•食物(前者追求后者)

cipher  (a method of transforming a text to conceal its meaning)
cipher•cryptic=precis•concise 密码•秘密的=大纲•简要的

circuitous  (not being forthright or direct in language or action)
immaterial•relevance=circuitous•directness  不重要的•重要=迂回的•直接(反义)
circuitous•directness=irresolute•decision  迂回的•直接=犹豫不决的•决定(反义)
circuity ◆ straightforwardness 迂回 ◆ 坦率

circular  (having the form of a circle;round)
circular•asymmetrical=protean•rigid  圆形的:不均匀的=多变的:刻板的  (反义)

circumference  (the perimeter of a circle)
circumference•circle=perimeter•rectangle  圆周•圆=周界•矩形 (图形及其边界)
border•country=circumference•circle  国界•国家=圆周•圆(事物及其边界)

circumlocution  (indirect or roundabout expression)
circumlocution ◆ pithy utters/ straightforword utter  绕圈子 ◆  简练直接的话
circumlocution ◆ direct encounter  绕圈子 ◆ 直接面对
circumlocutory ◆ straightforward  迂回的 ◆ 直接的
circumlocution ◆ express succinctly  说话绕圈子 ◆ 表达简练

circumscribe  (limit; confine)
circumscribed ◆ unlimited  限制的 ◆ 无限的

circumspect  (careful to consider all circumstances
rash•circumspective=imperious•servile 轻率的• 慎重的=专横的•卑屈的(反义)
circumspect•prudency=urbane•polish  慎重的:慎重=彬彬有礼的:优雅 (同义)
circumspect ◆ audacious/reckless  小心的 ◆ 大胆的/鲁莽的
temerity ◆ circumspection  蛮勇 ◆ 慎重
rash ◆ circumspective  鲁莽的 ◆ 谨慎的
我们应该仔细慎重,做事之前要调查一番。

circumvent  (to manage to get around especially by stratagem)
circumvent ◆ confront /direct encounter  绕行 ◆ 直接面对

cistern n. 贮水器,水箱
cistern•liquids=landfill•refuse  水箱•液体=垃圾填埋场•垃圾(放置场所)

civility  (courtesy, politeness)
civility ◆ rudeness  礼貌 ◆ 无礼

claim  (a right to something)
claim•legitimated=hypothesis•confirmed  要求是需要合法化的=假设是需要证实的
lien•claim=subpoena•command  扣押权是一项权利=传票是一种命令
claim ◆ renounce  要求 ◆ 放弃

clairvoyant  (unusually perceptive;discerning)
dexterous•manipulate=prescient•predict  灵巧的•熟练操作=预见性的•预言

clandestine  (secret ;surreptitious)
clandestine•secretly=overt•openly  秘密的•秘密地=公开的•公开地
clandestine•secrecy=harmony•congruity 秘密的•秘密=一致的•一致
clandestine ◆ open  秘密的 ◆ 公开的

clarion (loud and clear)
clarion ◆ soft and undistinct  清澈响亮的 ◆ 低声不可辨的

clarity (the quality or state of being clear;lucidity)
ambiguous•clarity=mendacious•truth  不明确的不清楚=虚假的不真实
consensus•factionalism=clarity•confusion  一致同意•党派争执=清楚•混淆(反义)
equivocation•clarity=prevarication•truth  含糊的话•清楚=搪塞的话•真实(反义)
misunderstood•clarify=erroneous•retract  误会的•澄清=错误的•撤消(后者消除前者)
ramshackle•soundness=garbled•clarity  摇摇欲坠的•坚固=混淆的•清楚(反义)
equivocation 模棱两可  muddy 浑浊的  opaque 不透明的

clasp  (a device for holding objects or parts together)
lathe•shape=clasp•fasten  车床用来成形=扣子用来扣紧

cleft  (a usually V-shaped indented formation)
cleft•chasm=cut•gash  裂缝• 断裂带=小切口•大伤口(程度)

clement (inclined to be merciful;lenient)
clement ◆ pitiless  仁慈的 ◆ 无情的
clemency ◆ ruthlessness  仁慈的 ◆ 无情的

cliche  adj. 陈腐的  a trite phrase or expression
hodgepodge•uniformity=cliche•original 混合物•一致=陈腐的•原创 (反义)
equivocate•misleading=cliched•hackneyed
模棱两可的:易误解的=陈腐的:陈腐的(同义)
文章经常被诸如"强壮如牛"这样的陈腐的表达方式破坏。

clique  (a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons)
clique•intimates=flock•sheep  小团体•密友=羊群•羊 (组成)

clog  n. 障碍, 阻塞  something that shackles or impedes
clog•drainage=stalemate•negotiations  阻塞•排泄=僵局•谈判 (后者消除前者)

clot  (a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood)
clot•dissolved=crowd•dispersed  凝块•溶解的=人群•散开的 (后者由前者发生)
solvent•dissolve=coagulant•clot  溶剂•溶解=凝结剂•凝结 (物品作用)
freeze•water=clot•blood  使结冰•水=使凝结•血 (后者为前者动作对象)

cloture (一项议会程序,辩论结束后立即就所辩问题进行投票表决)
voting•roll call=termination•cloture
选举•点名程序=结果•表决程序(点名程序后可以选举=表决程序后可以出结果)
【注:termination:结果(outcome, result)】

cloudburst  n. 倾盆大雨  a sudden copious rainfall
gust•wind=cloudburst•rainfall 狂风•风=倾盆大雨•雨 

clout  (great influence,especially political or social)
impuissance 无权,无能  impotence 无力,衰弱  
所有证据都表明在远东地区俄罗斯不再具有那样的影响

cloying (excessively sweet or sentimental)
garrulous•talkative=cloying•sweet  饶舌的•健谈的=甜得发腻的•甜的(过度•正常)

clumsy  (lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace)
clumsy ◆ adept 笨拙的 ◆ 灵巧的

coagulant  (something that produces coagulation)
astringent•pucker=coagulant•congeal  收缩剂使收缩=凝结剂使凝结(药剂作用)
coagulate 凝结 ◆ liquefy溶解 dissolve溶解  thin变稀薄

coalesce  (to unite into a whole;fuse)
disaggregate  分解  polarize  两极分化  break apart  分开

coax  (to influence or persuade by artful ingratiation)
equivocation•coax=explanation•enlighten=threat•intimidate
含糊的话为了诱哄=解释为了开导=威胁为了胁迫
blandishment•coax =medal•honor=prevarication•deceive
哄诱的话用来诱哄=奖章用来给以荣誉=搪塞的话用来欺骗

coda  (a concluding musical section)
dessert•meal=epilogue•play=coda•sonata
餐后甜点•餐食 =收场白•戏剧=乐章结尾•奏鸣曲 (事物及其尾部)
overture前奏  prelude序曲

coerce  (to bring about by force or threat)
wheedle•cajolery=extort•coercion  用甜言蜜语骗•诱骗=强取•强迫 (同义)
squander•expend=coercion•intimidate  浪费•花费=威压•胁迫(过分与正常)
voluntary ◆ coercion  自愿的 ◆ 强迫的 (use of force to get someone to object)

coeval  (of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration)  congruent•dimension=coeval•age  全等的•尺寸=同时代的•时代 

cogent  (appealing forcibly to the mind or reason)
cogent•convince=repugnant•repel
有说服力的•令人信服的=让人讨厌的•令人厌恶的(同义) 
cogent ◆ unconvincing  有说服力的 ◆ 不令人信服的

cognizant  (knowledgeable of something through personal experience)
incognizance•knowledgeable=penury•wealthy  不认知的•有知识的=穷困•富裕的
cognizant ◆ oblivious/ unaware  认知的 ◆ 遗忘的

colander  (a perforated utensil for washing or draining food)
centrifuge•separate=colander•drain  离心分离机•分离=漏勺•排水(物品及其作用)
  
collapse  (to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely)
collapse•implode=divide•sunder  倒塌•向内倒塌=分开•切开(因果关系)
collapse•volume=attenuate•thickness  减弱音量=削薄厚度

collude (conspire,plot)
collude•cooperate=smuggle•convey  串通•合作=走私•运送(非法和正常)
collude•cooperate=stalk•follow  串通•合作=暗中追踪•跟随 (非法和正常)
collude•cooperate=eavesdrop•listen  串通•合作=偷听•听(非法和正常)
collusion•conspirators=cooperation•partners  勾结•同谋=合作•合作者

colonnade  (a series of columns set at regular intervals and usually supporting the base of a roof structure)
colonnade•pillar=queue•person 柱廊•柱子=队列•人员(事物及其链状排列)

colossal  (of a bulk, extent, power, or effect approaching or suggesting the stupendous or incredible)
antediluvian•age=colossal•size  古老的•年龄=巨大的•尺寸 (事物及其修饰)
colossus•figurine=boulder•pebble  巨像•小雕像=大石头•小石头(大•小)

coltish (not subjected to discipline)
coltish•discipline=loutish•grace  轻佻的缺乏纪律=粗野的缺乏优雅性 (反义)

coma  (a state of profound unconsciousness)
coma•unconsciousness=delirium•confusion  昏迷•无意识=精神错乱•混乱(种属)

combustible  (capable of combustion)
impervious•friable=nonflammable•combustible
不会受损害的•脆弱的=不可燃的•易燃的

comely  (having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain)
comeliness ◆ unattractiveness  美丽的 ◆ 不吸引人的

comity  (friendly social atmosphere•social harmony)
comity ◆ enmity  礼仪 ◆ 敌意

commencement  (an act, instance, or time of beginning)
cessation ◆ commencement  停止 ◆ 开始
cease ◆ inaugurate/commencement  停止 ◆ 开辟/开始

commencement  (the ceremonies for conferring degrees)
commencement ◆ matriculation  毕业典礼 ◆ 入学考试

commend (to mention with approbation)(praise)
berate 严厉指责 deplore 指责
execrable ◆ commendable/laudable  可憎恨的 ◆ 值得表扬的/值得称赞的

commensurate  (equal in measure or extent;coextensive)
preponderant ◆ commensurate  占有优势的 ◆ 相当的
tantamount ◆ incommensurate  等价的 ◆ 不相称的
parity ◆ uncommensurateness  平等 ◆ 不平衡

commercial  (an advertisement broadcast on radio or television)
advertising•commercial=publishing•journal 
广告的•广告=出版的•定期出版物(种属)

commingle  (to combine into a common fund or stock)
commingle ◆ separate  混合 ◆ 分离

commitment  (an engagement to assume a financial obligation)
crime•misdemeanor=commitment•decision
罪行•轻罪=许诺•决定(程度关系)
dilettante•commitment=nonentity•consequence
业余爱好者•义务=无足轻重者•重要性
disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment/ conviction
不满的•满意=不确定的•义务/ 确信(反义) 
ambivalent ◆ commitment  不定的 ◆ 确定的
noncommittal ◆ confirm 不定的 ◆ 确定

committed  (obligate, bind)
profligate•solvent=mercurial•committed
挥霍的•有偿付能力的=多变的•受束缚的(反义)

commodious  (comfortably or conveniently spacious;roomy)
taut•commodious=extraordinary•purlieu 紧张的不宽敞=非凡的不常有(反义)
commodious ◆ constricted/cramped  宽敞的 ◆ 压缩的/狭促的
commodious ◆ constringed  宽敞的 ◆ 压缩的

commonsense  (sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgment)
preposterous ◆ commonsensical  荒谬的 ◆ 符合常识的

commotion  (an agitated disturbance)
squall•commotion=flash•illumination  小骚乱•骚动=闪光•照明(程度关系)
commotion ◆ tranquility  骚动 ◆ 宁静

compendium  (a brief summary of a larger work)
compendium•summary=anthology•collection
纲要•摘要=文选•选集(种属)
encyclopedia•compendious=abstract•concise
百科全书•摘要的=摘要•简短的(事物典型特征)
【注:干扰选项:assay•objective 化验•客观的】

complacency  (self-satisfaction)
complacency ◆ anxiety  满足 ◆ 渴望(但无法满足)

complaisance  (disposition to please or comply;affability)complaisance•intractable=adeptness•maladroit  柔顺•难处理的=熟练•笨拙的
complaisance ◆ obstinacy  柔顺 ◆ 固执
complaisance ◆ churlishness  彬彬有礼 ◆ 粗野

list 7  compliant -------corona

compliant  (ready or disposed to comply;submissive)
compliant•servile=trusting•gullible  顺从的•奴性的=信赖的•轻信的(褒贬程度)
obsequious•fawn=compliant•yield  奉承的•奉承=顺从的•顺从(形容词和动词同义)

compliment  vt. 称赞expressing or containing a compliment
apologize•contrite=compliment•impressed  因为后悔而道歉=因为有好印象而称赞
compliment•flattery=deference•subservience  赞美•谄媚=顺从•屈从(褒贬)
vituperative ◆ complimentary  责骂的 ◆ 称赞的

comply  (to conform or adapt one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity)
mandatory•comply=forbidden•abstain  强制的•答应=禁止的•禁绝(主被动关系) 

composed  adj. 镇静的,使安定  freefrom agitation;calm
composed  ◆  distraught  镇静的 ◆ 发狂的
discombobulate ◆ compose  使混乱 ◆ 使安定
restless ◆ composure  不平静的 ◆ 镇静

compound  v.混和 adj.复合的
soldier•army=element•compound 士兵:军队=元素:混合物(前者组成后者)
compound  ◆  separate  混和 ◆ 分开
compound ◆ elemental  复合的 ◆ 基础的

compress  vt. 压缩to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing
constrict•diameter=compress•size  收缩•直径 = 压缩 •尺寸(减少关系)
increase in volume 数量增加  distention 膨胀

compromise  n. 妥协,折衷to come to agreement by mutual concession
mediation•compromise=prosecution•conviction  调停•折衷=起诉•定罪(目的关系)
implacable•compromise=honest•swindle  不缓和的•妥协=诚实的•诈骗
intransigent ◆ open to compromise  非妥协性的 ◆ 乐于妥协
polemical ◆ compromising  好争论的 ◆ 妥协的
tenable ◆ unsupportable  可忍受的 ◆ 忍受不了的
temporize ◆ unwilling to compromise  见风使舵 ◆ 不愿意妥协

compunction  (anxiety arising from awareness of guilt)
compunction ◆ absence of misgiving  后悔 ◆ 没有疑虑

concatenate  (to link together in a series or chain;articulate)
concatenate ◆ separate 连结 ◆ 分开

concave (hollowed or rounded inward like the inside of a bowl)
scoop•concave=spatula•flat 勺子•凹的=瓦刀•平的

conceal (to prevent disclosure or recognition of)
unearth ◆  conceal 挖出  ◆  隐藏

concede (to grant as a right or privilege)
concede ◆ refuse to grant  承认 ◆ 拒绝承认
concession ◆ aggress  让步 ◆ 侵犯

concentrate  (focus)(to make less dilute)
concentrate ◆ dilute solution  浓缩 ◆ 稀释溶液
deploy ◆ concentrate  展开 ◆ 集中

concerted  (mutually agreed on)(performed in unison)
concerted  ◆  meant to obstruct  商定的 ◆ 阻碍
concerted ◆ individually devised  共同完成的 ◆ 个人设计的

conciliate  v. 安抚,调和
sop•conciliatory=subsidy•supportive  安抚物•安抚的=补助金•支援性的 
conciliate安抚 ◆  vex  使恼怒 nettle  激怒 rile  激怒
discontent ◆ conciliate  不满 ◆ 调和
contentious ◆ conciliatory  争吵的 ◆ 调和的
belligerent ◆ conciliatory  好战的 ◆ 调和的

concise  brief and compact
synopsis•conciseness=distillate•purity  大纲通常比较简明=蒸馏物通常比较纯净
conciseness•aphorism=exaggeration•caricature  简明•格言=夸张•漫画(事物特征)

concord  (a state of agreement;harmony)
inconsonant•concord=scatter•overlap  不一致的•一致=分散•重叠(反义)
dissension纠纷  dissonance不一致  schism分裂  enmity敌意  rancor怨恨

concur  (to act together to a common end or single effect)
naysay 反对  dissent 不同意

condescending  adj. 谦逊的,故意屈尊的,叫人领情似的
condescending•patronize=obsequious•fawn  叫人领情的•以恩人自居=奉承的•奉承
patronize•condescension=deride•mockery  以恩人自居•叫人领情的=嘲笑•嘲弄的
patronizing•condescending=peeved•annoyed  资助的•使领情的=气恼的•恼怒的

condign (deserved, appropriate)
condign ◆ undeserved/unmerited  适宜的 ◆ 不应得的/ 不配的

condole v. 表达同情或悲伤to express sympathetic sorrow
condolence•sympathy/compassion=gibe•derision  表示同情•同情=嘲笑•嘲笑

condone (to pardon or overlook voluntarily)
bristle•anger=vacillate•unresolution  发怒•愤怒=忧郁不定•不坚决(动名同义)
denounce 谴责exact 强求

conducive  adj. 有益的,有促进的 tending to promote or assist
conducive•foment=tonic•invigorate  促进的•煽动=使有活力的•活力
conductor•instrumentalist=director•actor  指挥•演奏者=导演•演员(前者指挥后者)

confident  (self-reliant)
confident•timid=open•shy  有信心的•胆小的=外向的•害羞的 (反义)
confidence•arrogant=inquiry•interrogatory  自信•傲慢的=调查•质问的 (褒贬)

confine (something that restrains)
loose•confinement=disabuse•misconception  解除禁闭=解释误解(前者消除后者)

confluence  a coming or flowing together, meeting, or gathering at one point
confluence•streams=junction•roads  溪流汇合=道路交叉
confluence ◆ divergence  汇合 ◆ 分歧

confront  (to face especially in challenge;oppose)
craven•confront=honest•deceive  怯懦的•对抗=诚实的•欺骗
circumvent ◆ confront  围绕 ◆ 正面对抗

confound  (to fail to discern differences between)
confound  ◆  discriminate between  混淆 ◆ 区分

congeal (to make viscid or curdled;coagulate)
congeal ◆ melt/disintegrate  凝固 ◆ 熔化/分解
congeal ◆ fail to solidify  凝固 ◆ 不能凝固

congenial  (sociable,genial)
dour ◆ congenial/genial  严厉的 ◆ 温和的

congruent  (congruous)
congruent•dimension=coeval•age  全等的•尺寸=同时代的•时代 (前者修饰后者)
incongruent•conform=recalcitrant•obey 不协调的•使一致=反抗的•遵守
clandestine•secrecy=harmony•congruity 秘密的•秘密=一致的•一致 (同义)
variance  ◆  congruity  不一致 ◆ 一致
congruence ◆ disagreeable  一致的 ◆ 不合意的

conjecture  (inference from defective or presumptive evidence)
conjecture ◆ restrain from the speculation  推测 ◆ 不准猜测
conjecture ◆ fact  猜测 ◆ 事实

connive (to cooperate secretly or have a secret understanding)
connive•cooperate=pry•watch  暗中合作•合作=窥探•注视(特殊行为及其正常状态)
uncouth•churl=conspiratorial•conniver 粗俗的•粗野的人=阴谋的•阴谋家

connoisseur  (expert who is competent to act as a critical judge)
connoisseur•art=gourmet•cuisine  鉴识家•艺术=美食家•烹饪(人及其鉴赏对象)
selflessness•altruist=expertise•connoisseur  无私•利他主义者=专家•鉴赏家

conquest  (the act or process of conquering)
inexorable•dissuasion=indomitable•conquest  不屈不挠的•劝阻=不屈服的•征服(难以)

conscientious  Thorough and assiduous
conscientious ◆ careless  负责的 ◆ 粗心的
conscientious ◆ remiss 负责的 ◆ 疏忽的

consensus  n. 一致,团结  group solidarity in sentiment and belief
consensus•factionalism=clarity•confusion  团结•党派之争=澄清•混乱 (消除关系)
law•criminality=consensus•factionalism  法律•犯罪=团结•党派之争 (防止关系)
expedition•foot dragging=consensus•factionalism  迅速•缓慢=团结•党派之争(反义)
schism•consensus=interruption•continuity  分裂的没有一致意见=中断的不具有连续性

conservative  (tradiyional)
contumacious•authority=reactionary•change  顽固的•权威=反动的•变化(事物反面特征)
bigoted•advice=conservative•change  固执己见的:忠告=保守的:变化(前者拒绝后者)  hidebound•conservative=manic•excited  死板的•保守的=疯狂的•激动的(程度)
【注:peeved•annoyed 是干扰选项,这两个词是同义不是程度关系】
conserve ◆ exhaust  保存(能量) ◆ 耗尽

conservatory  (a school specializing in one of the fine arts)
conservatory•music=seminary•theology=observatory•astronomy
音乐学院•音乐=神学院•神学=天文台•天文学 (场所及其研究学科)

conserve  (to keep in a safe or sound state)
conserve ◆ waste/squander/exhaust  保存 ◆ 浪费/ 挥霍/ 耗尽

considerable  (worth consideration;significant)
restive•calmness=piddling•considerable  不安静的•平静=琐屑的•重要的 (反义)
consider  ◆  table考虑 ◆ 搁置

console (to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of)
embarrass•shame=console•comfort
使困窘•使羞愧=藉慰•安慰 (行为及其结果)
disturb•serenity = console•grief
扰乱•平静=安慰•悲伤 (行为及其结果)
alleviate•intensity=console•grief
减轻强度=安慰悲痛 (动宾关系)
console ◆  aggravate grief安慰 ◆ 加重伤心

consolidate  (to join together into one whole;unite)
consolidation ◆ fragmentation  统一 ◆ 分裂
consolidate ◆ dissolve 使联合 ◆ 解散

consonance  (harmony or agreement among components)
inconsonant•concord=scatter•overlap  不协调的•一致的=分散的•重叠的(反义)
consonant ◆ dissonant调和 ◆ 不协调
consonant ◆ discrepant一致 ◆ 不一致的
inconsonant  ◆  in agreement 不一致 ◆ 一致

conspicuous  (obvious to the eye or mind)
conspicuous•see=transparent•understand  明显的容易被看到=显然的容易被了解
hermitage•secluded=landmark•conspicuous  隐居处•隐蔽的 路标•明显的
blatant ◆ inconspicuous  明显的 ◆ 不明显的
nondescript ◆ conspicuous  莫可名状的 ◆ 显而易见的
salient ◆ unconspicuous  显着的 ◆ 不显着的
prominent ◆ inconspicuous  卓越的 ◆ 不显眼的

conspiracy  (treacherous plot)
uncouth•churl=conspiratorial•conniver 粗俗的•粗野的人=阴谋的•阴谋家
infiltrate•enter=conspire•plan  秘密潜入•进入=阴谋•计划
spy•watch=conspire•cooperate  侦察•观看=阴谋•合作

constitute  (to appoint to an office, function, or dignity)
abdicate  ◆  constitute  退位 ◆ 任命

constrained  adj. 束缚的,节制
constrain ◆ release  束缚 ◆ 释放
intemperate ◆ constrained  不节制的 ◆ 节制的

constringe  (to cause to contract; constrict)
commodious ◆ constringed  宽敞的 ◆ 压缩的

construct  (to make or form by combining or arranging parts or elements)
construct•remodel=compose•edit  建造•改造=创作•修改(原创和修改)

consummate  (complete in every detail; of the highest degree)
consummate ◆ amateurish  完善的 ◆ 业余的

contagious  (communicable by contact;catching)
sprain•injure=cold•contagion  扭伤•伤=感冒•传染病 (种属)
contagious ◆ incommunicable  会传播的 ◆ 不能传达的

contaminate  (to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact)
hedge•loss=quarantine•contamination=safeguard•accident
两面下注以减小损失=检疫以防止污染=安全措施防止事故发生(防止关系)
contaminate ◆ purify  污染 ◆ 净化

content (manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions)
disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment/conviction
不满的•满足=可疑的•负责/确信
gripe•discontent=praise•admiration
抱怨•不满=赞美•钦佩 (动作及表示情感)
disaffected•contentment=anxious•serenity
不满意的•满意=担忧的•平静
disaffected ◆ content  不满 ◆ 满足
restiveness ◆ contentment  难以驾御 ◆ 容易满足
contented ◆ avaricious 满足 ◆ 贪婪

contentious  (exhibiting an often perverse tendency to quarrels)
meddlesome•pry=contentious•argue  多管闲事的•探察=好争吵的•争吵
contentious ◆ conciliatory  喜争吵的 ◆ 安抚的
contention ◆ agreement 争论 ◆ 同意

contiguous  (being in actual contact)
contiguous•abut=simultaneous•coincide  一致的•相近的=同时的•一致的(同义)

contort (to twist into a strained shape or expression)
contortion•body=grimace•face  扭弯•身体=面部扭弯•脸部(行为及其相关部位)

contract  (to reduce to smaller size by squeezing or forcing together)
contract•implode=descend•plummet  收缩•内爆=下降•快速下落(程度)

contravene  (to oppose in argument•CONTRADICT)
contravene ◆ support 支持  buttress 支持

contrite  (grieving and penitent for sin or shortcoming)
apologize•contrite=compliment•impressed
道歉•后悔的=称赞•受感动的(动作表示感情)
impenitent ◆ contrite  不悔悟的 ◆ 后悔的

control n. 在对照实验中被用作对照标准的一个或一组物体
control ◆ group experimented on  对照组 ◆ 试验组

contumacious  (stubbornly disobedient•REBELLIOUS)
contumacious•authority=hidebound•novelty  不服从的•权威=死板的•革新(反义)
contumacious ◆ obedient  不服从的 ◆ 服从的

conundrum  (a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun)
conundrum•solve=tangle•unrave l解决难题=解开混乱状态 (消除关系)

convalesce  (to recover health gradually after sickness)
recidivism•relapse=rehabilitation•convalesce  累犯•故态复萌=复原•渐愈(同义)

convenience  (something conducive to comfort or ease)
opportune•convenience=impermanent•transience  适当的•方便=暂时的•暂时(同义)
opportune ◆ inconvenient  适当的 ◆ 不便的

convention  n. 大会,惯例  usage or custom especially in social matters
overdose•prescription=indiscretion•convention 配药过量•处方=轻率•惯例
ossify ◆ transcend conventions 死板 ◆ 超越常规

convergent  (tending to move toward one point;confluent)
convergent ◆ moving apart  收敛的 ◆ 散开
discrepancy ◆ convergence  分散 ◆ 聚合
converge ◆ spread out  聚合 ◆ 展开

conversant  (having frequent or familiar association)
conversant ◆ unfamiliarity  熟悉的 ◆ 不熟悉
conversance ◆ lack of familiarity  熟悉的 ◆ 不熟悉
conversant ◆ ignorant  熟悉的 ◆ 不知道的

convert vt. 使改变信仰
veer•direction=convert•belief
转向•方向=使改变信仰•信仰(行为及其相关对象)
hunter•quarry=proselytizer•convert
猎人•狩猎=劝服改宗者•使改变信仰(人物典型行为)
proselytize•convert=grandstand•impress=mediator•reconcile(干扰:educator•promote)
劝服改宗• 使改变信仰=炫耀表演•给人印象=调停者•调停(行为及其目的)
【注:mediate :interpose between parties in order to reconcile them】
four-poster•bed=convertible•automobile  四足床•床=敞篷车•车(种属)

convex  (curving outward)
convex ◆ dent  凸起 ◆ 凹陷

convey  (to communicate;impart)运输,转移
smuggle•convey=collude•cooperate  走私•运输=串通•合作(正常与非法)
duct•convey=splint•immobilize 管道•运输=夹板•使固定(物品及其功能)

conviction  (a strong belief)  n. 定罪
dubious•conviction=disaffected•contentment  可疑的•确信=不满足的•满足
prosecution•conviction=mediation•compromise  起诉•定罪=调解•和解(目的)
cogent ◆ unconvincing  有说服力的 ◆ 不令人信服的
他深信她是无辜的,没有什么能够动摇他的这一看法。

convoke (to call together to a meeting;assemble)□
convoke ◆ adjourn  召集会议 ◆ 休会
危机出现的时候,议会立刻召集开会。

convoluted  (complicated; intricately)
convoluted•complexity=ephemeral•transience=transient•evanescence
O解的•复杂的事物=短暂的•顷刻=短暂的•瞬息
convoluted ◆ straightforward  复杂费解的 ◆ 直截了当的

convulsion  (violent, involuntary muscular contractions)骚乱
convulsion•contraction=frenzy•emotion 痉挛是猛烈的收缩=狂暴是猛烈的情感

coop  (a cage or small enclosure for poultry)
corral•horses=coop•chickens  畜栏•马=鸡笼•小鸡 (动物及其饲养场所)

copious (a woman who flirt insincerely)
supplicant•beseeching=coquette•flirtatious恳求者•恳求的=风骚女人•轻浮的

cord  n.木料计量单位;绳索,束缚
cord•wood = ream•paper  木料计量单位•木材=令•纸

cordon  (extended line of police to prevent access or egress)
levee•river=cordon•crowd  大堤•河=警戒线•群众

cornucopia  (羊角装饰器内装满瓜果、谷物代表丰收)
cornucopia•abundance=mace•authority  羊角象征丰收=权杖象征权威
lack缺乏pittance 少量,微薄

corona  n. 冠壮物,光环,日冕
corona•sun=atmosphere•planet  日冕环绕太阳=大气环绕行星

list 8  coronation-------deference

coronation  (the act or occasion of crowning)
coronation•reign=wedding•marriage  加冕礼•执政=婚礼•结婚 (前者是后者的仪式)

corporeal  adj. 肉体的,有形的,物质的,非精神的
intangible无形的disembodied无形的 spiritual  精神的immaterial非实质的

corroborate  (confirm)
corroborate•evidence=calumniate•falsehood  确证依靠证据=诽谤依靠谎言
lessening of certainty可信度降低  controvert 辩驳 deny否认

corrosive  adj. 腐蚀的,侵蚀的  n.腐蚀剂
etch•corrosive=glue•adhesive  蚀刻•腐蚀剂=粘贴•粘合剂(前者靠后者实现)
【注:etch :to produce a pattern on a hard material by eating into the material's surface】

corrugated  (wrinkled; ridged)
corrugated ◆ smooth  满是皱纹的 ◆ 光滑的
她希望将皱纹从额头上除掉。

cosmopolitan  adj. 世界性的
provincial•cosmopolitan=bigot•tolerant  狭隘的•世界性的=顽固•宽容的
insular ◆ cosmopolitan 狭隘的,孤立的 ◆ 世界性的
insularity ◆ cosmopolitanism  偏狭,孤立 ◆ 世界大同主义

cosset  (to treat as a pet•coddle; pamper)□
cosset ◆ slight  宠爱 ◆ 轻蔑
cosseted ◆ unspoiled  宠爱的 ◆ 未宠坏的

coterie (group that meets socially; select circle)

countenance  (approve; tolerate)
countenance•toleration= demur•objection 赞成•容忍=抗议•反对(同义)
countenance ◆ condemn支持 ◆ 谴责
countenance ◆ regard with disfavor支持 ◆ 不感兴趣

counterfeit  n. 赝品,伪造品
counterfeit•money=sophism•reasoning  赝品假钱•钱=诡辩•推理(假与正常)

countermand  (cancel; revoke)
countermand•order=revoke•license  撤销•命令=撤销•执照

court  n/vt. 求爱;献殷勤  n.法院,法庭;庭院
aversion 厌恶spurn 摒弃repel intentionally故意抵制 snub 冷落怠慢

coven  (an assembly or band of usually 13 witches)
witch•coven=retainer•retinue  女巫•女巫的集会=家臣•随行人员(组成关系)

covert  adj. 贪婪的,渴求的
covetous•desire=prodigal•spend  贪求的:要求=浪费的:花费
paltry•covet=despicable•admire  无价值的•贪求=卑劣的•钦佩
covetous•rapacious=troubled•distraught=enthusiastic •mania
贪心的•强夺贪婪的=不平静的•心烦意乱发狂的=热情的•极端狂热的(程度)

cow  (to destroy the resolve or courage of)
cow ◆ embolden 威胁 ◆ 使大胆
cowed ◆ undaunted  被吓倒的 ◆ 大无畏的

cowardice  (lack of courage or resolution)
cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize  懦弱易遭胁迫=愤怒易遭敌对
cowardice ◆ pluck懦弱 ◆ 勇气

cower  (to shrink away or crouch from something that menaces)
cower•fear=rant•anger 畏缩•害怕=咆哮•愤怒(动作及其表现情感)
brazenly confront  勇敢地面对  bristle发怒

cozen  (to cheat; deceive)
credulous•cozen=tractable•control  轻信的易被欺骗=驯良的易被控制
cozen ◆ deal with forthrightly 欺骗 ◆ 直率的处理

cramped (confined, incommodious)
commodious 宽敞的

crass  (without refinement or sensitivity)
refined 精细的

craven  (timid)(coward, dastard)
craven•admirable=deft•awkward 懦弱的•可钦佩的=灵巧的•笨拙的
craven•confront=honest•deceive  懦弱的•对抗=诚实的•欺骗
craven•hero=parsimonious•spendthrift  懦弱的•英雄=小气的•败家子
craven•heroic=volatile•constant  懦弱的•英勇的=不稳定的•稳定的
valorous勇敢的

crave  (to yearn for)(to ask for earnestly)
craving•desire=terror•fear  渴望•愿望=恐怖•害怕(程度)
crave•longing=exult•satisfaction  渴望•渴望=得意洋洋•满意(动名同义)
spurn摒弃

crease  n. 折痕v. 折,弄皱
crease•folding=hole•perforating  折痕•折叠的=洞•穿孔的(前者由后者造成)

credence  (belief,credit,faith)
skeptic怀疑 doubt 怀疑

credulous  (willing to believe or trust too readily)
credulous•cozen=tractable•control  轻信的•欺骗=驯良的•控制
skeptic•credulous=penitent•obdurate  怀疑者•轻信的=悔过者•顽固的
credulity ◆ skepticism轻信 ◆ 怀疑

creek  n. 小溪,小河
creek•river=hill•mountain=pebble•rock  小溪•河流=小山•山脉=小石块•石头(小和正常)

creep  vi. 爬,缓慢地行进
creep ◆ move swiftly/quick movement  缓慢地行进 ◆ 快速移动

crescendo  (a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage)
crescendo•sound=acceleration•tempo  声音渐强•声音=速度加快•节奏
crescendo ◆ decrease in volume 声音渐强 ◆ 声音减弱

crest  n.鸡冠,顶部,顶峰
crest•wave=(acme/summit/peak)•mountain  波峰•波=山顶•山(事物及其顶点)

crestfallen  (dejected; discouraged)
crestfallen ◆ exultant 垂头丧气的 ◆ 欢悦的

cronyism  n. 任人唯亲,对好朋友的偏袒
cronyism•friend=nepotism•relative  对好朋友的偏袒•朋友=裙带关系•亲戚

croon  (to sing or hum in a soft ,soothing voice)
croon•sing=murmur•speak  低声歌唱•歌唱=低语•说

crouch  v. 蹲伏、弯腰□
crouch•spring= hover•plunge  蹲伏•跳起=翱翔•俯冲(反义)

crucial (of vital importance)
relevant•crucial=perceptible•obvious  相关的•重要的=看的见的•明显的(程度)
crucial ◆ inconsequential  重要的 ◆ 不重要的

crumple v. 弄皱;崩溃,垮台
fold•crumple=defeat•overwhelm 折叠•弄皱=击败•征服(前者导致后者)

crutch  (a support to assist a lame person in walking)
crutch•walk=glasses•see  拐杖•行走=眼镜•看(前者辅助后者)

crux  (the central or pivotal point)
crux ◆ peripheral element  关键 ◆ 周边因素

cryptic (mysterious)(puzzling)
cipher•cryptic=pr□cis•concise  暗号•秘密的=摘要•简洁的
cryptic ◆ self explain/self explanatory  含义模糊的 ◆ 能自我解释的

cuisine n. 烹调法,烹饪
gourmet•cuisine=connoisseur•art  美食家•烹调=鉴赏家•艺术(前者鉴定后者)

culpable  (deserving blame or censure)
culpable•blame=exemplary•imitation  该受谴责的•谴责=可模仿的•模仿
confession•culpability=testimonial•appreciation  招供因有罪=推荐信因欣赏
culpable ◆ innocent/above reproach  有罪的 ◆ 无罪的

cultivate  (to foster the growth of)
cultivate ◆ cause to wither  栽植 ◆ 使枯萎
cultivated ◆ feral  栽植的 ◆ 野生的

cumbersome  (unwieldy because of heaviness and bulk)
cumbersome ◆ easy to handle  笨拙的 ◆ 容易对付的

cunning (characterized by wiliness and trickery)
cunning•gulled=watchful•waylaid  狡猾的•被骗=警惕的•伏击(前者防范后者)
artless朴实的 ingenuous纯真的

curator (博物馆、图书馆等的) 馆长,主持
curator•art=archivist•documents  馆长•艺术品=案卷保管人•档案
curator•museum=ranger•forest  馆长•博物馆=护林员•森林
curators•paintings=librarians•books馆长•绘画=图书馆员•图书

curmudgeon  (a crusty, ill-tempered, and usually old man)
curmudgeon ◆ agreeable person  脾气坏的人 ◆ 令人愉快的人

curriculum  (a set of courses constituting an area of specialization)
curriculum•course=menu•dish  课程表•课程=菜单•盘装菜

cursory (rapidly and often superficially performed or produced)
fastidious苛求的painstakingly thorough认真的slow and thorough慢而仔细的
exam cursorily ◆ pinpoint  粗略地检查 ◆ 精确查明

curt  (rudely brief in speech or abrupt in manner)
curt•words=parsimonious•resource  简略的•言词=节省的•资源

curtail (to cut short;reduce)
curtail•duration=abase•strength  缩减•持续时间=降低•力量
curtail•period=enervate•energy  缩短•周期=使衰弱•活力
protract / prolong延长

cynic  n. 犬儒主义者
ingenue•sophistication=cynic•trustfulness清纯少女•世故=愤世嫉俗者•相信
【注:犬儒主义者认为人们行为的出发点是自私,因此他们对人采取怀疑的态度。】

dabbler (one not deeply engaged in something)
dabbler•dedication=martinet•leniency  浅尝辙止者•致力=严格的人•宽大
dabbler ◆ specialist  浅尝辙止者 ◆ 专家
dabble ◆ dedicate/devote/specialize  浅尝辙止 ◆ 致力/投入/专门研究

daft  (silly, foolish)
daft ◆ judicious  傻的 ◆ 明智的

daguerreotype  n.早期银板照相法
daguerreotype•photograph=musket•firearm  早期银板照相法•照相=早期火枪•火枪

dais  (a raised platform, as in a lecture hall, for speakers or honored guests)
dais•honor=stadium•compete 主席台能够给客人礼遇=运动场能够竞赛
【注:honor:to regard or treat with honor or respect 礼遇;给予客人礼遇】

dally  (to waste time ;loiter)
dally•times=quander•money  虚度•时间=浪费•金钱 (前者浪费后者)

damper  (a dulling or deadening influence)
damper ◆ ameliorator  抑制因素 ◆ 改进物

dandy  n.纨□子弟,好打扮的人
dandy•preen=miser•hoard  纨□子弟•打扮=吝啬鬼•储藏

dank  (unpleasantly moist or wet)
dank•moisture=dappled•spot  阴湿的•潮湿=有斑点的•斑点(同义)

dapper  (neat ,trim or smart in dress or demeanor)
slovenly•dapper =indulgent•adherent  不修边幅的•衣冠楚楚的=放纵的•信徒的(反义)
dapper ◆ frowsy/unkempt/slovenly  干净的 ◆ 肮脏的/不整洁的/邋遢的

dappled adj. 有斑点的,花的
dappled•spot=striated•groove有斑点的•小点=有条纹的•刻痕

daredevil  (a recklessly bold person)
daredevil•audacity=malcontent•dissatisfaction 大胆的人•大胆=不满者•不满意
prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton 审慎•鲁莽的人=聪慧•笨蛋

dart  vi. 疾驰,飞奔 n.标枪
dart•missile=skiff•boat  标枪•发射物=小划艇•船(种属)
move•dart=descend•plummet  移动•疾驰=下降•飞速下坠

daunt  (to overcome with fear; intimidate)
fearless•daunt=impassive•perturb  无畏的不会胆怯=冷漠的不会被打扰
dauntless•intimidate=irrepressible•restrain  大胆的•使害怕=抑制不住的•抑制
dauntless•trepidation=footloose•attachment  大胆的•害怕=自由的•附着 (反义)
daunt ◆ embolden/make resolute/hearten 使胆怯 ◆ 使大胆/使坚定/鼓舞
dauntless ◆ craven/easily discouraged/pusillanimous/meek/trepid/timorous
大胆的 ◆ 胆小的/容易气馁的/胆怯的/温和的/惊恐的/胆小的
undaunted ◆ cowed  无畏的 ◆ 胆怯的

dawdle  (to waste by trifling;idle)
hie ◆ dawdle  匆忙 ◆ 游手好闲

deadpan (wooden; impassive)
deadpan•impassive=impudent•brazen=insightful•discerning
无表情的•冷漠的=厚颜无耻的•厚颜无耻的=富有洞察力的•有鉴别力的(同义)

dearth  (an inadequate supply)
dearth ◆ plethora/spate/copiousness  缺乏 ◆ 过剩/大量/丰富

debacle (breaking up; downfall)
debacle ◆ complete success/□clat  溃败 ◆ 大成功

debark  (to unload, as from a ship or an airplane)
debark•ship=unload•truck 从船上卸载=从卡车上卸货

debase  (to reduce in quality value, or dignity)
debase•status=chill•temperature  降低•地位=使变冷•温度
debase•value=constrict•diameter  贬低•价值=压缩•直径
debased ◆ ennobled  出身低微的 ◆ 出身高贵的
debasement ◆ deification  贬低 ◆ 神化

debilitate  (to make weak;enfeeble)
debilitate•strength=attenuate•thickness  使衰弱•力量=拉薄•厚度
debilitate ◆ invigorate/fortify  使衰弱 ◆ 鼓舞/加强

debris  (the remains of something broken down or destroyed)
debris•destroy=ash•burn残骸•破坏=灰烬•烧(前者由后者造成)

debunk  (to expose the sham or falseness of)
debunk ◆ perpetuate to sham/unexposure 揭穿真面目 ◆ 永远的伪装/隐藏

debut  (a first public appearance)
debut•career=embark•journey  初次登场是职业生涯的开始=上船是旅行的开始
debut ◆ farewell performance  初次登场 ◆ 告别演出

decadence  (the act or process of falling into decay)
decadence ◆ wholesomeness  衰落 ◆ 健康

decant  (to pour liquor gently so as not to disturb the sediment)
decantation•pour=subterfuge•deceive  倾注•灌注=托词•欺骗(后者程度强)

decibel (音量单位)
decibel•loudness=light-year•distance  分贝•响度=光年•距离(事物及其衡量单位)

decipher  (to decode ,as something written in cipher)
decipher•hieroglyph=separate•component=break•code
破解•象形文字=分离•组分=破解•密码

decode  vt. 解码,译解
indecipherable•decoded=unmanageable•controlled  不可解的•破解的=难管的•可控的
encoded•decode=tacit•infer  加密的需解码=暗示的需推断

decorum (propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance)
gaffe•decorum=miscalculation•judgment 失态•礼仪=错误的判断•裁判
decorum ◆ impropriety  礼仪 ◆ 不适当
decorous ◆ mangy/unseemly  有礼貌的 ◆ 低贱的/不体面的
indecorous ◆ proper  不合礼节的 ◆ 适当的

decrepit  (weakened by old age; worn out by long use)
vigorous健壮的sturdy健壮的sound健康的robust健壮的hale强壮的

default (failure to act in meeting financial obligations)
default•pay=yield•resist  拖欠•支付=屈服•坚持(反义)
default ◆ fullfill an obligation/pay one's debt  违约拖欠 ◆ 履行义务/偿还债务

defer  v.推迟,延期,听从
arrogance•defer=lassitude•stir  傲慢•听从=疲乏•激起(难以关系)
exigent ◆ deferrable  紧急的 ◆ 可延期的

deference  (respectful regard)
deference•authority=emulation•exemplar  尊重•权威=效法•榜样
reverent•deference=exemplary•imitation  虔诚的•尊重=可仿效的•模仿(因果)
defer•leader=admire•hero  尊重•领导=赞美•英雄
deferential•offend=scornful•respect  尊重的不会冒犯=轻蔑的不会尊敬
deferential•sycophant=frugal•penurious  尊重的•奉承的=节俭的•吝啬的(褒贬)
deferential ◆ imperious/impudent  尊重的 ◆ 专横的/无礼的
deference ◆ contempt  尊重 ◆ 轻视

list 9  deficiency--------dilute

deficiency  (insufficiency, an amount that is lacking or inadequate)
deficiency ◆ surfeit  缺乏 ◆ 过度

defile  (山间)小道  v. 弄污,弄脏
defile•narrowness=precipice•steepness 小道•狭窄=悬崖•陡峭(正面特征)

defoliant  n. 脱叶剂, 落叶剂
defoliants•leave=insecticide•insect  落叶剂•树叶=杀虫剂•虫

deforest  vt.采伐森林,清除树林
deforestation•tree=insecticide•insect 采伐森林•树木=除虫•虫

deft  (skillful ,nimble ,facile)
maladroit•deft=voluble•terse  笨拙的•灵巧的=滔滔不绝的•简短的
deft ◆ awkward/maladroit/ham-handed  灵巧的 ◆ 笨拙的/笨拙的/笨手笨脚的

defuse  (to make less dangerous or tense)
defuse ◆ foment  抚慰 ◆ 煽动

defy  vt.公然反抗,违抗to resist boldly or openly
defy ◆ acquiesce/obey  违抗 ◆ 勉强同意/尊从

dehydrate  (to remove water from)
desiccated•dehydration=abraded•friction  脱水的•脱水=摩擦的•摩擦
dehydrate•water=fade•brightening= detoxify•poison
脱水•水=褪色•明亮=解毒•毒性(消除关系)
dehydration•moisture=descent•altitude=desertification•vegetation
脱水•潮湿=降落•高度=沙漠化•植被(消除关系)
dehydrate ◆ reconstitute/sature with water  脱水 ◆ 复原/饱和水

deify  (to worship or revere as a god)
deification ◆ debasement  神化 ◆ 贬低
deify ◆ watch with contempt  神化 ◆ 蔑视

deject  (to make gloomy in spirits)adj.沮丧的
hearten•dejection=mollify•anger  振作•沮丧=平息•生气(消除关系)
deject ◆ gladden  使沮丧 ◆ 使高兴
dejected ◆ exultant  沮丧的 ◆ 欢跃的

deleterious  (injurious to healthy ;harmful)
beneficial/ salutary/ salubrious/ wholesome有益的/有益健康的

deliberate  (to think about decisions carefully)
brash•deliberation=candor•subterfuge  仓促•深思熟虑=直率•托词(反义)
caprice•deliberation=impromptu•rehearsal  善变•深思熟虑=即席演出•排练(反义)
hasty ◆ characterized by deliberation草率的 ◆ 深思熟虑的
impetuous ◆ deliberate冲动的 ◆ 审慎的

delicacy  (fineness)(something delightful or pleasing)
chiaroscuro•contrast=filigree•delicacy  明暗配合•对比=复杂金银细丝工艺品•精致
delicacy ◆ crudity  精致 ◆ 粗制
husky ◆ delicate  粗糙的 ◆ 精致的

delirium  (a mental disturbance)
delirium•confusion=coma•unconsciousness  精神错乱•混乱=昏迷•无意识(同义)

delusion  (an abnormal mental state)
delusion•thought=hallucination•perception  错觉•想法=幻觉•感觉(前者是后者的异常)
transparent ◆ delusive 容易理解的 ◆ 迷惑的

deluge  (a great flood, inundation)
droplet•deluge=pebble•landslide  小水滴•大洪水=小圆石•山崩
rain•deluge=wind•hurricane  雨•豪雨=风•飓风
deluge ◆ drizzle  豪雨 ◆ 毛毛雨

delve  (to make a careful or detailed search for information)
delve•skim=scrutinize•gloss=quaff•sip  探究•浏览=细看•简短注释=痛饮•啜吸(程度)

demagogue  n. 煽动者,蛊惑民心的政客
demagogue•instruct=shirk•malinger  煽动者•指示=逃避者•逃避工作(人物典型动作)

demanding  (making difficult or excessive demands)
demanding•satisfactory=adulterate•pristine  苛求的•满意=掺假的•纯净

demolition  n. 破坏,毁坏;毁坏之遗迹
rehabilitate•demolition=recycle•disposal  复原•破坏=再利用•处理(反义)

demonstrate  (to prove or make clear by reasoning or evidence)
demonstrable ◆ unable to prove 可论证的 ◆ 不能证明的

demoralize  vt. 使道德颓废;使堕落;挫折锐气
demoralize ◆ invigorate/cheer  士气受挫 ◆ 鼓舞

demotic (popular)
demotic ◆ profound  通俗的 ◆ 深刻的

demur  (to make objection ,esp. on the grounds of scruples)
demur•objection=praise•approbation  提出异议•反对=赞美•嘉许
demur•qualms=waver•irresoluteness  表示异议•疑虑=踌躇•犹豫不决
demur ◆ accept/accede  表示异议 ◆ 接受/同意

denigrate  (to cast aspersions on•disparage)
denigrate ◆ honor  诋毁 ◆ 尊敬

denouement  (小说的)结尾,结局
joke•punch line=plot•denouement  笑话•妙语=情节•结局
【注:punch line•the statement (as in a joke) that makes the point.
就是相声或笑话中抖响包袱的那句话,和小说结局一样使悬念解开。】

denounce  (to condemn or censure openly or publicly)
admonish•denounce=punish•pillory  警告•公开指责=惩罚•公开嘲弄(正常•公开)
denunciation•denial=castigation•reproof  驳斥•否定=苛责•谴责
denounce ◆ brace/condone  指责 ◆ 支持/宽恕
denunciation ◆ accolade/eulogy/panegyric  谴责 ◆ 赞扬/赞词/赞扬

dent  (a depression made by pressure)
dent ◆ convex  凹陷 ◆ 凸起

denture n.假牙
denture•teeth=toupee•hair  假牙•牙齿=假发•头发

denude  (to strip of all covering or surface layers; bare)
denude ◆ cover 脱去 ◆ 遮蔽

despise (to regard with contempt or aversion;scorn)(to hate)
despise ◆ venerate  蔑视 ◆ 尊敬

deplete (to lessen markedly in content, power, or value)
enrich ◆ deplete  使富有 ◆ 耗尽

deplore (regret)(to consider deserving of deprecation)
accolade/extol/laud/commend/applaud赞美

deploy  (the removal from a country of an alien)
deportation•country=eviction•dwelling=expel•school驱逐•国家=逐出•住处=开除•学校
depose  (to testify to under oath or by affidavit);免职
perjure ◆ depose  作伪证 ◆ 作证

deposit vt.沉淀 n.沉淀,押金
deposit ◆ process of eroding  沉淀 ◆ 腐蚀过程

depravity  (a corrupt act or practice)
doldrums•energy=depravity•virtue  消沉•精力=堕落•品德(前者缺乏后者)

deprecate  (to express earnest disapproval of)
deprecate•value=restrict•diameter  贬低•价值=限定•直径
extol赞美/vaunt自夸/endorse赞成

depreciate  v. 贬低,贬值  to lower the price or estimated value of
self depreciate•swagger=fawn•hauteur(imperiousness)  自贬•吹嘘=奉承•傲慢
depreciation•valuable=ossification•flexible  贬值•有价值的=僵化•灵活的

depressed  (low in spirits:SAD; especially:affected by psychological depression)
despondent• depressed=expert• skilled 意气消沉的•沮丧的 = 熟练的•熟练的(同义)

deprivation  (the state of being deprived)(loss)
deprivation ◆ fecundity/surfeit  损失,匮乏 ◆ 丰饶/过量

deracinate  (uproot)
deracinate ◆ plant  根除 ◆ 种植

derelict  adj.玩忽职守的 n.被遗弃的人
stickler•derelict=poseur•unaffected坚持己见者•玩忽职守的=装模做样的人•自然的
derelict ◆ extremely careful  玩忽职守的 ◆ 特别仔细的
derelict ◆ pillar of society  被遗弃的人 ◆ 国之栋梁

deride  (to laugh at in scorn or contempt; mock)
deride•mockery=patronize•condescension  嘲笑•嘲笑=屈尊俯就•屈尊俯就(同义)
scoff•derisive=pontificate•pompous=drawl•slow=bluster•loud=prate•aimless
嘲笑•嘲笑的=装模作样的说话•傲慢的=慢吞吞的说•慢的=咆哮•高声的=空谈•无目的的
sneer•derision=smirk•smugness 讥笑•嘲笑=假笑•装模做样(前者表达后者)
gibe•derision=condolence•sympathy(compassion)=apologize•regret
嘲笑•嘲笑=哀悼•同情=道歉•忏悔(前者表达后者)
deride ◆ praise  嘲笑 ◆ 赞美
derision ◆ veneration  嘲笑 ◆ 尊敬

derivative  (lacking originality•banal)
derivative ◆ original/precursory/innovative  无创意的 ◆ 原创的/先驱的/创新的

descend (to pass from a higher place or level to a lower one)
descend•altitude=dehydrate•moisture  降落•高度=脱水•潮湿 (前者消除后者)

descendant  (one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype)
descendants ◆ forbears 后代 ◆ 祖先

desecrate  (to treat with sacrilege;profane)
desecrate ◆ sanctify/revere/hallow  亵渎 ◆ 尊敬/尊敬/视为神圣

desiccate  (to preserve(a food)by drying•dehydrate)
desiccant•dry=caustic•eat away  使干燥的•干燥=腐蚀性的•侵蚀
desiccant•moisture=cleanser•dirt=deceleration•velocity
干燥剂•潮湿=清洁剂•脏=减速•速度(前者消除后者)
desiccate ◆ add water to加水drench湿透 hydrate与水化合

designate  (entitle)
appellation•designate= foreword•introductory  称呼用来命名=前言用来介绍

despicable  adj. 可鄙的,卑劣的
despicable•contempt=reprehensible•censure  可鄙的•鄙视=应受斥责的•斥责
despicable•scorn=venerable•reverence  可鄙的•轻视=值得尊敬的•尊敬
despicable•valuable=mulish•flexible  卑劣的•有价值的=顽固的•灵活的(反义)

despotic  adj.专制的,暴虐的
despotic•tyranny=generous•liberality  暴虐的•暴政=慷慨的•慷慨大方

dessert n. 餐后甜点
dessert•meal=epilogue•play=coda•sonata  餐后甜点•一餐=收场白•戏剧=尾声•奏鸣曲

desultory  (lacking in consistency or order)
desultory•plan=languid•energy=facile•profundity
散漫的•计划=疲倦的•精力=容易的•深刻(前者缺乏后者)
carefully planned 精心计划的 strictly methodical 有系统的assiduous 勤勉的

detach  (unfasten or separate)(to sent on a special mission)
tether ◆ detach  束缚 ◆ 分离

detain  (to keep under restraint)(to keep from processing)
detain ◆ manumit  拘留 ◆ 释放

deter  vt. 制止,威慑
intrepid•deter=rapt•distract  无畏的难以威慑=全神贯注的难以分心
deter ◆ spur  制止 ◆ 激励
deterrent ◆ inducement/incentive  制止 ◆ 引诱/刺激

deterioration  n.恶化;堕落
deterioration ◆ improvement/amelioration  恶化 ◆ 改进/改善

detour  (to avoid by going around ;bypass)
detour•route=digress•topic  绕路而行•路线=偏题•主题

detoxification  n. 解毒
detoxification•poison=neutralization•acid  解毒•毒性=中和•酸性

detract (to take away a part ,as from value or reputation)
detract ◆ extol  谴责 ◆ 赞美

detritus  (a product of disintegration, destruction);废墟
detritus ◆ valuable product  废品 ◆ 有用的物品

devoted adj. 投入的,深爱的,忠诚的
devoted•zealous=careful•fastidious  深爱的•热情的=细心的•仔细注意的 ()
fanatic•devoted=prude•proper  极端的狂热者•投入的=过分正经的•合乎礼教(程度)
devotional•reverence=elegiac•sorrow  虔诚的•尊敬=挽歌的•悲痛(同义)

devout  (devoted to religion)
religion•devout=canon•orthodoxy  宗教•虔诚的=正典•正统的(后者尊崇前者)
impiety ◆ devoutness  不虔诚 ◆ 虔诚

dew  n. 露水
dew•condensation=rust•corrosion  露水•冷凝=锈•腐蚀(前者由后者形成)

dexterous  (skillful and competent with the hands)
dexterous•manipulate=prescient•predict  灵巧的•灵巧的操作=预见性的•预言

diabolic  (devilish; fiendish)
diabolic ◆ benefic  魔鬼一般的 ◆ 慈善的
diabolical ◆ seraphic  魔鬼一般的 ◆ 天使一般的

diaphanous  (very sheer and light, nearly transparent)
diaphanous ◆ opaque/substantial/impermeable of light
几乎透明的 ◆ 不透明的/实质的/不透光的

diatribe  (a abusive denunciation ,criticism or writing)
diatribe•abuse= declamation•grandiloquence  抨击•辱骂=雄辨•豪言壮语(后是前的特征)
diatribe•discourse=lullaby•song  抨击性演说•演说=摇篮曲•歌曲(种属)
diatribe ◆ encomium/ laudatory piece of writing  抨击 ◆ 赞美/赞赏作品

didactic  (intended for instruction ;moralizing or preaching)
didactic•teach=hortatory•urge=comic•amuse=fantastic•amaze
教诲的•教育=激励的•激励=喜剧的•使发笑=奇异古怪的•使惊异(前因后果)

die  v.模具
die•shaping=drill•boring =reel•winding  模具•成形=钻子•钻孔=线轴•缠绕

diehard (person who vigorously resists change)
diehard•budge=vagary•predict  死硬分子•动摇=奇特行为•预知(难以关系)

diffident  (hesitant through lack of self-confidence)
brassy/ brazen 厚颜无耻的nervy 勇敢的bold 大胆的 expansive健谈的

diffuse (being at once verbose and ill-organized)
aphorism•diffuse=euphemism•offensive  箴言•罗嗦的=委婉•冒犯性的
diffuse ◆ succinct  罗嗦的 ◆ 简洁的

digit  (a human finger or toe)数字
finger•digit=fang•tooth  手指•手指或脚趾=尖牙•牙(前者属于后者)

digress (to turn aside especially from the main subject)
digress•excursive=reiterate•redundant 离题•离题的=重申•累赘的
digressive•topic=stray•group=random•pattern =aberrant•standardt=circuitous•route
离题的•主题=迷路的•人群=随机的•样式=异常的•标准=迂回的•路线(前者偏离后者)
aside•digression=summary•excerpt  偏离•离题=摘要•摘录(同义)

dilapidate  (使)(to fallen into of decay or partial ruin)
dilapidated ◆ still in use/ restored  荒废的 ◆ 还在使用/ 恢复使用的

dilate  (to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent)
dilate ◆ contract/ narrow  使膨胀 ◆ 收缩/使变狭窄

dilatory  (tending to delay or procrastination)
dilatory•procrastinate=malcontent•complain  拖延的•拖拉=不满的•抱怨(同义)
dilatory ◆ precipitate 拖拉的 ◆ 轻率的
dilatoriness ◆ alacrity  拖拉 ◆ 敏捷

dilettante  (dabbler)
dilettante•commitment=nonentity•consequence
业余爱好者•致力=无足轻重者•重要性(缺乏)
dilettante•superficiality=partisan•bias  业余爱好者•肤浅=党派支持者•偏见(正面特征)

diligent  (constant and earnest in effort and application)
diligent•effort=malign•ill will  勤勉的•努力=有害的•恶意(名形同义)
diligence•effort=satire•lampoon  勤奋•努力=讽刺•讽刺(同义)
procrastination ◆ diligence  拖拉 ◆ 勤勉

dilute  (to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture)
dilute•concentration=slacken•tautness 稀释•浓度=松弛•紧张(动宾关系)

list 10  dimension -----dolt

dimension  n. 尺寸;维度
congruent•dimension=coeval•age全等的•尺寸=同时代的•时代(形容词及其相关对象)
measure•dimensions=calibrate•diameter=gauge•pressure=plumb•depth
q•尺寸=确定口径•直径=测定•压力=测量深度•深度(动词及其作用对象)

diminish  (to make or become smaller ,less, or less important)
diminish ◆ increase/escalate  减少 ◆ 增加/增大

din  (a loud continued noise)
din•ear =stench•nose  嘈杂声•耳朵=恶臭•鼻子
din ◆ hush/silence  喧闹声 ◆ 安静/安静

dingy  (a dark, dull ,or dirty color)
dingy•glisten=slippery•adhere 暗黑的不反光=滑溜的不粘附
【注:coarse•polish 为错误选项。粗糙的•磨光 不是反面特征关系,如果换成光滑或者精致就对
了粗糙的不光滑,不精致】

diocesan  (a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese)
diocesan ◆ ecumenical  教区的 ◆ 全世界的

diplomatic  (of or engaged in diplomacy)(tactful or suave)
diplomatic•tact=genial•bonhomie  有策略的•机智=温和的•温和
diplomat•tact=inventor•ingenuity  外交家•机智=发明家•独创性

dire  (dismal,oppressive);可怕的
dire ◆ pleasant悲惨的 ◆ 快乐的

dirge  (a song or hymn of grief or lamentation)□
dirge•music=elegy•poetry  挽歌•音乐=悲歌•诗情(种属)
dirge•grief=paean•praise  挽歌•忧伤=赞美歌•赞美

disabuse  (to free from error, fallacy, or misconception)
disabuse•fallacy/misconception=cure•diseaser=rehabilitate•addiction=loose•confinement
纠正•错误/误解=治疗•疾病=使复原•沉溺=放松•限制(前者消除后者)
disabuse ◆ lead into error/ mislead  纠正 ◆ 导致错误/误导

disaffected  (discontented especially against authority)
disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment(conviction) =anxious•serenity
不满的•满足=可疑的•托付(确信)/担忧的•平静(形容词与名词的反义关系)
disaffected•rebel=officious•meddle  叛离的•造反=多管闲事的•干涉(人物典型行为)
disaffected ◆ contented/win over/ beloved  不满的 ◆ 满足的/争取过来的/心爱的
disaffect ◆ mollify  使敌对 ◆ 平息

disarm  (to deprive of reason to be hostile)
disarm ◆ put on gard  解除武装 ◆ 全副武装
bait ◆ disarm  使恼火 ◆ 消除疑虑敌意

disarray  (to throw into disorder, confusion)
shipshape•disarray=squalid•cleanliness  井然有序的•杂乱=肮脏的•干净

disavow (to disclaim responsibility for)
disavow ◆ affirm  否认 ◆ 承认
disavowal ◆ admission/acknowledgement  否认 ◆ 允许/承认

discern (to dismiss from employment)
discharge ◆ hire  解雇 ◆ 雇佣

disciple  n.信徒,门徒
disciple•follow=apologist•defend  信徒•追随=辩护者•辩护(人物典型行为)

discombobulate  (to confuse or disconcert)
discombobulated•order=erratic•consistency  混乱的•秩序=游移的•连续(前缺乏后)
discombobulate ◆ compose  使混乱 ◆ 使安定

discomfit  (to confuse and deject)
discomfit•blush=contempt•sneer  使窘迫•脸红=鄙视•讥笑(后者体现前者)
discomfit ◆ mollify  使窘迫 ◆ 平息

discommode  (to cause inconvenience to;trouble)
convenience方便 pacificate ease/mollify 安抚assist帮助oblige施恩惠

discompose  (to destroy the composure of)
discompose•pacific=fabricate•authentic=engage•tedious
使不安•平息的=捏造•真实的=使忙碌•单调乏味的(反义)
discompose•placid=fabricate•ingenuous 使不安•平息的=编造•坦白的
discompose ◆ pacificate  使不安 ◆ 使镇静

disconcert  (to disturb the self-possession of ,perturb)
disconcert ◆ placate  使仓皇失措 ◆ 安抚

discord (lack of agreement or harmony)
discordant•sound=anachronistic•time  声音不和谐的•声音=时代错误的•时代
discord ◆ harmony  声音不和谐的 ◆ 和谐的

discourse  n. 演说;论文
diatribe•discourse=lullaby•song  攻击性演说•演说=摇篮曲•歌曲(种属)

discredit  (to injure the reputation)
invective•discredit=exhortation•motivate  辱骂•羞辱=劝诫性的讲话•推动(行为及其目的)
discredit•reputation=injure•well-being  羞辱•名誉=损害•健康(前者破坏后者)

discrepancy  (divergence or disagreement)
discrepancy ◆ converge/ concord  差异 ◆ 汇聚/和睦
discrepant ◆ consonant 不一致的 ◆ 协调一致的

discrete  (apart or detached from others)
discrete•overlap=infinite•exhaust  离散的不会重叠=无穷无尽的不会彻底耗尽
discrete ◆ continuous  不连续的 ◆ 连续的

discretion  (exercised at one's own discretion)
obligatory/ mandatory强制性的  preordain命中注定的

discriminate  (to note a difference)
epicure•discriminating=spectator•watching=sentinel•watchful
讲究饮食的人•有鉴赏力的=旁观者•观察的=哨兵•警惕的
discriminate•difference=liken•similarity  区别•不同=比拟•相似之处(前者寻找后者)
equitable ◆ discriminatory  公平的 ◆ 差别对待的

discursive  (moving from topic to topic without aim)
keen on title关注主题的 succinct简明扼要的concentrated集中的

disdain (treat with scorn or contempt)
snub•disdain=double-cross•disloyalty  冷落•鄙视=叛变•不忠诚(前者体现后者)
disdain ◆ treat favorably/adulation  轻视 ◆ 亲切地对待/谄媚

disengage  (uncouple; separate; disconnect)
disengage ◆ mesh  分开 ◆ 啮合  【注:engage=mesh 都是机械用语,啮合。】

disgorge  (surrender something)(vomit)
disgorge ◆ swallow  吞下ingest咽下

disgruntle  (make discontented)
disgruntle ◆ refresh  使不高兴 ◆ 使精神振奋
disgruntled ◆ contented  不满意的 ◆ 满足的

disguise  (to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity)
disguise•identification=camouflage•detection  假装•鉴定=伪装•察觉(反义)
disguise•recognition=padding•damage  假扮•认出=垫料•损害(前者防止后者)

disinclination  (slight aversion)
aversion•disinclination=adulation•admiration  强烈的厌恶•厌恶=谄媚•赞美(前者过分)
disinclination ◆ leaning/proclivity /bent  厌恶 ◆ 爱好倾向
loquacity ◆ disinclination to speak  多舌 ◆ 不愿说话

disinfect  (to free from infection)
antiseptic•disinfect=oil•lubricate  抗菌剂•杀菌=油•润滑
aseptic•disinfection=anesthetic•numbness  防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木

disjointed  adj.脱节的;杂乱的
disjointed•coherence=banal•originality  杂乱的•一致=陈腐的•新颖
disjointed ◆ orderly  杂乱的 ◆ 整齐的

disinter  v.掘出
disinter ◆ bury  掘出 ◆ 埋葬

disinterested  (free from selfish motive or interest;unbiased)
disinterested•partisanship=venal•probity  公平的•党派偏见=贪污的•正直
factional ◆ disinterested  派系的 ◆ 无偏见的
iniquity ◆ disinterestedness  极不公正 ◆ 无偏见

disjunctive  (marked by breaks or disunity)
disjunctive•unity=nominal•significance  分离的不统一=有名无实的不重要

dismantle  (to take to pieces)
dismantle•unity=adulterate•pristine  拆除•整体=掺假•纯净(前者消除后者)

dismay  n.沮丧,惊慌v.使沮丧,使惊慌
dismay ◆ hearten  沮丧 ◆ 振作鼓舞

disparage  (belittle)
disparage•ignore=scorn•reject 贬低•忽视=轻蔑•拒绝(前者体现后者)
aggrandize夸大champion拥护extol 赞扬kudos荣誉revere尊敬adulate奉承

disparate  (basically different)(unrelated)
disparate ◆ analogous/like/ similar  不同的 ◆ 类似的/相似的/相似的
diaparate ◆ homogeneous  不相关的 ◆ 同类的

dispassionate  (calm)(impartial)
dispassionate ◆ responsive  冷静的 ◆ 反应迅速的
dispassionate ◆ partial /biased  公正的 ◆ 偏袒的/偏袒的

dispatch  (speedy action) v. 派遣,一下做完
dispatch ◆ leisureliness  迅速 ◆ 悠然

dispose (incline)(dispose of 与of连用)
recycle•disposal=rehabilitate•demolition  重复利用•处理掉=修复•摧毁破坏(反义)
disposed ◆ disinclined 有倾向的 ◆ 无倾向的

disregard  v.不重视,漠视
flout•disregard=taunt•challenge  愚弄嘲笑•漠视=嘲弄•公然挑战(前者表达后者)
disregard ◆ nurture  漠视 ◆ 培育

disrupt (to break apart)(to disturb or interrupt)
saboteur•disrupt=apologist•defend  蓄意破坏者•打断破坏=辩解者•辩护

dissect (to cut apart to examine the structure)
specimen•dissect=sentence•parse  样本•仔细剖析=句子•语法分析(后者分析前者)

dissemble  (to put on a false appearance)
dissemble•honesty=snub•politeness  掩饰•诚实=冷落怠慢•礼貌(前者缺乏后者)
dissemble•information=masquerade•feeling  隐藏•信息事实=伪装•感情
ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
坦白的•假装=俗艳的•精心打扮=有礼貌的•冷落怠慢
dissemble ◆ behave honestly  隐藏 ◆ 诚实
dissembling ◆ candid  隐藏的 ◆ 坦白的

disseminate  (to scatter or spread widely)
disseminate•information=foment•discontentment 传播•信息=激起•不满意
disseminate ◆ garner/ nucleate 散播 ◆ 储存/聚集成核【注:garner v. 储存 n. 谷仓】

dissension  (strong disagreement or discord)
concord ◆ dissension  一致和谐 ◆ 意见不合

dissent (to differ in opinion or sentiment)
dissenter•orthodox=maverick•group  持异议者不正统=独来独往者不合群
dissent ◆ conform  不同意 ◆ 使顺从

dissipate  (dispel)(squander)(to be dissolute)
husbandry•dissipate=alacrity•procrastinate  节约•浪费=敏捷•拖拉(反义)
dissipation•temperation=fecundity•sterility  放荡•自我节制=多产•不肥沃(反义)
dissipate ◆ accumulate/ gather/amass  驱散 ◆ 积累/积聚/积聚

dissolute  (indifferent to moral restrains)
libertine•dissolute=wag•humorous  放荡不羁的人•放荡的=风趣的人•幽默风趣的

dissolve  (to cause to pass into solution)(disintegrate)
dissolve•insoluble=bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant
溶解•不溶的=弯曲•坚硬不可弯曲的=浸没•有浮力的
solvent•dissolve=coagulant•thicken=caustic•burn
溶剂•溶解=凝结剂•变浓厚=腐蚀剂•灼烧(药剂功用)
clot•dissolved=crowd•dispersed  凝结•溶解的=人群•分散的
consolidate ◆ dissolve 使联合 ◆ 解散
dissolve ◆ coagulate  溶解 ◆ 凝结

dissonance  (lack of agreement, harmony)
dissonance ◆ concord  不和谐 ◆ 和谐

dissuade  (to deter by advice or persuasion)
protest•dissuade=supplicate•entreaty  提出异议反对•劝阻=恳求•请求(同义)
remonstrance•dissuade=reprehension•censure  抗议•劝阻=斥责•指责(同义)
resolute•dissuade=obstreperous•control  坚决的难以劝阻=任性的难以控制
inexorable•dissuasion=indomitable•conquest  无动于衷的•劝阻=不可征服的•征服
dissuade ◆ abet/enhance  劝阻 ◆ 怂恿并帮助/促进

distain v. 贬损,伤害名誉
contemptible•distain=hilarious•laugh  可鄙的•贬损=欢闹的•笑(形容词与其相关对象)

distal  (situated away from the point of attachment or origin or
a central point especially of the body)
distal ◆ proximal  远离中心的 ◆ 接近中心的,最接近的
【注:proximal:next to or nearest the point of attachment or origin, a central point, or the
point of view;especially:located toward the center of the body 最接近的】

distend (expand;swell out)
distend ◆ constrict  膨胀 ◆ 压缩
distention ◆ compression  膨胀 ◆ 压缩

distill v. 蒸馏
distill•pure=liquefy•fluid  蒸馏•纯净的=使液化•流动的(前者造成后者)
distill•purity=leaven•volume  蒸馏提高纯度=发酵扩大体积
distillate•purity=synopsis•conciseness  馏出物•纯=大纲•简明 【注:distillate n.馏出物】

distort (to reproduce or amplify inaccurately)
distortion•caricature=brevity•aphorism  歪曲•滑稽模仿=简短•箴言(前者是后者特征)

distract  (to divert in the mind)(to disturb or trouble greatly)
rapt•distract=intrepid•deter  全心投入的•分心=无畏的•威吓
rapt ◆ distracted  全心投入的 ◆ 分心的

distraught  (bewildered)
troubled•distraught=covetous•rapacious  扰乱的•极其烦恼的=渴望的•贪婪的(程度)
distraught ◆ composed  心神狂乱的 ◆ 镇静的

ditty  (an especially simple and unaffected song)
fable•tale=ditty•song 寓言(通常短小的故事)•故事=小曲•歌曲(种属)
ditty•oratorio=anecdote•novel 小曲•清唱剧=轶事•小说(种属)

diurnal (occurring in the daytime; daily)□
diurnal ◆ nocturnal/ chiefly active at night  白昼的 ◆ 夜晚的/在夜间活动的

diverge (vary; go in different directionsfrom the same point)
diverge•apart=traverse•across 分岔•分开地=横越•交叉(同义)
aside•divergent=ad-lib•impromptu  插入语•偏离的=即兴演讲•即兴的
diverge ◆ come together  分歧 ◆ 一致
divergence ◆ unification/ confluence  分歧 ◆ 统一/汇合

diversity  n.差异;多样性
diversity ◆ uniformity 多样性 ◆ 一致性

divert  vt.使转向 to turn from one course or use to another,deflect
divert•shunt=retard•brake  使转向•使车转向=减速•刹车(行为及其交通上的行为)

divestiture  (the act of divesting)
divestiture ◆ acquisition  剥夺 ◆ 获得
divest ◆ endow 剥夺 ◆ 捐赠,

divulge (to make known as a secret)
divulge ◆ keep secret  泄漏秘密 ◆ 保密

dodder  (to progress feebly and unsteadily)
dodder•unsteady=cavort•sprightly  摇摆蹒跚•不平稳的=雀跃•活泼的

dodge  v.避开,躲避n.托词
dodge•blow=escape•capture  躲避•打击=逃避•捕获

doff  (to take off);丢弃;废除
doff ◆ don  脱下 ◆ 穿上

dogged  (marked by stubborn determination)
dogged ◆ easily discouraged/yielded  顽固的 ◆ 容易气馁的/屈服

doggerel  (crude or trivial poetry)
doggerel•poem=sketch•draw  打油诗•诗=草图•图(种属)
doggerel•verse=potboiler•article  打油诗•诗=蹩脚文章•文章(种属)
【注:potboiler:蹩脚文章,蹩脚作家】

dogma  (something held as an established opinion)
dogma•iconoclast=convention•maverick
教条•提倡打破旧习的人=习俗•闹独立的独行者
dogma ◆ heresy 教条 ◆ 异端学说

doldrums  (a dull, depressed mood)
doldrums•energy=depravity•virtue  情绪低落•精力=堕落•美德(前者缺乏后者)

dolorous  (full of or cause pain or sorrow)
dolorous ◆ jubilant / happy / jovial  悲哀忧愁的 ◆ 欢腾的/高兴的

dolt  (a blockhead ;dunce)
dolt•stupid=wag•humorous  傻瓜•愚蠢的=小丑•滑稽的

list 11  domicile --------encomium

domicile  (a dwelling place•place of residence)
nomad•domicile=freelancer•employer  游牧民•住所=自由作家•老板(前者缺乏后者)

domination  (supremacy or preeminence over another)
servile•domination=gullible•chicanery 卑屈的•支配=易受骗的•欺骗
dominant ◆ recessive  (to put on or dress in an article of clothing)
doff ◆ don  脱 ◆ 穿

donor  (one that gives, donates, or presents something)
gift•donor=legacy•predecessor 礼物•捐赠人=遗产•先辈(前者来自后者)

doodle  (to draw or scribble idly)
draw•doodle=travel•ramble  画•乱画=旅行•漫步

dormant adj.睡眠状态的,静止的,休眠的
dormant•inactivity=malleable•plasticity  休眠的•不活跃=易适应的•可塑性
dormancy ◆ activity  休眠 ◆ 活跃

dour  (sullen; gloomy; severe ;stern)
dour•geniality=bumptious•humbleness  严厉的•温和=傲慢的•谦逊
dour ◆ congenial/genial/ jocund  严厉的 ◆ 温和的/欢乐的

downpour  (a heavy , drenching rain)
downpour•flooding=wind•erosion  暴雨•泛滥=风•侵蚀(因果)

doyen  (the senior member of a body or group)
eccentric•conventional=doyen•uninitiated  行为古怪的人•习惯的=老资格•初学的

doze  (to fall into a light sleep; nap)
doze•sleep=nudge•prod 瞌睡•睡觉=轻推•推动(程度)

draconian  (cruel; severe)
draconian•inclemency=fretted•vexation 严峻的•严酷=烦恼的•烦恼(同义)
draconian•severity=palmy•prosperity  严峻的•严格=繁荣的•繁荣
indulgent放纵的 mild温柔的genial亲切的 lenient宽大仁慈的

drawl  (to utter in a slow lengthened tone)
drawl•speak=inch•move=lope•run  慢慢说•说=慢慢移动•移动=大步子慢跑•跑

dreary  (having nothing likely to provide cheer)
dreary ◆ jocund  沉闷的 ◆ 欢乐的

drench  (to wet thoroughly)
drenched•wet=antithetic•different  湿透的•湿的=对立的•不同的(程度)

drivel  (silly or meaningless talk)
nonsensical•drivel=pompous•bombast  无意义的•傻话=夸大的•夸大言辞

drizzle (a very light rain)
drizzle ◆ deluge  毛毛雨 ◆ 大洪水

droll  (having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality)□
droll•laugh=grisly•flinch  好笑的•笑=可怕的•退缩
droll ◆ grave/ serious 严肃的  somber  忧郁的

drone  (to make a continued ,low, monotonous sound)
drone•monotonous=stammer•halting=hiss•sibilant
单调低沉地说•单调的=结巴地说•结结巴巴的=嘘声•□□声的
drone ◆ speak animatedly  单调低沉地说 ◆ 有活力地说

drudgery  (dull, irksome, and fatiguing work)
drudgery ◆ rewarding work  苦差 ◆ 美差

dubious (inclined to doubt ;questionable)
disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment  不满的•满足=可疑的•确信
dubious ◆ certain  不确定的 ◆ 确定的
indubitable ◆ questionable  不容置疑的 ◆ 值得怀疑的

ductile (capable of being drawn out or hammered thin)
ductility•malleable=toxicity•poisonous  延展性•展延性的=毒性•有毒的(同义)

dulcet  (pleasing to the ear; melodious)
dulcet ◆ cacophonous  悦耳的 ◆ 刺耳的

dullard (a stupid or insensitive person)
dullard ◆ wit  愚人 ◆ 机智的人

dune  (a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind)
sand•dune=word•sentence  沙•沙丘=词语•句子(组成关系)

dupe  (to delude by underhand methods)
credulous•dupe=insensitive•boor  轻信的•易受骗的人=感觉迟钝的•粗人
trusting•dupe=reverent•idolater  容易相信的•易受骗的人=恭敬的•崇拜者
dupe•duplicity=callous•impassive  欺骗•伪善=无情的•冷漠(同义)
【注:duplicity:double-dealing; hypocrisy 两面派,伪善】

dwindle v.逐渐缩小;衰落
dwindle•decrease=crawl•proceed  逐渐缩小•减少=爬行•前进(逐渐•正常)
dwindle ◆ increase  缩小 ◆ 增加

dyspeptic  adj.消化不良的;阴郁的;脾气坏的
dyspeptic ◆ genial  脾气坏的 ◆ 和蔼的

dyslexia  n.阅读障碍
dyslexia•read= insomnia•sleep 阅读障碍症•阅读=失眠症•睡觉 (前者难以后者)

eaglet  (a young eagle)
eaglet•bird=fawn•mammal  小鹰•鸟类=小羊•哺乳动物

earnest (proceeding from an serious state of mind)
earnest ◆ facetious  认真的 ◆ 轻浮的

earplug (an ornament inserted in the lobe of the ear to distend it)
earplug•noise=shield•impact  耳塞防止噪音=盾防止冲击

earshot (the range within which the voice may be heard)
earshot • hear=ken • see  听力范围 • 听=视野范围 • 看(行为及其范围)

earsplitting  (distressingly loud or shrill)
earsplitting•loud=heartrending•sad  震耳欲聋•响亮的=心碎的•伤心的(程度)

easel  (An upright frame for supporting something, such as an artist's canvas)
easel•canvas=tripod•camera  画架•画布=三角架•照相机(事物及其支持物)
【注:frame•photograph 绝对错误;本题强调支撑,而不是frame】

eavesdrop  (to listen secretly to what is said in private)
eavesdrop•conversation=trespass•property  偷听谈话=擅闯领地
eavesdrop•hear=shadow•follow  偷听•听到=尾随•跟随 (偷偷•正常)
eavesdrop•listen=collude•cooperate  偷听•听=阴谋•合作 (偷偷•正常)
listener•eavesdropper=observer•spy  听者•偷听者=观察者•间谍(种属)

ebullient  (showing excitement)
ebullient ◆ tepid  热情奔放的 ◆ 不热烈的
ebullience ◆ lifelessness  无生气  impassiveness  无感情  torpor  迟钝

eccentric  (odd;whimsical;irregular)n.行为古怪者
eccentric•conventional=doyen•initiated
行为古怪者:常规=老前辈:入门的(反面典型特征)
eccentric•unconventional=hero•admirable
行为古怪者不符常规=英雄令人钦佩(正面典型特征)
eccentric ◆ ordinary  古怪的 ◆ 常规的

eclat  (a notable success)
eclat ◆ fiasco 大成功 ◆ 大失败

eclipse (darken;extinguish)
eclipse•prestige=enfeeble•vigor  使声望黯淡=使精力衰弱
make distinctive 使与众不同 make more prominent 使更加卓越

ecstasy (a state of being overwhelming emotion)
pleasure•ecstasy=surprise•astonishment  高兴•狂喜=奇怪•震惊(程度)
ecstasy ◆ self-control 狂喜 ◆ 自制

ecumenical  adj.世界范围的;一般性的; n.v.漩涡
eddy•stream=anomaly•trend  旋涡•溪流=异常•趋势 (异常•正常)

edible  (fit to be eaten:)
edible•eat=potable•drink  可食用的能吃=可饮用的能喝

edifice n.大厦;大建筑物
edifice•buttress=limb•splint  扶壁支撑大厦=夹板固定肢体
edifice•tower=barrier•rampart 塔楼是一种大建筑物=壁垒是一种障碍物
blueprint•edifice=syllabus•course  蓝图•大厦=课程提纲•课程(前者规划后者)

efface  (rub out)
aggrandize夸大blazon/emboss装饰bring to preeminent卓越institute建立

effervesce  (bubble)(show liveliness or exhilaration)
effervescence•feeling=fury•anger  欢腾•情绪=狂怒•怒 (程度)
effervescence ◆ be flat/lassitude  欢腾 ◆ 平淡/倦怠
effervesce ◆ droop  欢腾 ◆ 消沉
effervescent ◆ still  欢腾的 ◆ 平静的
effete ◆ hale/sound  衰老的 ◆ 强壮的

effluvium  (noxious smell)(pl.effluvia)
effluvia ◆ desired products  无用之副产品 ◆ 有用的产品

effulgence  (radiant splendor;brilliance)
effulgent•resplendence=bootless•futility  光辉的•辉煌=无用的•无用(名形同义)

effusive  (pouring forth;gushing)
gush•effusive=rage•irate  涌出•喷发的=大怒•发怒的(名形同义)
effusive ◆ lack of emotion/ reticent  感情横溢的 ◆ 缺乏感情的/ 沉默寡言的
effusive ◆  torpid / insensitive 麻木的/ 不敏感的,麻木不仁的

egalitarian  (的)
egalitarian•equity=meliorism•progress 平等主义追求平等=改良论追求改进

egoism  (a doctrine that self-interest is the valid end)
egoism ◆ altruism  利己主义 ◆ 利他主义

elaborate  (full of detail)
elaborate•sketch=fawn•imperiousness  详述•概述=奉承•专横(反义)
elaborate ◆ abstract/simplify  详述 ◆ 摘要/简化

elastic adj.有弹性的;能伸展的
elastic•expand=viable•live  能伸展的•伸展=能活的•活
ephemeral•endure=inelastic•stretch  短暂的无法持久=无弹性的无法伸展
inelastic ◆ extended  无弹性的 ◆ 延伸的

elate  (elated)(to fill with joy)
elate ◆ depress  使兴奋 ◆ 使沮丧
elated ◆ despondent/hangdog  兴高采烈的 ◆ 沮丧的/羞惭的
elation ◆ dejection/wretchedness  高兴 ◆ 沮丧/可怜悲惨

elbow  (the joint of the human arm)
elbow•joint=heart•organ  肘属于关节=心脏属于器官

eleemosynary  (supported by charity)
philanthropist•eleemosynary  慈善家特点是慈善的

elegy  (poem or song expressing lamentation)
elegy•poem=paean•song/tango•dance  挽诗•诗=赞歌•歌/探戈•舞(种属)
elegy•sorrow=hymn•praise/satire•ridicule/eulogy•admiration
哀歌表达悲伤=赞歌表达赞美/讽刺文学表达嘲弄/颂词表达钦佩
elegiac•sorrow=devotional•reverence  哀悼的•悲伤=虔诚的•尊敬(形名同义)

elephantine  adj.象的;巨大的having enormous size or strength
elephantine ◆ microscopic  巨大的 ◆ 微细的

elevate (rank or status)(moral,intellect,culture,spirits)
elevation ◆ debasement 提升 ◆ 降低

elicit  (draw out by discussion)
evoke ◆ fail to elicit 唤起 ◆ 不能引起

ellipsis  (marks indicating an omission or a pause)
apostrophes•word=ellipsis•sentence  撇号省略字=省略号省略句子

elliptical  adj.椭圆的;省略的;朦胧含糊的
elliptical ◆ palpable  朦胧含糊的 ◆ 明显的

elucidate  (explain;enlighten)
elucidate•clarity=abet•encouragement  阐明使清晰=教唆使鼓励
elucidate ◆ garble/obfuscate/obscure  阐明 ◆ 混淆/混乱/晦涩

emaciate  v .使憔悴(to make feeble);减肥
emaciated•thin=apoplectic•angry
憔悴的•瘦=易怒的•生气(褒贬)【注:非程度】
emaciate ◆ invigorate/fatten  使憔悴 ◆ 鼓舞/变胖

emancipate  (to free from bondage)
emancipate ◆ shackle  解放 ◆ 束缚
emancipation ◆ bondage 解放 ◆ 束缚

embargo ban on commerce)
embargo•commerce=quarantine•contact  禁运阻止贸易=隔离阻止接触

embark  (commence)
embarkment•journey=debut•career  上船开始旅行=初次登场开始职业生涯
conclude ◆ embark on  结束 ◆ 开始从事

embarrass  vt.使困窘;妨碍
blush•embarrassment=yawn•sleepiness  脸红表示困窘=打呵欠表示想睡
catastrophe•mishap=humiliation•embarrassment  大灾难•不幸=耻辱•困窘 (程度)
embarrass•shame=console•comfort  使困窘•羞愧=安慰•舒心(后者是前者的结果)
embarrass•mortify=indulge•mollycoddle 使困窘•使苦恼=纵容•溺爱 (同义)
disembarrass•entanglement  使摆脱困扰•困扰(前者消除后者)

embed  (enclose; place in something)
embed ◆ extract  放入 ◆ 取出

embezzle  (to appropriate fraudulently to one's own use)
embezzle•funds=usurp•power  盗用款项=篡夺权力
embezzlement•fraud=forgery•counterfeit  盗用•诈骗=伪造•假冒(前者为后者手段)

embolden  (to instill with boldness or courage)
embolden ◆ abash/ appall/ boggle/ cow/ daunt/ faze/ thwart
使大胆 ◆ 使不安/使胆寒/使惊奇犹豫/吓唬/使胆怯/使狼狈扰乱/阻挠

emboss  (to ornament with raised work)
emboss ◆ flatten out  使凸出来 ◆ 使平坦

embrace (to take up especially readily or gladly)
embrace•affection=blush•embarrassment拥抱表示爱=脸红表示困窘
embrace ◆ abjure/abrogate/eschew/ostracize/renounce/spurn
乐于接受 ◆ 誓绝/废除/避免/放逐/放弃/摒弃

embroider  (to ornament with needlework)
embroider•cloth=chase•metal  在布料上刺绣=在金属上雕琢

emigrate  (使)移居;(使)移民
repatriate•emigration=repeal•ratification  移民了又被遣返=批准了又被撤消
emigrate•exile=enlist•conscript移民•驱逐=从军•强制入伍(后者强制)

eminence  (a position of prominence or superiority)
luminary•eminence=master(maven)•experience 杰出人物有显赫地位=专家有经验
eminent ◆ undistinguished  显赫的 ◆ 平凡的

emollient  adj.使柔软的n. 润滑剂,安慰剂
emollient•soothe=dynamo•generate  润滑药使安慰减轻=发电机使发电
emollient•suppleness=desiccant•dryness  润滑药使柔软=干燥剂使干燥

emulate (to strive to equal or excel)
emulation•exemplar=deference•authority  仿效榜样=遵从权威
emulate•exemplary=obviate•unnecessary 仿效典范的=除去不必要的

enact  (to cause to be by legal and authoritative act)
enact ◆  repeal / rescind  颁布 ◆ 废除
enactment ◆ rescission 颁布 ◆ 废除

enamel  (a usually opaque vitreous composition)
enamel•tooth=bark•tree  牙的表面是珐琅质=树的表面是树皮

encomium  (glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise)
encomium•eulogize=discontent•complain=quibble•cavil
赞扬•颂扬=不满•抱怨=吹毛求疵•挑剔(名词和动词同义)
encomium ◆ harsh criticism  高度赞扬 ◆ 猛烈批评

list 12  encompass ------exhaust

encompass  (surround)(include)
encompass ◆ exclude  包含 ◆ 排除

encumber  v.阻碍;妨碍
encumber ◆ remove impediment  阻碍 ◆ 去除阻碍

endemic (epidemic)
endemic•region=inborn•individual  地方性的是就地域而言=天性的是就个体而言
endemic ◆ exotic/foreign  地方性的 ◆ 外来的/外国的

endorse (to approve openly)
endorse•approval=endow•income 【注:endow :to furnish with an income】
签署•批准=资助•收入(批准后签署意见=有收入后进行资助)
endorsement•policy=rider•bill
签署•政策=法案附文(类似盖公章)•法案(后者经由前者生效)
endorse ◆ deprecate/impugn/oppose publicly  支持 ◆ 抗议/指责/公然反对

enervate  vt.使衰弱
enervate•energy=curtail•period  使精力衰弱=缩减周期
enervate•strength=dispirit•morale  使力量衰弱=使士气泄气
enervate•vigor=eclipse•prestige  使精力衰弱=使声望黯淡
enervate•vitality=debase•value=hamstring•effectiveness
使衰弱:活力=贬低:价值=使残废:效力(前者使后者失效或衰弱)
enervate ◆ fortify/invigorate/strengthen  使衰弱 ◆ 使增强/使精力充沛/变强
enervation ◆ vitality  虚弱 ◆ 生命力

enfranchise  (to endow with the right to vote)
enfranchise•vote=license•practice=illuminate•see
给予选举权可以投票=给予许可证可以实行=照亮使可以看见
enfranchise ◆ enfetter/resubject/subjugate  解放 ◆ 束缚/使再臣服/使屈从

effrontery  (brazen boldness; presumptuousness)
effrontery ◆ decorum  厚颜无耻 ◆ 正派得体
effrontery ◆ timidity  冒犯胆大 ◆ 胆小

engender  (cause; produce)
engender ◆ quash/eradicate  产生 ◆ 撤销/根除

engross (occupy fully)
engrossed•absorbed=intimate•close  全神贯注的•极感兴趣的=亲密的•紧密的

enigma  (puzzle)
enigma•impenetrable=juggernaut•unstoppable
谜的特点是难以弄懂的=摧毁一切的强大力量特点是无法阻碍的
enigmatic ◆ broadly known/free of ambiguity/readily understood
令人费解的 ◆ 广为人知的/不含糊的/浅显易懂的

enlighten  (to give spiritual or intellectual insight to)
explanation•enlighten=equivocation•coax  解释为了启发=含糊话为了哄骗

enmity  (ill will; hatred)
enmity ◆ camaraderie/comity/concord  敌意 ◆ 同志情谊/团结/和睦

ennoble vt.授予爵位;使尊贵
debase ◆ ennoble贬低 ◆ 使尊贵

ennui  (a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction)
ennui•enthusiastic=fervor•apathetic=somnolence•alert
倦怠不热情=热情不冷漠=嗜睡不警惕(名形反义)
ennui ◆ energy/enthusiasm/exuberance/keen interest
倦怠 ◆ 活力/热情/生气盎然/强烈的兴趣

ensemble  n.合唱曲
ensemble ◆ solo  合唱曲 ◆ 独唱曲

ensconce  (to establish or place firmly, comfortably, or snugly)
ensconce ◆  dislodge/ displace/ unsettle  安置 ◆ 驱逐/取代位置/使紊乱
【注:unsettle :to displace from a settled condition】

ensue  (follow)
ensuing ◆ anterior  后来的 ◆ 先前的

entangle  vt. 使纠缠;卷入
exonerate•blame=disentangle•snarl使免除指控•指责=使松开•纠缠(反义)
entangle•involve=grill•question  纠缠•涉及=拷问•提问(程度)
disentangle ◆ snarl  使松开 ◆ 使缠结

enthusiasm  n.狂热;热心
enthusiasm•mania=covet•rapacity=suspicion•paranoia
热心•狂热=渴望•贪婪的=怀疑•偏执狂(多疑症)(褒贬程度)
reverence•respect=avidity•enthusiasm  尊敬•尊敬=热望•热心(同义)
halfhearted ◆ enthusiastic  半心半意的 ◆ 狂热的

entice  (lure; attract; tempt)
goad•enticement=command•entreaty  驱使•诱使=命令•恳求 (主被动关系)
enticement•tempt=affection•love  引诱•引诱=喜爱•爱(名动同义)
enticing ◆ formidable  诱人的 ◆ 可怕的

entrance  (carry away with emotion)n.入口
entrance ◆ bore/ disappoint/ disgust/ repel/ repulse
使入迷 ◆ 使厌烦/使失望/使作呕/令人但反感/使拒绝
entrance ◆ egress  入口 ◆ 出口
entrancing ◆ unprepossessing  使人欣喜的 ◆ 不讨人喜欢的

entrap  (to lure into a compromising statement or act)
vigilant•entrapped=exacting•satisfied 警醒的•被诱骗的=苛求的•满足的 (难以关系)

entreat (to make an earnest request)
protest•dissuade=supplicate•entreat  抗议•劝阻=低三下四地恳求•恳求(同义)
goad•enticement=command•entreaty  驱使•诱使=命令•恳求(主被动关系)

enunciate  (articulate);阐明
waffle•enunciate=embed•disinter  胡扯• 阐明=嵌入• 掘出 (反义)
enunciate•mumbling=clarify•confusing  清晰发音•喃喃而语=使清晰•混淆(反义)
enunciate•words=limn•lines  清晰地表达言语=清晰地描绘线条

epaulet (something that ornaments the shoulder)
epaulet•shoulder=ring•finger  肩章戴在肩上=戒指戴在手指上

ephemeral  (lasting a very short time)
ephemeral•endure=inanimate•live=repellent•attract
短暂的无法持久=无生命的无法生存=相斥的无法吸引
ephemeral•transience=convoluted•complexity=perpetual•permanence
朝生暮死的•短暂=盘绕费解的•复杂=永久的•永恒(形名同义)
ephemeral•abide=intransigent•yield  短暂的•坚持=不妥协的•屈服
enduring 持久的 everlasting 永恒的 eternal/ permanent/ perpetual 永久的

epic  n.史诗 adj.史诗的;英勇的;超出正常范围的
epic ◆ modest  超出正常范围的 ◆ 一般的

epicure (one with sensitive tastes especially in food or wine)
epicure•discriminating=spectator•watching  美食家•识别的=观众•观看的
epicure ◆ a person indifferent to food 美食家 ◆ 厌食者

epidermis  n.表皮;上皮
epidermis•mammal=bark•conifer 表皮•哺乳动物=树皮•松柏

epigram (a terse, sage, or witty and often paradoxical saying)
brevity•epigram=exaggeration•caricature
警句特点是简明扼要=讽刺画特点是夸张(正面特征)
epigram•wise=paradox•contradictory
警句特点是英明的=自相矛盾的话特点是矛盾的(正面特征)

epilogue  n.收场白;尾声
epilogue•novel=coda•symphony  小说的结尾=交响乐的尾声
epilogue•play=coda•sonata/dessert•meal  戏剧的收场白=奏鸣曲的尾音=饭后甜点
epilogue•prose=finale•music  散文的收场白=音乐的终曲
epilogue•story=terminus•stop  故事的收场白=下车站的终点站(事物及其结尾)
preface ◆ epilogue  序文 ◆ 结尾

episode (one event in a chain of events)
episode•series=issue•periodical  一段情节•连续系列=出版一期•期刊

epistemology  (a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge)
epistemology•knowledge=aesthetics•beauty  认识论研究知识=美学研究美

epitaph n. 墓志铭;碑文
epitaph•tombstone=motto•shield  墓志铭刻在墓碑上=座右铭刻在盾牌上

epithet (a disparaging or abusive word or phrase)
epithet•disparage=alias•mislead  脏话贬低人=化名误导人

epitome (summary)(a typical or ideal example)
epitomize•brevity=embellish•ornamentation  摘要•缩写=装饰•装饰(同义)

equable (unvarying; steady)(not easily disturbed; serene)
equable ◆ intemperate  心态平和的 ◆ 放纵的
equanimity ◆ agitation/ excitability  平和 ◆ 激动

equipoise  n.v.平衡
equipoise ◆ vacillate  平衡 ◆ 摇摆

equity  (freedom from bias or favoritism)
illiteracy•education=inequity•redistribution  教育消除文盲=重新分配消除不公平
equivalent•interchange= indistinguishable•confound  相等的可以交换=难辨别的易混淆
equitable ◆ biased/ discriminatory  公平的 ◆ 偏袒的/ 差别对待的

equivocate  (to avoid making an explicit statement)
equivocation•ambiguous=platitude•banal=oxymoron•incongruous
模棱两可的话是含糊的=陈词滥调特点是陈腐的=矛盾修饰法是不调和的
equivocation•coax=explanation•enlighten 模棱两可为了哄骗=解说为了启发
equivocate•commitment=procrastinate•action 模棱两可逃避承诺=拖延逃避行动
equivocate•deceive=grandstand•impress 模棱两可为欺骗=炫耀为留下印象
equivocal•meaning=amorphous•shape  模棱两可的缺乏意义=无定形的缺乏形状
equivocation•truth=euphemism•offense  模棱两可逃避事实=委婉语避免冒犯
equivocation•truth=obfuscation•clarity  模棱两可的话不正确=困惑不明晰
waffle ◆ speak unequivocally  胡扯 ◆ 说话不模棱两可
equivocation ◆ clarity 模棱两可 ◆ 清楚
equivocate ◆ communicate straightforwardly  模棱两可地说 ◆ 直率的说

erode  (to eat into;corrode)
erode•destruction=accrete•growth=incinerate•singe
腐蚀使受到破坏=依附生长使生长=焚毁使烧焦(因果关系)
gully•erosion=callus•friction 溪谷是饱经风水侵蚀而成=老茧是饱经摩擦而成
wind•erosion=downpour•flooding  风造成侵蚀=倾盆大雨水使泛滥(因果关系)

errant  (moving about aimlessly or irregularly);犯错误的(fallible)
errant•course=amorphous•shape=heretical•doctrine
漫游的没有固定路线=无定型的没有固定形状=异教的不遵从固定教条
errant•standard=digress•topic 犯错误的偏离标准=离题的偏离主题

erratic (having no fixed course)
erratic•permanent=heroic•craven  游移的不是持久的=英勇的不是懦弱的
exemplary•criticized=erratic•predicted  模范的不能批评=游移不定的不能预测

erudite adj. 博学的 n.博学之士
erudite•fathom=oblivious•neglect  博学的能看穿=健忘的易忽略
ignorant无知的smattering of knowledge知识贫乏的 unlettered未受教育的
erudition ◆ illiteracy 博学 ◆ 文盲

escalate  (to increase in amount, intensity, or scope)
escalate ◆ diminish/wane  升级上升 ◆ 减弱

eschew  (to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds)
eschew ◆ embrace/greet/habitually indulge in/seek/welcome
避开 ◆ 接受/问候/习惯地沉溺/寻觅/欢迎

esoteric  (understood by the specially initiated alone)
common accepted普遍接受的generally known广泛知道的

espouse (adopt; support)(to take in marriage;marry)
espouse•marriage=lurk•concealment  结婚•婚姻=潜伏•隐藏(动名同义)
espouse ◆ abjure/repudiate  拥护 ◆ 誓绝/拒绝

esteem  (repect; value)
obeisant•esteem=embrace•affection  鞠躬表示尊敬=拥抱表示爱
esteem•idolatrize=favor•bribe=desire•covet  尊敬•盲目崇拜=赠助•行贿=渴望•贪求
infuriate•rage=commend•esteem 激怒表示大怒=称赞表示尊重
stigma ◆ mark of esteem  耻辱 ◆ 尊重的标志
esteem ◆ odium 尊重 ◆ 憎恶

estimable  (worthy of esteem);可估计的;有价值的
estimable ◆ contemptible  可尊敬的 ◆ 可鄙的
estimable ◆ infamous  令人尊重的 ◆ 声名狼藉的

estrange  (separate; alienate)
estrangement ◆ reconciliation/rapprochement  疏远 ◆ 和好

etch  n.腐蚀剂 v.蚀刻
etch•corrosive=glue•adhesive
腐蚀剂特点是腐蚀性的=粘合剂特点是带粘性的(正面特征)

eternal adj.永恒的
eternal ◆ ephemeral  永恒的 ◆ 朝生暮死的

ethereal  adj.轻飘的;空气的;太空的 light; heavenly
ethereal ◆ material/ponderous  轻飘的 ◆ 物质的/沉重的

ethics  n. 伦理学
ethics•behavior=logic•reasoning伦理学研究行为=逻辑学研究推理过程

eulogize  vt.称赞;颂扬
eulogy•praise=elegy•lament  颂词表扬=挽歌哀悼
encomiast•eulogize=quibbler•cavil  赞美者称赞=吹毛求疵者挑剔
encomium•eulogy=discontent•complain  赞美•赞辞=不满•抱怨(同义)
panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize  颂词称赞=讽刺文讽刺
eulogize ◆ defamation/pan/stricture  称赞 ◆ 诬蔑/批评/指责

euphemism  (mild expression in place of an unpleasant one)
euphemism•offense=aphorism•diffuseness=invulnerableness•injure
婉言不会冒犯=格言不会冗长=无懈可击不会受伤

euphonious  adj.悦耳的
euphonious•sound=graceful•movement悦耳的声音=优美的动作
euphonious ◆ cacophonous  悦耳的 ◆ 刺耳的

euphoria  (a feeling of well-being or elation)
satisfaction•euphoria欣快症表现为过分满意

evacuate  v.疏散;撤离
evacuate ◆ conquer/fill up/occupy  撤退 ◆ 占领/填满

evanescent  (fleeting; vanishing)
evanescent•disappear(vanish)=periodic•recur/pliant•yield
短暂的容易消失=周期性的容易重现/顺从的容易屈服
evanescent•permanent=archaic•current  短暂的•永恒的=过时的•流行的
evanescence•transient=complexity•convoluted
转瞬即逝事物特点是短暂的=复杂事物特点是盘错费解的(正面特征)
evanescent ◆ abiding/lasting/perpetual 短暂的 ◆ 持久的/永久的

evasion n.逃避,借口
inclemency•evasion  险恶•逃避

everlasting  adj.永恒的,无止境的 n.永久
everlasting•duration=countless•number 无止境的持续时间=数不清的数目
everlasting ◆ ephemeral  永恒的 ◆ 短暂的

evict  vt.赶出;驱逐
evict•residence=banish•country  逐出住所=驱逐出境
eviction•dwelling=deportation•country 逐出住所=驱逐出境
evict ◆ harbor 逐出 ◆ 收容

evince  (show clearly)
evince ◆ conceal/keep hidden  表明 ◆ 隐藏

evoke  (call forth)
evoke ◆ fail to elicit 引起 ◆ 不能引出

ewe  n.母羊
sheep•ewe=swan•pen  羊•母羊=天鹅•雌天鹅(种属)

exacerbate  (worsen; embitter)
exacerbate ◆ allay/assuage/palliate  加剧 ◆ 缓和
exacting•satisfied=indomitable•controlled/vigilant•entrapped/wary•gulled
苛求的难以满足=不屈的难以控制/警惕的难以落入陷阱/机警的难以上当
exact ◆ condone/forgive  强求 ◆ 宽恕
exactitude ◆ imprecision  正确严格 ◆ 不精确

exalt  (raise in rank or dignity; praise)
exaltation ◆ condemnation  赞扬 ◆ 谴责
exalt ◆  humble/lower in status  赞扬提升 ◆ 贬抑/降低身份

exasperate  vt.使激怒,使加剧 adj.激怒的
exasperate ◆ mitigate/mollify  激怒 ◆ 缓和

excavate  v.挖掘,挖空
excavate ◆ fill in  挖空 ◆ 填满

exceptional  adj.例外的,异常的,特别的
exceptional ◆ commonplace/prosaic  特别的 ◆ 平凡的

excerpt v.撕皮;严厉批评
excoriate ◆ accolade/extol/flatter/praise lavishly
严厉批评 ◆ 推崇备至/赞扬/过分赞扬/高度赞扬

excrete vt.排泄
excrete ◆ absorb/ingest排泄 ◆ 吸收/摄入

excruciate  vt.施酷刑;折磨
excruciate ◆ exult  施酷刑 ◆ 使欢跃

exculpate  (clear from blame)
exculpatory•absolve=hortative•encourage/motivational•stir
辩明无罪的•释放=劝告的•鼓励/激发动机的•激励
alibi•exculpatory=warning•admonitory
借口特点是辩解的=警告特点是警告的(正面特征)
exculpate ◆ attribute guilt/inculpate/indict  开脱罪责 ◆ 归罪/控告

excursive  adj.离题的;散漫的
digress•excursive=reiterate•redundant 离题•离题的=反复重申•多余的

execrate  (curse; express abhorrence for)
execrate ◆ laud  咒骂 ◆ 赞美
execrable ◆ commendable  憎恶的 ◆ 值得表扬的
execration ◆ approbation  咒骂 ◆ 嘉许

exemplary  adj.可仿效的;模范的
exemplary•imitation=culpable•blame=notable•attention
模范的•模仿=有罪的•怪罪=着名的•注意
emulate•exemplary=obviate•unnecessary 仿效•模范的=排除•不需要的
exemplify•paradigm=amends•corrective  模仿范例=修正改正物

exempt  adj.免除的 vt.使免除
exempt•liability=pardon•penalty  免除债务=宽恕罪过

exhaust vt.耗尽;使精疲力尽;排出
infinite•exhaust=discrete•overlap  无穷的不会耗尽=分离的不会重叠
exhausted•rest=thirsty•imbibe 精疲力尽的需要休息=口渴的需要喝水
exhaustive•careful=mesmerized•interesting
过分小心的导致精疲力尽的=过分有趣的导致迷惑的
exhaustive ◆ incomplete/partial  彻底的 ◆ 不完全的/部分的

list 13  exhilarate --------finicky

exhilarate  vt.使高兴;使兴奋
exhilarate ◆ sadden  使高兴 ◆ 使悲哀
soporific ◆ exhilarating  昏昏欲睡的 ◆ 令人兴奋的

exhort  (urge)
exhort•suggest=goad•direct  规劝•建议=(像赶牛棒)驱赶•指导
exhortation•encourage=hurl•insult  劝告使鼓励=愤慨地说使侮辱
exhortation•motivate=invective•discredit/obloquy•discredit/persiflage•incite
劝告使有动机=谩骂使丢脸/指责使耻辱/戏弄挖苦使刺激
exhortative•urge=didactic•teach  劝告的•驱策=说教的•教导

exodus  (departure)
exodus ◆ influx  大批离去 ◆ 流入

exonerate  (acquit; exculpate)
exonerate•blame=disentangle/extricate•snarl  免除责任•责备=解开/摆脱•纠缠
exonerate ◆ censure/incriminate/inculpate/prove guilty
免罪 ◆ 责难/控告/证明有罪

exorbitant  (excessive)
exorbitant•moderation=perfidious•loyalty  过度的•适度=背信弃义的•忠诚(形名反义)

exotic  (not native; strange)n.外国人
exotic ◆ indigenous  外来的 ◆ 本地的

expansive  adj. 易膨胀的;广阔的;健谈的,外向的;自大狂的
expand•volume=proliferate•number  体积膨胀=数量增加(增加关系)
expansive ◆ limited/ reserved/taciturn/withdrawn
广阔的,健谈的 ◆ 有限的/冷漠的/沉默寡言的/性格内向的
expansive ◆ diffident  自大狂的 ◆ 无自信的
【注:diffident 与malicious(恶毒的)同时出现选择diffident】

expedite  (hasten)adj.无阻碍的;迅速的
expedite•process=accelerate•pace  加快进程=加速步伐
expedite ◆ retard  加速 ◆ 减速

expedition  n.远征;探险队;迅速
expedition•foot dragging=consensus•factionalism
迅速•拖拉=一致同意•党派之争(反义)
expedition ◆ foot dragging  迅速 ◆ 脚步拖沓

expiate (a sin)
expiate•guilt=correct•error=repose•fatigue
赎罪•罪行=改正•错误=休息•疲劳(前者消除后者)

expire  v.期满;终止;断气
expire ◆ come to life断气 ◆ 出生

explicit  (totally clear; definite)
explicit ◆ immanent  外在的 ◆ 内在的
explicit ◆ inchoate  结尾的 ◆ 开始的
explicit ◆ obscure  清晰的 ◆ 模糊的

exploit (DEED, ACT;especially:a notable or heroic act)
exploit•heroic=gaffe•tactless 英雄事迹是英勇的=社交失态是不老练的

exponent  n.倡导者;阐述者;例子;指数
exponent•advocate=pollster•canvass
倡导者•支持=民意测验专家•彻底检查(人及其特征动作)

expurgate  (clean; remove offensive parts of a book)
censor•expurgate=vendor•purvey  检察员•删除=卖主•供应(人物典型动作)
inexpurgate ◆ obliterate  无法除去 ◆ 除去

exquisite  adj.高雅的;精致的
exquisite ◆ tawdry  高雅的 ◆ 俗丽的

extant  (still in existence)
extant ◆  destroyed/extinct/lost/missing  现存的 ◆ 被毁的/灭绝的/丢失的

extemporize  v.即席演说
extemporization•rehearsal=honesty•guilt即兴演出•排演=诚实•狡猾(反义)
extemporization•spontaneous=juggernaut•unstoppable
即席演说特点是自发的=摧毁一切的强大力量特点是无法阻止的
extemporize ◆ follow a script  即席演说 ◆ 参考草稿
extemporaneous ◆ planned  即席的 ◆ 有计划的

extenuate  (weaken; mitigate)
extenuate•seriousness=moderate•intensity减轻•严重性=缓和•强度
extenuating ◆ aggravating  减轻的 ◆ 加剧的

extinct adj.绝种的;熄灭了的
extinct ◆ extant/resuscitated  灭绝的 ◆ 现存的/使复苏的
extinction ◆ perpetuation  灭绝 ◆ 永存

extinguish  vt.熄灭;消灭
extinguish ◆ ignite/rekindle  熄灭 ◆ 点燃/重新点燃

extol  (praise; glorify)
censure /deprecate /detract /excoriate /impugn /malign /rail /vilify

extort  n.榨出物;摘录vt.榨取;摘录;吸取
extract ◆ embed  取出 ◆ 嵌入
hybrid ◆ of unmixed extraction 杂种,混血儿 ◆ 纯正血统

extraneous  adj.外来的;无关的;体外的
extraneous•essence=achromatic•hue无关的不是本质=无色的没有色调
extrovert•outgoing=perfectionist•exacting
性格外向者•喜欢外出的=追求完美者•要求苛刻的(正面特征)
extraneous ◆ apposite/essential/relevant  无关的 ◆ 恰当的/本质的/相关的
extraneous ◆ intuitive 体外的 ◆ 直觉的
extrinsic ◆ immanent/inherent /ingrained  外在的 ◆ 内在的/根深蒂固的

extravagant  adj.奢侈的;无节制的
extravagance•expenditure=loquaciousness•talk奢侈是开支多=□嗦是话多
frugality ◆ extravagancy  节省 ◆ 挥霍

extricate  (free; disentangle)
extricate ◆ enmesh/entangle  使解脱 ◆ 缠住

exuberant  (abundant; effusive; lavish)
exuberant•happy=soaking•wet/frigid•cool 非常高兴•高兴=湿透的•湿/严寒•冷(程度)
exuberance ◆ ennui  高兴的 ◆ 倦怠的

exude  (discharge; give forth)
exude ◆ absorb 流出 ◆ 吸收

exult  (rejoice)
exult•satisfaction=crave•longing  狂喜•满意=热望•渴望(程度)
exultant ◆ abject/crestfallen/dejected 狂喜的 ◆ 极可怜的/沮丧的
exultation ◆ lamentation  狂喜 ◆ 悲伤

fable  n.寓言
fable•tale=ditty•song 寓言是一种故事=小曲是一种歌(种属)

fabricate  vt.制造;捏造 build; lie
fabricate•authentic=discompose•pacific  捏造不可靠的=不安不平静的
fabricate•ingenuous=discompose•placid 捏造不坦白的=不安不宁静的

facetious  (humorous; jocular)
facetious•speech=antic•behavior  好开玩笑的•讲话=滑稽的•行为
facetious ◆ earnest/ingenuous/lugubrious  轻浮的 ◆ 认真的/坦率的/悲哀的

facilitate  (make less difficult)
facilitate ◆ hamper/impeding/obstruct/thwart  促进 ◆ 阻碍;妨碍
facile ◆ arduous/profound  易做到的 ◆ 艰巨的/深邃的

faction (party; clique; dissension)
consensus•factionalism=clarity•confusion/expedition•foot dragging
一致同意•派系分裂=清晰•混淆/迅速•拖沓(反义)
factional ◆ disinterested/ecumenical  派系的 ◆ 无私的/世界范围的
faction ◆ unity  内讧 ◆ 团结
factious ◆ cooperative 派系斗争的 ◆ 合作的
factorable ◆ irreducible  可因子分解的 ◆ 不可分解的

fallacy n.谬论
disabuse•fallacy=cure•disease打消错误观念=治愈疾病(消除关系)
fallacious ◆ sound/valid/veritable/verifiable/veracious  错误的 ◆ 合理的/正确的
fallacy ◆ valid argument  谬论 ◆ 正确论点
fallibility ◆ inerrancy  易错 ◆ 无错误

fallow  (plowed but sowed; uncultivated)
fallow ◆ in use  闲置的 ◆ 使用中的

fail-safe  n.自动防故障装置
fail-safe•malfunction  自动防故障装置•故障(阻止关系)

falsehood  n.谎言;虚假
falsehood•calumniate=evidence•corroborate  用谎言诽谤=用证据证实

falter  (hesitate)支吾说话
falter•act=stammer•speak  蹒跚是动作不灵活=结巴是说话不灵活

fanatic n.狂热者;盲信者 adj.狂热的;盲信的
fanatic•admirer=zealot•adherent  盲信者•爱慕者=狂热者•追随者(程度)
fanatic•devoted=prude•proper  狂热者是献身的=守礼者是适宜的
fanatical•belief=frenetic•movement  狂热的信念=极度激动的动作

fang  (犬狼等的)犬牙;(毒蛇的)毒牙
fang•tooth=finger•digit  犬牙•牙齿=手指尤指大拇指以外的•手指(种属)

fantasy n.v.幻想
grotesque•fantasy=imperial•significance  怪诞的•幻想=帝王的•重要
illusion•fantasy=nicety•precision  幻觉•幻想=精密•精确(同义)

farce  (broad comedy; mockery)
farce•performance=limerick•poem  闹剧•演出=5行打油诗•诗(种属)

fascinate  vt.强烈吸引;使着迷
fascination•interest=adoration•fondness  着迷•感兴趣=崇拜•喜爱(程度)

fast  n.绝食;斋戒 adv.快地;稳固地
fast•eat=moratorium•act/respite•labor  斋戒•吃=暂停•行动/暂停•劳动
clasp•fasten=lathe•shape  扣子•扣紧固定=车床•成形(工具及其作用)
fast ◆ loosely attach  稳固地 ◆ 松散地连接
fastness ◆ unsecured palace  要塞 ◆ 没有防卫的地方
secure  ◆  unfasten  使牢固 ◆ 使松开

fastidious  adj.难取悦的;挑剔的
fastidious•careful=zealous•devoted
挑剔的是极其细心的=狂热的是极其忠诚的(程度)
fastidious•outshine=recalcitrant•resist
挑剔的•胜过=拒不服从的•抵抗(人物个性及其特征行为)
dapper•fastidious衣冠楚楚的是挑剔的(正面特征)
fastidious ◆ coarse/cursory/easygoing/indiscriminate/uncritical
挑剔的 ◆ 粗糙的/草率的/懒散的/混杂的/不加批判的

fateful adj.命中注定的;重大的;致命性的
fateful ◆ inconsequential  重大的 ◆ 不重要的

fathom  (comprehend; investigate)
erudite•fathom=oblivious•neglect博学的容易理解=健忘的容易忽略
measurable ◆ unfathomable  可测量的 ◆ 无法测量的
occult ◆ readily fathomable  秘密的 ◆ 已理解透的

fatigue n.v.疲惫 adj.疲惫的
fatigue•repose/rest=dehydration•water=guilt•expiation
疲劳•休息=脱水•水=内疚•补偿(消除关系)
indefatigable ◆ soon tired  不知疲倦的 ◆ 很快疲倦的

fatuous n.未满周岁的小鹿;巴结 v.阿谀奉承 adj.奉承的
fawn•adulate=adorn•woo阿谀为了表示奉承=装饰打扮为了表示求爱
fawn•attentive=garish•colorful奉承的是过分殷勤的=俗丽的是过分色彩艳丽的
fawn•hauteur=elaborate•sketchy=swagger•self depreciatory
阿谀•倨傲专横=模棱两可地说话•直接=摆架子•自卑
fawn•obsequious=patronize•condescending=yield•compliant
奉承特点是服从的=惠顾特点是屈尊的=屈服特点是遵从的
sycophant•fawn=miser•hoard =reprobate•misbehave
马屁精爱拍马=守财奴爱贮藏=堕落者爱行为不端(人物典型行为)

faze  (disconcert; dismay)
embolden ◆ faze  使大胆 ◆ 使狼狈
fazed ◆ undisturbed  打扰的 ◆ 未被打扰的

feckless  (careless and irresponsible)
feckless ◆ responsible 粗心的 ◆ 负责任的

fecund  adj.多产的;丰饶的;肥沃的
fecundity ◆ deprivation  多产 ◆ 丧失

feeble  adj.衰弱的;无效的
feeble•strength=disquiet•composure  无力的•力气=不安的•镇静(缺乏关系)
feeble ◆ hardy 衰弱的 ◆ 强壮的

feigned adj.假装的not genuine or real
genuine ◆ feigned  真正的 ◆ 假装的

fender  n.挡泥板;防御物
fender•collision  挡板防止碰撞(防止关系)

feral  adj.野生的;凶猛的
feral ◆ cultivated  野生的 ◆ 栽培的

ferrous adj.铁的;含铁的
ferrous ◆ containing no iron  含铁的 ◆ 不含铁的

fertilize  vt.施肥;使丰饶;使受精
fertilize•grow=immunize•resist  施肥目的是使生长=免疫目的是使抵抗(疾病)
【注:干扰选项是nourish•enrich 滋养•滋养 这两个词是同义关系不是目的
enrich :to add nutrients to 给…添加营养物质】
glue•seal=manure•fertilize  胶水•封口=肥料•使肥沃(事物及其功能)

fervid  adj.热情的
fervid ◆ restrained  热情的 ◆ 克制的

fervor  n.热情
fervor•apathetic=ennui•enthusiastic  热心•无动于衷的=倦怠•狂热的
fervor•zealot=doubt•skeptic/improvidence•spendthrift
热心•狂热的=疑惑•怀疑的/浪费•浪费的(名形同义)
zealotry ◆ lack of fervor  狂热行为 ◆ 缺乏热心
fervor ◆ apathy/indifference  热情 ◆ 冷漠

fester  n.脓疮 v.溃烂;化脓;烦恼
fester ◆ heal  溃烂 ◆ 愈合

fetid  (malodorous)
fetid•smell=cacophonous(grating)•sound/ugly•appearance
恶臭的气味=刺耳的声音/丑陋的外表
fetid ◆ having a pleasant smell  恶臭的 ◆ 有愉快芳香的

fetter  (s hackle)
fetter ◆ loose/release/set free  束缚 ◆ 松弛/解放
enfetter ◆ enfranchise/liberate  束缚 ◆ 释放
management ◆ unfettered liberty  管理 ◆ 没有约束的自由

fiasco  (total failure)
fiasco ◆ a notable success/eclat  大失败 ◆ 显着的成功/巨大成就

fickle  (感情等)易变的;薄情的
fickle•constancy=naive•sophistication 感情易变的•专一=天真的•老于世故

fictitious  (imaginary)
fictitious ◆ factual  虚构的 ◆ 事实的

fidelity  (loyalty)
apostasy ◆ fidelity  背叛 ◆ 忠实

fidget  vi.n.坐立不安;烦躁
fidget•nervousness=cringe•dread  坐立不安•紧张=畏缩•畏惧(行为表现心理)

figurative  (not literal, but metaphorical)
figurative ◆ literal  比喻的 ◆ 照字面上的

figurine  n.小雕像
figurine•statue=twig•branch  小雕像•雕像=小树枝•树枝(小•正常)

filibuster  (block legislation by making long speeches)
filibuster•delay=hoax•deceive 妨碍议事•拖延=骗局•欺骗(正面特征)
filibuster•legislation=blockade•commerce  妨碍议事•立法=封锁•商业交往

filigree  (ornamental openwork of delicate design)
chiaroscuro•contrast=filigree•delicacy<非tapestry•intricacy>
明暗的配合照相特点是对比=金银丝做的工艺品特点是精致(正面特征)
filigree•wire=lace•thread金银丝做的工艺品•金属丝=饰带•线(材料关系)

filing  n.锉屑
filing•metal=shaving•wood  锉屑由锉金属产生=刨屑由刨木头产生

filly  n.小雌马
filly•horse=pullet•chicken  小母马•马=小母鸡•鸡(小雌性对总称)

filter  v.过滤 n.滤器
filter•impurities=winnow•chaff  过滤除去杂质=扬谷除去谷壳
mosquito•netting = impurity•filter  蚊子•网 = 杂质•过滤(后者消除前者)

finale  n.终场;结尾;终曲
finale ◆ opening scene 收尾 ◆ 开场

finch  (如燕雀,金丝雀)
finch•bird=aspen•tree/lizard•reptile/eagle•bird
雀•鸟=杨树•树/蜥蜴•爬行动物/鹰•鸟(种属)

finesse (delicate skill)
finesse ◆ heavy-handedness/ineptitude  技巧 ◆ 愚笨言行

finicky adj. 过分讲究的
(extremely or excessively nice, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards)
meticulous•finicky 程度关系。不能与fluent•glib搭配:因为这两者是同义或褒贬关系,而
不是程度关系(当glib做口齿伶俐讲时是同义;做油腔滑调讲时是褒贬)

list 14  flaccid --------galvanize

flaccid (flabby)
flaccidity ◆ firmness  软弱 ◆ 坚固

flag  (droop; grow feeble)
flag•country=trademark•company  国家的标志是旗帜=公司的标志是商标
flag•vigor=waver•resolution  衰弱•精力=犹豫•果断(消除关系)
flag ◆ wax  衰弱 ◆ 增加
flagging ◆ thriving/vibrant  衰弱的 ◆ 兴旺的/活跃的
unflagging ◆ fading  恒定的不衰减的 ◆ 消逝的

flamboyant  adj. 辉耀华丽的;火焰似的;浮夸的
flamboyant•reserved=furtive•openness  炫耀的•保留的=秘密的•公开的
flamboyant ◆ natural/subdued/understated  辉耀浮夸的 ◆ 自然的/沉闷的/低估的,朴素的

flatter vt.过分夸赞;奉承
flatter•praise=loquacious•talkative奉承•赞扬=多嘴的•喜欢说话的(褒贬)
flattering•infatuation=sabbatical•leave谄媚的•迷恋=周期性休息的•休假
adulate•flatter=disparage•ignore=scorn•reject
过分称赞•奉承=蔑视•忽视=轻蔑•拒绝(程度)
toady•flatter=extortionist•intimidation=querulous person•complain
谄媚者•奉承=勒索者•恐吓=发牢骚的人•抱怨(正面特征)
flatter ◆ excoriate/invective  奉承 ◆ 严厉批评/谩骂的

flaw  n.瑕疵;缺点 v.生裂缝
glitch•flaw=peccadillo•error(sin,offense)  小故障•缺点=小错误•错误
impeccable•flaw=ingenuous•guile  无暇的•瑕癖=真诚的•狡猾(反面特征)

flax  n.亚麻
flax•linen=clay•porcelain  亚麻•亚麻织品=粘土•瓷器(原料产品关系)

fledge  v.长羽毛
fledge ◆ molt  长羽毛 ◆ 脱毛
fledgling ◆ experienced practitioner  刚开始的人 ◆ 有经验的从业者

fleet  adj.快速的 vt.消磨 vi.疾驰;飞逝;掠过
fleeting•pass=meteoric•rise  疾驰的•通过=流星似的•升起(快速对行为)

flexible  adj. 有弹性的;柔韧的;灵活的
adamant•flexibility=refractory•control  坚硬的•弹性=难驾驭的•控制
limber•flexibility=spindly•frailty 易弯曲的•柔韧性=细长的•脆弱
static•moving=pliable•inflexible  静止的•移动的=易弯的•不可弯曲的
flexibility•spinelessness=courage•daredevilry=courage•foolhardiness
柔韧性•没骨气=勇气•冒失(正常和过分关系)
flexible ◆ mulish  灵活的 ◆ 和骡子一样固执的
flexibility ◆ calcification  柔韧 ◆ 僵化

flinch  n.v.畏缩;退缩
grisly•flinch=droll•laugh  恐怖的•畏缩•好笑的•笑 (动作及其引发原因)
flinch•fear=grimace•pain  畏缩•害怕=痛苦的表情•疼痛(动作表达心理)

flippancy  n.轻率
flip•respect=nonchalant•concern  无礼的•尊重=冷漠的•关心(反面特征)
flippancy ◆ earnest/gravity/seriousness/sobriety  轻率 ◆ 认真,庄重,冷静

flirt  v.调情 n.调情者
supplicant•beseeching=coquette•flirtatious  哀求者•哀求的=风骚女人•调情的

flit  (fly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by)
flit•move=blurt•utter迅速飞过•移动•突然说出•出声(迅速对正常)
flit ◆ plod  迅速飞过 ◆ 沉重缓慢地走

flock  n.一群;大量 v.聚结
clique•intimates=flock•sheep  私党•熟友=羊群•绵羊(组成关系)
herd•animals=flock•birds  兽群•动物=鸟群•鸟(组成关系)
flock ◆ segregate  聚集 ◆ 隔离

florid  (very flowery in style)
florid ◆ inane 华丽的 ◆ 空洞的(EMPTY, INSUBSTANTIAL)(需进一步讨论)

flounder  n.v.挣扎;犯错;困难地往前走
flounder•process  困难地往前走•前行
flounder ◆ act gracefully  挣扎 ◆ 优美地行动
flounder ◆ slide  困难地往前走 ◆ 滑动

flourish  (grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures)
flourish ◆ waste away/wither  繁荣 ◆ 衰弱/凋谢
flourish ◆ lack of embellishment  炫耀 ◆ 缺乏装饰

flout  (reject; mock)
flout•disregard=taunt•challenge  蔑视•忽视=嘲弄•挑战(程度)

fluctuate  (wave)
pristine•decay=stable•fluctuation  纯洁的•腐败=稳定的•动摇(反面特征)
fluctuate ◆ remain steady  波动 ◆ 保持稳定
fluctuation ◆ invariance  波动性 ◆ 不变性

fluent  adj.流利的;流畅的
fluent•glib=humorous•wry (unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune)
fluke ◆ expected occurrence  侥幸 ◆ 预期发生

flush  vi.脸红;冲洗;惊飞
galvanize•stimulate=irrigate•flush  通电流激励•刺激=冲洗伤口•冲洗

fluster v.慌乱confuse
flustered ◆ calm  慌乱的 ◆ 冷静的

fluvial adj.河流的
fluvial•river=sidereal•star  河流的•河流=恒星的•恒星

foible  n.小缺点
foible•failing=squabble•dispute(tiff,quarrel) 小缺点•缺点=小争吵•争吵
foible•fault(flaw)=quibble•objection  小缺点•缺点=小反对•反对

foil  v.挫败 n.金属薄片
foil•metal=veneer•wood  金属薄片•金属=饰面薄板•木材
foil  ◆ implement  挫败 ◆ 生效帮助

foliage n.树叶;一簇叶子masses of leaves
foliage•bush=plumage•bird  一簇叶子•树丛=羽毛束•鸟(事物及其所属物)

foment  (stir up; instigate)
conducive•foment=tonic•invigorate  有助于的•煽动=滋补的•使健壮(因果)
foment•discontentment=disseminate•information 煽动不满=传播信息
foment ◆ allay/defuse/impede/inhibit/placate/quash/quell/squelch/stifle/thwart
煽动 ◆ 缓和/阻碍/禁止/安抚/镇压/扼杀/阻挠

foolproof  adj.连傻子都懂的;十分简单的
foolproof•fail=airtight•leak
连傻子都懂的难以失败=密封的难以泄漏(难以关系)

footloose  adj.自由自在的
footloose•attachment=dauntless•trepidation/unversed•familiarity
自由自在的•附着=无所畏惧的•恐惧/不熟练的•熟悉(行为及其反面特征)
footloose ◆ attached  无拘束的 ◆ 附着的

forebear  n.祖先
forebears ◆ descendants  祖先 ◆ 后代

forbearance  n.克制;忍耐;宽容
forbearance ◆ impatience  克制 ◆ 无耐心

ford  n.浅滩 v.涉水place where a river can be crossed on foot
ford•river=pass•mountain
渡水过河=通过隘口过山(穿越关系【山•水二层对应】)

forestall  vt.预先阻止;先发制人prevent by taking action in advance
forestall ◆ abet/precipitate  预先阻止 ◆ 教唆/促成

foreword  n.前言
foreword•introductory=appellation•designate
前言•引导的=指派;命名•已受委派而尚未上任的(正面特征)

forgery n.伪造;伪造品
forgery•documents=plagiarism•ideas  伪造文件=剽窃思想
forger•metal=miller•grain
锻造工•金属=磨坊工•谷物(职业及其工作对象【二层对应•碾磨】)

formidable  adj.可怕的;艰难的menacing; threatening
formidable ◆ comforting/enticing/genial/reassuring
可怕的 ◆ 安慰的/引诱的/和蔼可亲的/安慰的
formidable ◆ simple  艰难的 ◆ 简单的

forthright  adj.直率的;立即的straightforward; direct; frank
forthright•guile=acrid•gentleness  直率的•欺骗=刻薄的•和蔼(反面特征)
forthright ◆ furtive  直率的 ◆ 偷偷摸摸的

fortify vt.增强
fortify ◆ enervate/vitiate  增强 ◆ 使衰弱/削弱
fortified ◆ debilitated  增强的 ◆ 削弱的

foster  vt. 养育培养;鼓励
foster ◆ stifle  养育 ◆ 扼杀
foster ◆ thwart  鼓励 ◆ 阻挠
【注:干扰选项retract 撤回】

founder (fail completely)(sink) n.奠基者
founder ◆ afloat/stay aloft  沉没 ◆ 漂浮/在高处
founder ◆ succeed  完败 ◆ 成功

fracas  n.喧闹的吵架brawl; melee
fracas ◆ peaceful discussion  喧闹的吵架 ◆ 平和的讨论

fracture  n.破裂;骨折
fracture ◆ cement  破裂 ◆ 像水泥结合巩固

fragile adj.易碎的;脆弱的;纤巧的
fragile•break=porous•penetrate/flammable•burn
易碎的•破碎=多孔的•渗透/易燃的•燃烧(容易关系)

frail  adj.欺诈的cheating; deceitful
authenticity•fraudulent=sincerity•hypocritical  真实•欺诈的=真诚•伪善的
hoax•fraudulent=paragon•excellent  骗局特点是欺骗的=模范特点是优秀的

freelancer  n.自由作家
freelancer•employer=nomad•domicile  自由作家没有老板=游牧民流浪者没有住所

frenzy  n.疯狂 v.使发狂
frenzy•emotion=convulsion•contraction 疯狂是反常感情=痉挛反常收缩
energetic•frenetic/frenzied =firm•obdurate/obstinate
精力充沛的•狂热的=坚定的•顽固的(褒贬)
frenzy•calm=abandon•prohibit/inhibit 使发狂•使平静=放任•禁止抑制
agitated•frenetic=literate•erudite  激动的•极度激动的=有文化的•博学的

frequent  v.时常出入出现,常往;adj.经常的
frequency•pitch=wavelength•color频率决定音品=波长决定颜色
frequent ◆ visit rarely  时常出入出现 ◆ 很少访问
frequency ◆ rarity  频繁 ◆ 稀罕

fresco  n.壁画
fresco•wall=parquetry•floor  壁画•墙=画在地板上的装饰画;镶木细工•地板

fret  n.苦恼;侵蚀 v.使苦恼;侵蚀;烦恼
fret•vexation=draconian•inclement  烦恼•烦恼=严峻的•严酷的(同义)

friable adj.易碎的;脆的
friable•crumble=malleable•alter=lucid•comprehend
易碎的•弄碎=易变的•改变=清晰的•理解(容易关系)
impervious•friable=nonflammable•combustible
不能透过的;坚固的•易碎的=不可燃的•易燃的(反义)
friable ◆ unable to crumb/resistance to be pulverized/substantial
易碎的 ◆ 难以压碎的/难以粉碎/坚固的

friction  n.摩擦;不和
abraded•friction=desiccated•dehydration=vaporized•heat
摩擦的•摩擦=脱水的•脱水=蒸发的•加热(同义)

frieze  n.在墙顶与天花板间起装饰作用的横条饰带
frieze•building=illumination•manuscript
饰带•建筑物=文中装饰性图画•手稿(事物及其装饰对象)
frieze•ornament=pillar•support  饰带•装饰=柱子•支撑(事物及其功能)

frigid  adj.酷寒的;冷淡的intensely cold
frigid•cool=soaking•damp  严寒的•凉的=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)
sweltering ◆ frigid  炎热的 ◆ 寒冷的

fringe  n.边缘
fringe ◆ center  边缘 ◆ 中心

frivolous  (lacking in seriousness;relatively unimportant)
frivolous•gravity=brash•discretion  轻佻的•严肃=仓促的•慎重(反面特征)
frivolous ◆ sober  轻佻的 ◆ 冷静严肃的
frivolousness ◆ grandeur/temperance  轻薄 ◆ 壮丽/节制

frond  (fern leaf; palm or banana leaf)
frond•fern=needle•pine蕨类叶子•蕨类植物=针叶•松树
frond•leaf=boulder•rock棕榈树庞大的叶子•叶子=巨砾•石头(大对正常)

frothy  adj. 泡沫的;浅薄的
frothy ◆ weighty  泡沫浅薄的 ◆ 沉重的

frowsy/frowzy  adj.肮脏的;难闻的sordid
frowsy ◆ dapper  肮脏的 ◆ 整洁的

frugal  adj.节约的
frugal•miserly=confident•arrogant 节约的•守财奴的=自信的•傲慢无礼的(褒贬)
frugal•parsimonious=attentive•obsequious
节约的•极度节俭的=殷勤的•过分殷勤的(褒贬)
frugality•parsimony=pride•hubris节约•极度节俭=骄傲•极度傲慢(褒贬)
frugal•penurious=deference•sycophant=firm•obdurate=compliant•obsequious
节约的•吝啬的=敬重•奉承的=坚定的•顽固的=顺从的•巴结的(褒贬)
frugal ◆ prodigal/sumptuous  节俭的 ◆ 浪费的/奢侈的
frugality ◆ extravagancy  节俭 ◆ 奢侈

frustrate  adj.失败的 v.挫败;使泄气灰心
frustrate ◆ abet  使泄气灰心 ◆ 教唆

full-bodied  adj.躯体大的;味道浓烈的
full-bodied•flavor=resonant•sound  味道浓烈的•味道=洪亮的•声音

fulminate  v.暴发;引爆;大声斥责
fulminate•criticize=adulate•flatter  大声斥责•批评=过分称赞•谄媚(程度)
fulmination ◆ praise  大声斥责 ◆ 赞美

fumble  n.v.摸索;乱摸
fumble ◆ handle adroitly  摸索 ◆ 灵巧地处理

fungi  n.真菌类;蘑菇n.火炉
furnace•heat=generator•electricity  火炉产生热=发电机产生电

furor  n.喧闹;狂怒;狂热
furor ◆ serenity  喧闹 ◆ 平静

furtive (stealthy; sneaky)
furtive•openness=flamboyant•reserved  秘密的•公开=浮夸的•保留的(反义)
stealth•furtive=caprice•whimsical
秘密行动特点是偷偷摸摸=反复无常特点是多怪念头的
furtive ◆ above board/brassy/candid/forthright/open/sublime/shamelessly bold
偷偷摸摸的 ◆ 光明正大的/厚颜无耻的/坦率的/庄严的

fury  n.暴怒;狂怒;狂暴
fury•anger=effervescence•feeling  狂怒•恼火=兴奋欢腾•情绪佳(程度)

fussy  adj. 易激怒的;过分注重细节的;挑剔的
fussy•careful=garrulous•talkative
过分注重细节的•仔细的=□嗦的•健谈的(过分与正常)
tend•fuss=assert•belabor注意•过分注重细节=断言•唠叨地讲(正常与过分)

fusty  (smelling of mildew or decay;musty)(antique)
fusty ◆ fresh发霉味的 ◆ 新鲜的

futile  (ineffective; fruitless)
bootless•futile=interesting•intriguing  无用的•无用的=有趣的•有趣的(同义)
bootless•futility=effulgent•resplendence=void•empty
无益的•无益=光辉灿烂的•灿烂=空洞的•空的(形名同义)
futile ◆ efficacious  无用的  ◆ 有效的
futility ◆ effectiveness  无用 ◆ 效力

gadfly  (any of various flies)
gadfly•goad=humorist•amuse  牛□•刺激牛=幽默大师•逗乐

gadget  (a contrivance)
gadgets•tools=trinkets•jewelry  小玩意•工具=小装饰物•珠宝(小对正常)

gaffe  (a social or diplomatic blunder)
gaffe•decorum=miscalculation•judgment 失礼•礼仪=错误的计算•判断
gaffe•judgment=illusion•perception  失礼•判断=错觉•感知
gaffe•tactless=exploit•heroic 失态•不圆通的=开拓•英雄的(正面特征)
gaffe•social=malapropism•verbal  失态是社交上的失误=用词错误是言辞上的失误

gainsay (deny)
gainsay ◆ affirm/concur/speak in support of  否认 ◆ 证实/同意/支持

gait  (manner of walking or running)
gait•walk=parlance•speak=mnemonic•remember
法•走=语法•说=记忆法•记忆(行为及其规范)

galaxy  (the Milky Way)
galaxy•star=archipelago•island  星系•恒星=群岛•岛屿(组成关系)

gall  (annoy; chafe)
gall ◆ appease/ assuage/ calm/lull/ placate  使焦躁 ◆ 使平静,抚慰

gallant adj.华丽的;英勇的
gallant ◆ craven  英勇的 ◆ 胆小的

galley  n.船上厨房
galley•ship=kitchen•hou  se  船上厨房•船=家中厨房•家

galvanize  v.电镀;激励
galvanize•stimulate=irrigate•flush  通电激励•刺激=冲洗伤口•冲洗(种属)
galvanize ◆ allay/ lull  激励 ◆ 减轻/使平静

list 15  gamble -------half-baked

gamble  v.赌博;孤注一掷
cautious•gamble=adamant•yield 谨慎的不孤注一掷冒险=坚强的不屈服

gambol  n.vi.欢跳;雀跃
gambol ◆ plod  欢跳雀跃 ◆ 沉重缓慢地走

gangly  adj.身材瘦长的
gangly ◆ stalwart  身材瘦长的 ◆ 强壮的

gangway n.过道;通路;跳板
gangway•ship=drawbridge•castle  跳板是上船之路=吊桥是进城堡之路

garble  (mix up; jumble; distort)
garbled•clarity=ramshackle•soundness  曲解的不清楚=摇摇欲坠的不稳固
garbled•comprehend=obscured•recognize 篡改的难以理解=晦涩的难以认出
garble•unintelligible=correct•accurate  篡改使其不可理解的=校正使其准确的
garble ◆ elucidate/report accurately  曲解 ◆ 阐明/精确地报告

gargantuan  (huge; enormous)
gargantuan•large=excruciating•painful 巨大的•大的=极痛苦的•痛苦的
gargantuan ◆ minuscule 巨大的 ◆ 微小的

garish  (gaudy)
garish•colorful=fawn•attentive=prying•inquisitive
过分装饰的•色彩艳丽的=阿谀奉承的•殷勤的=窥探的•好问的(褒贬)

garment n.衣服;外观
hem•garment=molding•cabinet=ruffle•shirt
衣服褶边•衣服=装饰嵌线壁带•橱柜=织物褶边•衬衫(前者特定装饰后者)
raincoat(lint)•garment=tarpaulin•covering
雨衣(皮棉)•衣服=防水油布•覆盖物(种属)

garrulous  adj.唠叨的;□嗦的
garrulous•talkative=cloying•sweet=fussy•careful
□嗦的•健谈的=过分甜腻的•甜的=过分注重细节的•仔细的(过分与正常)
garrulous•words=prodigal•money唠叨的多废话=浪费钱的浪费钱
garrulity ◆ taciturnity  饶舌多话 ◆ 沉默寡言

gash  n.砍得很深的伤口;很深的裂缝
cut•gash=cleft•chasm  伤口•很深的伤口=裂缝•很深的裂缝(程度)

gasification  n.气化
gasification/vaporization ◆ solidification  气化/汽化 ◆ 固化

gauche  adj.笨拙的;粗鲁无礼的;缺乏社交经验的
gaucherie•skill=cacophony•voice笨拙•技术=不和谐音•语音
gaucheness ◆ polish  缺乏社交经验 ◆ 有修养

gaudy  (ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented)
gaudy•apparel=grandiloquent•speak  华丽而俗气的•衣服=大言不惭的•言语

gauge  n.度量规格;测量器具 vt.度量;估计
gauge•pressure=measure•dimensions/plumb•depth=scale•weight
计压器•压力=度量器•尺寸/铅锤•深度=天平•重量(工具及其测量对象)
gauge•pressure=calibrate•diameter度量压力=校准直径

gear  n.齿轮;工具
gear•tooth=screw•thread 齿轮•齿牙=螺钉•螺线(组成关系且特定对应部分)

genial  adj.和蔼的;亲切的
genial•bonhomie=diplomatic•tact  亲切的•温和=有外交策略的•机智
philanthropic•geniality=resourceful•inventiveness
博爱慈爱的•亲切=足智多谋的•发明(正面特征)
genial ◆ caustic/dour/dyspeptic/mordant/truculent
和蔼的 ◆ 刻薄的/严厉的/阴郁的/尖酸的/好战凶猛的

genteel (well-bred; elegant)
genteel•vulgarity=intrepid•fear  有教养的•庸俗=勇敢的•害怕(反面特征)
truculent•gentleness=unregenerate•remorse  凶猛的•文雅=不改悔的•痛悔
genteel ◆ churlish/loutish  有教养的 ◆ 粗暴的/蠢笨的

germane (being at once relevant and appropriate • fitting)
germane ◆ irrelevant/inappropriate  有密切关系的 ◆ 无关的/不适当的

gerrymander  (to divide an area into political units to give special advantages to one group)
gerrymander•district=rig•contest不公正划分选区•地区=用欺骗手段操纵•竞争(动宾)
【注:rig• to manipulate or control usually by deceptive or dishonest means】

geyser  (英)(洗澡用)燃气热水器
geyser•water= volcano•lava  间歇泉喷发出水=火山喷发出熔岩

gibe  (to deride or tease with taunting words)
gibe•derision=apologize•regret=condolence•(sympathy/compassion)
奚落•嘲笑=道歉•遗憾 =哀悼•同情(前者程度较重)

giddy  (lightheartedly silly:frivolous)
giddy ◆ serious  轻率的 ◆ 严肃的
giddiness ◆ grave  轻率 ◆ 严肃

girder  (a horizontal main structural member that supports vertical loads)
girder•support=ballast•stability大梁•支撑=压舱物•稳定

gist  (the main point or part ;essence)
gist  ◆  tangential point  要点 ◆ 无关紧要的点

glacier (a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope)
glacier•ice=sea•water冰川•冰=海洋•水(组成关系)
glacial•cold=profound•deep冰冷的•寒冷的=深刻的•深(程度)

glade  (an open space surrounded by woods)
glade•wood=oasis•desert=archipelago•ocean  林间空地•树林=绿洲•沙漠=群岛•海

gladiator  n.角斗士
gladiator•arena=lawyer•courtroom  律师•法庭=角斗士•竟技场

glaze  (a smooth slippery coating of thin ice)
glaze•porcelain=varnish•wood=veneer•furniture
釉•瓷器=清漆•木头=饰面•家具(事物及其表面装饰物)
glaze ◆ rumple 使表面光滑 ◆ 弄皱

glib  (marked by fluency in speaking or writing)
fluent•glib=humorous•wry  流利的•油腔滑调的=幽默的•讽刺性的幽默(褒贬程度)
glib•profundity = maladroit•skill  口齿伶俐的•深刻=不灵巧的•技巧(缺乏关系)
labored不自然的taciturn沉默寡言的 awkward笨拙的

glisten (to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection)
dingy•glisten=slippery•adhere 黑暗的•闪光=光滑的•粘着(消除关系)

glitch  (a usually minor malfunction)
glitch•flaw=peccadillo•error  小故障•错误=小错误•错误(小和正常)

gloat  (有幸灾乐祸的味道)
gloat•smug = primp•vain  满足的看•自以为是的=打扮•虚荣的(目的)

gloomy  (low in spirits•melancholy)
saturnine•gloomy=despondent•depressed=masterful•skilled
忧郁的•忧郁的=沮丧的•沮丧的=熟练的•熟练的 (同义)
gloomy ◆ forthy  忧郁的 ◆ 性格开朗的

gloss  (a brief explanation of a difficult;annotate)
blurb•notice=gloss•explanation=cameo•appearance
简短公告•公告=简短解释•解释=简短表演•表演(前者是后者的简化版)

glossary  (a collection of textual glosses)
glossary•text=legend•map
术语表•正文=地图上的说明文字•地图(前者说明补充后者)

glossy  (having a surface luster or brightness)
varnish•glossy=sand•smooth上漆•光滑的=砂磨•平滑的(前者造成后者)

glut  (an excessive quantity•oversupply)
glut ◆ dearth  充斥 ◆ 缺乏

glutinous  (having the quality of glue•gummy)
glue•adhesive = etch•corrosiv胶•粘的=蚀刻•腐蚀的(事物典型特征)
glutinous ◆ non viscous  粘的 ◆ 不粘的

glutton (one given habitually to greedy and voracious eating)
gluttony•food = avarice•money贪食•食物=贪财•钱(后者是前者对象)
glutton•overindulge=ascetic•self denial贪吃者•放纵=禁欲者•克制
gluttonous ◆ abstentious  贪吃的 ◆ 节制的

goad  (to incite or rouse as if with a goad)
goad•enticement=command•entreaty  唆使• 怂恿=命令•恳求(程度)
gadfly•goad=humorist•amuse  吹毛求疵者•刺激=幽默者•逗乐(人物典型动作)
goad  ◆  check/curb/ lull  唆使 ◆ 阻止/阻止/使安静

gobble  (to swallow or eat greedily)
gobble•nibble = quaff/swill•sip  狼吞虎咽•细咬=痛饮•小嘬(程度)
gobble•eat=guzzle•drink  狼吞虎咽•吃=狂饮•喝(过度与一般)

goggle  n. 护目镜
goggles•eyes=earmuff•ears护目镜•眼睛=御寒耳罩•耳朵

goldbrick  (to shirk duty or responsibility)
goldbrick•work = evade•answer 逃避•工作=逃避•回答(前者逃避后者)

gorge  (to eat greedily or to repletion)
abstemious•gorge = reticent•talk  节制的•暴食=沉默•说话(反义)
river•gorge=wind•dune 河流冲刷形成峡谷=风刮形成沙丘(皆为V字形)

gossamer  (sth. light, delicate, or insubstantial) (extremely light)
substance实体 ponderous沉重的

gourmand  (one who is excessively fond of eating and drinking)
gourmand•appetite=skinflint•thrift嗜食者食欲过好=吝啬鬼节俭过度

gourmet (a connoisseur of food and drink; connoisseur)
gourmet•food =cineast•film=bibliophile•books
美食家•食物=电影迷•电影=爱书者•书(前者爱后者之美感)
【注:bibliophile •a lover of books especially for qualities of format】
gourmet•cuisine = connoisseur•art  美食家•烹调=鉴赏家•艺术作品
gourmet•eat=bookworm•read  书呆子:读=美食家:吃(人物及其爱好)
gourmet•food=aesthete•art  美食家•食物=美学家•艺术(前者鉴赏后者)

grandeur  (the quality or state of being grand)
grandeur ◆ frivolous  庄严 ◆ 轻佻的

grandiloquent  adj(语言等)夸张的
grandiloquent•speak = gaudy•apparel  夸张的•说话=俗丽的•服装
grandiloquent ◆ secretive  夸张的 ◆ 秘密的

grandiose  (imposing; impressive)
grandiose•humility = ephemeral•longevity宏大的•谦卑=短命的•长寿
grandiose ◆ trivial  宏伟的 ◆ 微不足道的

grandstand  (to play or act so as to impress onlookers)
grandstand•impress=equivocate•deceive= proselytize•convert
哗众取宠的表演•打动=支支吾吾的说•欺骗=劝诱改宗的人•皈依(目的)

grate  (irritate,fret)
grating•sound=acrid•odor=fetid•smell
刺耳的•声音=辛辣的•味道=恶臭的•气味(前者修饰后者)
grate ◆ soothe 使烦恼 ◆ 使平静

gratify (give pleasure or satisfaction to ;please)
gratify•desire=slake•thirsty使满足•欲望=解渴•渴(前者满足后者)
aggrieve使痛苦irk使厌烦displease使不快

gratuitous  (unwarranted)(given freely)
gratuitous ◆ merited/ warranted  无根据的 ◆ 应得的/有正当理由的
gratuitous ◆ justified 无根据的 ◆ 证明…是正当的

gravel  (a stratum or deposit of gravel)
gravel•pebble=crowd•person  卵石堆•小鹅卵石=人群•人(组成关系)

green  (deficient in training, knowledge, or experience)
experience•green = pelf•impecunious  经验•无经验的=钱财•贫穷的
inexperience•green=pertinacity•refractory  无经验•无经验的=顽固•难控制的(同义)

gregarious  (sociable)
recluse•gregariousness=poseur•sincerity  遁世者•爱社交=装模作样的人•真诚
gregarious ◆ aloof  爱社交的=疏远的

grieve  (to cause to suffer)
grieve•sorrow=smart•pain  (使)痛苦•悲伤=刺痛•痛(前者造成后者)
solace•grief=pacification•anger安慰•悲伤=安抚•愤怒(前消除后)
grievous ◆ slight  严重的 ◆ 轻微的
grievous  ◆ joyous  令人痛苦的 ◆ 高兴的
【注:grievous• onerous(难以忍受的); afflictive(痛苦的);dire(可怕的)】

grimace n. 面部扭曲,痛苦表情,鬼脸
grimace•face=contortion•body  面部扭曲•脸部=扭弯•身体
chagrin•mind=grimace•face  懊恼是情绪异常=面部扭曲是脸部异常
grimace•pain=flinch•fear  痛苦的表情因为疼痛=畏缩因为害怕

grin  (to draw back the lips to show the teeth in amusement)
grin  ◆  pout  咧着嘴笑 ◆ 噘嘴生气

gripe  (to complain with grumbling)
gripe•discontent=praise•admiration  抱怨因为不满=表扬因为喜爱

grisly  (inspiring horror or intense fear)
grisly•flinch=droll•laugh恐怖的•畏缩=滑稽的•笑(前者造成后者)

groove  (a long narrow channel or depression)
grooved•striation =braided•strand  有槽的•条纹=编织的•绳索(后者特征是前者)
striated•groove=dappled•spot 有条纹的•槽=有斑点的• 斑点(同义)
【注:striation•a minute groove especially when one of a parallel series】

grotesque  (fanciful, bizarre)
grotesque•fantasy = imperial•significance  奇异的•幻想=帝王的•重要

grotto  (a small cave or cavern)
grotto•cavern=arroyo•channel小洞穴:巨洞=小河:海峡 (小与大)

grove  (a planting of fruit or nut trees)
grove•trees=archipelago•islands小树林•树木=群岛•岛屿 (组成关系)

grovel  (crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate)
groveler•petitioner=minion•dependent卑躬屈膝•请愿者=奴才•依赖者
imperious•grovel傲慢的•卑躬屈膝 (行为反面特征)

grueling  (trying to the point of exhaustion)
grueling  ◆  effortless  筋疲力尽的 ◆ 不费力气的

guarantee  (undertake to do or secure)
vouch ◆ refuse to guarantee  担保 ◆ 拒绝担保

guile  (deceitful cunning•Duplicity)
guile•artless = blemish•impeccable 狡猾•朴实的=弄脏•无瑕的(反义)
guile•naif=tardy•prompt 狡猾•天真的=迟缓的•迅速 (反义)
forthright•guile=acrid•gentleness 直率的•狡猾=刻薄的•柔和(反义)
ingenuous•guile = impeccable•flaw 直率的•狡诈=无瑕的•错误(反义)
gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 易受骗的•欺骗=奴性的•统治(容易)
artless ◆ cunning/guile  朴实的=狡猾的
manipulate ◆ guileless 假造 ◆ 不狡诈的

guilt  (feelings of culpability)
guilt•blame = narcissism•love 自责•谴责=自恋•爱(种属)
guilt•expiation=fatigue•repose  罪行•赎罪=疲劳•休息(消除关系)
innocence ◆ guilt  清白的 ◆ 有罪的

gullible  (easily duped or cheated)
gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 轻信的人容易被欺骗=奴性的人容易被统治
trusting•gullible=compliant•servile  信任的•轻信的=顺从的•奴性的(过分前者是后者)
vigilant•entrapped=wary•gulled  警惕的不易被骗入圈套=机警的不易利用
【注:gull:to take advantage of (one who is foolish or unwary) • DECEIVE 利用,欺骗】

gully  (a small valley or gulch)
gully•erosion=callus•friction 小峡谷•腐蚀=老茧•磨擦(后者形成前者)

gum  n. 树胶;口香糖
gum•rubber plant=resin•tree  树胶•橡胶树=树脂•树(前者由后者生成)

gush  (make an excessive display of feeling)
gush•effusive=rage•irate  感情外溢•热情洋溢的=大怒•发怒的(同义)
gush•trickle=blast•whiff  涌出•滴流=爆炸•轻轻地吹(程度)

gust  (a sudden brief rush of wind)
gust•wind=cloudburst•rainfall 一阵狂风•风=倾盆大雨•降雨(程度)

guzzle  (to drink especially liquor greedily)
drink•guzzle = complain•carp  喝酒•狂饮=抱怨•吹毛求疵(程度)

habitable  (suitable for habitation)
habitable•dwelling = potable•beverage 住处是可居住的=饮料是可食用的

hack  (to cut or sever with repeated irregular blows)
hack•carve=gouge•engrave  砍•切开=用圆凿子削除•雕刻 (后者由前者进行)
hack•writer = mercenary•soldier  雇佣文人•作家=雇佣兵•士兵(种属)

hackneyed  (lacking in freshness or originality)
bromide•hackneyed = equivocation•misleading平凡的人平凡=模棱两可的话使人误解
hackneyed•original = windy•concise 陈腐的•有创意的=吹牛的•简洁的(反义)
hackneyed  ◆  fresh  不新奇的 ◆  新鲜的
hackneyed ◆ offbeat  不新奇的 ◆ 离奇的
hackneyed ◆ original  陈腐的 ◆ 创新的
unhackneyed person  ◆  bromide 有创造性的人 ◆ 平庸的人
unhackneyed ◆ trite  有创造性的 ◆ 不陈腐的

halcyon adj. 宁静的
tempestuous暴乱的 stormy 风暴的 miserable 痛苦的

hale  (free from defect;sound)
effete衰弱的 infirm labyrinth虚弱的blighted衰落的anemic贫血的wan病态的
decrepid 衰老的 infirm弱的

half-baked  (lacking adequate planning or forethought;lacking in judgment, intelligence, or common sense)
half-baked ◆ well thought of  考虑不成熟的 ◆ 详细计划的

list 16  hallmark --------hypnotic

hallmark  (a distinguishing trait, or feature)
hallmark  ◆  uncharacteristic feature  典型的特征 ◆ 不典型的特征

hallow  (to make holy or set apart for holy use)
hallowe ◆ desecrate  视为神圣 ◆ 亵渎

hallucination  n. 幻觉,幻想
delusion•thinking=hallucination•perception 错觉•思考=幻觉•感觉(行为特殊方式)

halting (marked by a lack of effectiveness)
stammer•halting=drone•monotonous结巴的说•犹豫=单调而低沉地说•单调的
halting ◆  fluent  犹豫的 ◆ 流畅的

ham-handed  (lacking dexterity or grace)
ham-handed ◆ deft/adroit  笨手笨脚的 ◆ 敏捷熟练的/灵巧的

hammer  n. 铁锤, 槌
hammer•anvil=pestle•mortar  槌•砧=杵•臼(事物之间相互关系)
hammer•carpenter=knife•butcher  槌•木匠=刀•屠户(人物及其工具)

hamper  vt.阻碍n.有盖的大篮子
laundry•hamper=mail•mailbox 要洗的衣服放在篮子里=信放在信箱里
hamper ◆ facilitate  阻碍 ◆ 促进
seminal ◆ hampering further development  发展的 ◆ 阻碍发展的

hamstring  (to make ineffective ;cripple)
hamstring•effectiveness=enervate•vitality使无效•效率=削弱•活力(行为及其对象)

hangdog (sad, dejected)
buoyant 心情愉快的 elated兴高采烈的 sprightly轻快的

hankering  (to have a strong or persistent desire)
hankering ◆ odium/ lack of desire  渴望 ◆ 讨厌/不寄希望

haphazard  (marked by lack of plan, order, or direction)
haphazard  ◆  methodical/ systematic  偶然的 ◆ 系统的

hapless (having no luck)
hapless ◆ fortunate  不幸的 ◆ 幸运的

harangue  (to address in a  ranting way)
harangue ◆ speak temperately  长篇大论 ◆ 有节制地说话

harass  (to annoy persistently)
harass•irritating=haunt•familiar  使烦恼•使愤怒的=常到•熟悉的(同义)

harbinger  (one that presages or foreshadows what is to come)
harbinger•presage=archetype•exemplify先驱用来预言=原型用来做例证

harbor  (to give shelter or refuge to)
harbor ◆ evict 隐匿 ◆ 赶出

hard-bitten  (seasoned or steeled)
hard-bitten ◆ tender  顽强的 ◆ 软弱的

hardy  (capable of withstanding adverse conditions)
hardy ◆ tender 强健的 ◆ 柔弱的

harmonious  (marked by accord in sentiment or action)
harmony•congruity = clandestine•secrecy秘密的•秘密=协调•一致(同义)
harmonious  ◆  acrimonious  和睦的 ◆  严厉的
harmony ◆ discord  协调 ◆ 不调和

harness (UTILIZE)
harness ◆ fail to utilize  利用 ◆ 失败利用

harp  n. 竖琴
horn•blow=harp•pluck  角•吹=竖琴•拨(乐器及其动作)

harrow  vt.折磨, 使苦恼
harrow  ◆  assuage 使苦恼 ◆ 减轻(苦恼)

harry  (to torment by or as if by constant attack)
harry ◆ comfort/untroubled/ mollify  骚扰 ◆ 安慰/没烦恼/安抚

harsh  (causing a painful sensory reaction)
pan•harsh=barb•caustic  严厉的批评•刺耳的=讽刺的话•刻薄的(事物典型特征)
harshen ◆ soften  使变粗糙 ◆ 软化
encomium ◆ harsh criticism  赞美 ◆ 严厉的批评
mollycoddle ◆ treat harshly  溺爱 ◆ 粗暴对待
paean ◆ harshly lampoon  赞美 ◆ 严厉地讽刺

hasten  (to urge on)
slow the progress of延缓过程/check阻碍/retard阻碍

hasty  (done or made in a hurry)(fast&typically superficial)  characterized by deliberation深思熟虑地对待well considered/ deliberate深思熟虑的

hatch  (门、墙壁、地板上的)开口
door•room=hatch•hold  门•房间 ◆ 舱口•货舱

haunt  (思想)萦扰;(鬼魅等)常出没于  n. 常到的地方
haunt•familiar=harass•irritating  常到•熟悉的=使烦恼•使愤怒的(前者造成后者)
haunt•remember=persecute•injure  萦绕于•铭记=迫害•损害(同义)
haunt ◆ shun  常到 ◆ 避开

hauteur n.傲慢,高傲,自大
fawn•hauteur=self depreciate•swagger  奉承•自大=自我轻视•狂妄自大(反面特征)
humility谦虚humbleness谦逊

haven  (a place of safety)
haven ◆ unsafe place/dangerous place 避难所 ◆ 不安全的地方

havoc  (great confusion and disorder)
havoc ◆ serenity  大混乱 ◆ 宁静

headlong  (lacking in calmness or restraint Impetuous; rash)
headlong ◆ deliberate  轻率的 ◆ 深思熟虑的

hearken (to give respectful attention)
hearken ◆ ignore  倾听 ◆ 不理睬

hearten (to give heart to)
hearten / heart•dejection = mollify•anger激励•沮丧=平息•愤怒(消除关系)
daunt使胆怯/dismay沮丧

heartrending  (causing intense sorrow or distress)
heartrending•sad=earsplitting/deafening•loud令人心碎的•伤心=震耳欲聋的•响亮

hedonism  (the doctrine that happiness is the sole good in life)
hedonist•pleasure=recluse•privacy/narcissistic•self
快乐主义者•快乐=隐遁者•秘密/自恋者•自己(人物及其追求对象)
hedonist ◆ ascetic  享乐主义者 ◆ 禁欲者

hegemony  (preponderant influence or authority over others)
hegemony ◆ lack of authority  霸权 ◆ 缺少权利

heinous (hatefully or shockingly evil•abominable)
heinous ◆ commendable  可憎的 ◆ 值得赞美的

heirloom  n. 传家宝
heirloom•ancestor=bequest•testator  祖先留下传家宝 =立遗嘱之人留下遗产

helmet  n.头盔
helmet•injury =amulet•evil  头盔•伤害=护身符•邪恶 (避免关系)

hem  (衣服或裙子的)褶边
hem•garment=ruffle•shirt=molding•cabinet
褶边•衣服=皱褶•衬衫=装饰用嵌线•橱柜(事物及其特殊部分)

herald  (to give notice of)
unheralded•announcement = unabashed•embarrassment
未预告的•公告=不害羞的•困窘(反义)
unherald ◆ proclaim  未预告的 ◆ 宣布

herbicide  n. 除草剂
plant•herbicide = insect•pesticide植物•除草剂=害虫•杀虫剂(事物及其消除对象)

heresy  (an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma)
recantation•heresy = apostasy•faith改变信仰•异教=变节•忠实(反义)
heresy  ◆  dogma  异教 ◆ 教条

heretical  adj. 异教的,异端的
heretic•unconformity=apologist•defend=generous•liberality
异教徒•不顺从=辩护者•辩护=慷慨的(人)•慷慨(人物典型特征)
doctrine•heretical=course•errant教条•异教的=路线•错误的(事物及其反面特征)

hermetic  adj. 深奥的
hermetic  ◆  easily comprehended  深奥的 ◆ 容易理解的

hermit  n. 隐士,隐居者
hermit•society=vegetarian•meat 隐士•社会=素食者•肉(前者远离后者)
hermitage•secluded=landmark•conspicuous  隐居处•隐蔽的=路标•明显的

herpetologist  (dealing with reptiles and amphibians)
chameleon•herpetologist=salmon•ichthyologist  变色龙•爬虫学家=鳜鱼•鱼类研究者

hesitance  (the quality or state of being hesitant)
impetuous•hesitance=parsimonious•profligacy冲动的•犹豫=吝啬的•挥霍(反义)
impetuous•hesitate=irrepressible•servile 冲动的•犹豫=无法镇压的•卑屈的(反义)
hesitation•reluctance=hubris•pride  犹豫•勉强=狂妄自大•骄傲 (程度)
hesitance ◆ alacrity/ impetuosity  犹豫 ◆ 敏捷/性急

heterodox  (not in agreement with accepted beliefs)
heterodox•nonconformity=authority•superiority非正统的•不墨守成规=权威•优越
doctrine•heterodoxy=spontaneous•studied  正统教义•异端=自发的•后天习得的(反义)

hidebound  (having an inflexible character)
hidebound•conservative=peeved•annoyed顽固的•保守的=气恼的•苦恼的
hidebound•conservative=manic•interested/excited
顽固的•保守的=疯狂的•感兴趣的/激动的(程度)
hidebound•flexibility=carefree•responsibility 死板的•灵活性=不负责任•责任(缺乏)
contumacious•authority=reactionary•change 不听令的的反对权威=反动的反对改变

hideous (exceedingly ugly)
hideous ◆  pulchritudinous 丑陋的 ◆  美丽的
affinity ◆ aversion/hideousness  吸引力 ◆ 厌恶/丑陋的

hie  (to go quickly)
hie ◆ dawdle  催促 ◆ 游手好闲,闲混

hieroglyph  (a character used in a system of hieroglyphic writing)
decipher•hieroglyph=separate•component  译解•象形文字=分离•组分(动宾)

hike  (to rise up)
hike  ◆  backset 使高涨 ◆ 倒退

hilarious  (marked by or affording hilarity)
hilarious•funny = hoary•old  欢闹的•有趣的=古老的•老的(程度)
hilarious•laughter=contemptible•distain 笑声是欢闹=贬损别人是可鄙的(修饰)

histrionic  (of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater)
histrionic•actor = pedantic•scholar  戏剧的•演员= 书生气的•学者(正面特征)

hive  (a place swarming with activity)
active•hive = tumultuous•bedlam  活跃的•闹市=喧嚣的•喧嚣之地(正面特征)

hoard  (to keep (as one's thoughts) to oneself)
hoard•miser=shirk•malinger  储藏•守财奴=逃避•装病的人(人物典型动作)
miser•hoard=dandy•preen=sycophant•fawn=pundit•opine
守财奴•秘藏=花花公子•打扮=马屁精•奉承=博学者•发表意见(人物及其特征行为)
hoard  ◆  lavish  储藏 ◆ 浪费的

hoary  (an act intended to deceive or trick)
hoax•deceive = filibuster•delay  阻挠•拖延=愚弄•欺骗(行为及其结果)
hoax•fraudulent=paragon•excellent  愚弄•欺骗的=模范•优秀的(事物典型特征)

hodgepodge  (a heterogeneous mixture)
hodgepodge•uniformity=cliche•originality  大杂烩•一致=陈词滥调•新颖(缺乏)
items•hodgepodge=people•rabble  物品•大杂烩=人•乌合之众(个体及其杂乱集体)

homage  (expression of high regard)
laud•homage = counsel•advice称赞•敬意=劝告•劝告(同义)
homage ◆ disrespect  敬意 ◆ 失礼

homely  (not attractive or good-looking)
pulchritude ◆ homeliness  美丽 ◆ 不漂亮

homily  (a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme)
homily•lecture = parable•story  说教•演讲=寓言•故事(种属)

homogenize  (to blend (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture)
homogenize•uniform=putrefaction•rotten  使均匀•统一的=腐败•腐烂的 (同义)
homogenize  ◆  stratify  使均匀 ◆ 使分层

hone  n.酬劳
honorarium•grateful = amenity•comfortable  酬劳•感谢的=宜人•舒适的(正面特征)

hoodwink  (to deceive by false appearance)
hoodwink  ◆  disabuse  迷惑 ◆ 解惑

hortative  (giving exhortation)
hortatory•urge=didactic•teach 鼓励的•力劝=说教的•教授(形容词与动词同义)
hortative•encourage=exculpatory•absolve鼓励的•鼓励=辨明无罪的•无罪赦免

horticulture  n. 园艺
flower•horticulture = tree•forestry  花•园艺=树•林学(学科及其研究对象)

hovel  (a small, wretched, and often dirty house)
palatial•hovel=bucolic•city= bucolic•metropolis
富丽堂皇的•小屋=田园风味的•城市=乡村的•大都市(反面特征)

hub  n. 车轴,中心
spoke•hub=radius•center轮辐•中心=半径•中心(前者会聚于后者)

hubris  (exaggerated pride or self-confidencehubristic)
hubris•pride=flattery•praise= hesitation•reluctance
狂妄自大•骄傲=奉承•表扬 =犹豫•不愿意(程度)
hubris•pride/self-confidence/proud = parsimony•frugal
狂妄自大•自豪的=吝啬•节俭的(褒贬程度)
hubris  ◆  humility  狂妄自大 ◆ 谦逊

humble  (ranking low in a hierarchy or scale)
bumptious•humbleness =dour•geniality傲慢的•谦逊=严厉的•亲切
bumptious•humbleness= impetuous•vacillation/hesitation
□C的•谦逊=冲动的•犹豫(形名反义)
humility•supplicant=resistance•adversary  谦卑•恳请者=抵抗•敌手(正面特征)
humble ◆ bumptious/ supercilious  谦逊的 ◆ 傲慢的
humility ◆ hauteur/ panache  谦卑 ◆ 傲慢/炫耀,摆架子

humor  (to soothe or content by indulgence)
humor•mollycoddle = chide•pillory  迁就•溺爱=责骂•使示众(程度)

hurricane  n. 飓风
hurricane•cyclone=snow•precipitation  飓风•旋风=雪•降水(种属)
storm•hurricane=fire•inferno  暴风•飓风=火•大火(程度)
wind•hurricane=rain•deluge  风•狂风=雨•暴雨(程度)

husbandry  (the control or judicious use of resources)
husbandry•dissipate=alacrity•procrastinate  节俭•浪费=敏捷•拖延(反义)
husbandry ◆ prodigality/ waste 节俭 ◆ 浪费/浪费
husband ◆ squander  节俭地使用 ◆ 浪费

husk  (果类或谷物的)外壳(通常用复数);皮;无价值之物
seed/corn•husk=orange•rind种子/谷物•外壳=橘子•外皮(事物及其外皮)
husk ◆ core  外壳 ◆ 核

husky  (hoarse with or as if with emotion)
husky ◆ delicate嘶哑的 ◆ 细腻的

hybrid  (something heterogeneous)
hybrid ◆ of unmixed extraction /purebred  杂种的 ◆ 纯血统的/纯种的

hymn  (a song of praise or joy)
hymn•praise=elegy•sorrow =dirge•grief
赞歌•赞美=挽歌•悲伤=挽歌•悲伤(事物及其表达的含义)

hypnotic  (tending to produce sleep)
hypnotic ◆ conscious/stimulant 催眠药 ◆ 有知觉的/刺激物

list 17  hyperbole ---------indict

hyperbole  (extravagant exaggeration)
exaggeration•hyperbole=anger•tirade/pithiness•aphorism/playfulness•banter
夸张法夸张=激烈的长篇演说愤怒/格言精辟/玩笑顽皮
exaggerating•hyperbole =malicious•ill will  夸张•夸张=恶毒的•恶意
hyperbole ◆ understatement  夸张 ◆ 保守的陈述

hypocritical  (characterized by hypocrisy; also •being a hypocrite)
sincerity•hypocritical =authenticity•fraudulent  诚挚•伪善的=真实性•欺诈的
hypocritical ◆ ingenuous/honest  伪善的 ◆ 真诚的/诚实的

ichthyologist  (one that deals with fishes)
salmon•ichthyologist=chameleon•herpetologist
大麻哈鱼•鱼类学家=变色龙•爬虫学家(学者及其研究对象)

iconoclast  (one who attacks settled beliefs)
iconoclast•attack=philosopher•cogitate  打破旧习的人•打破=哲人•思考

idolatrize  (admires intensely and often blindly)
esteem•idolatrize=favor•bribe 尊敬•盲目崇拜=赐予•行贿 (程度褒贬类比)
reverent•idolater=trusting•dupe  虔诚的•偶像崇拜者=轻信的•易受骗的人(正面)

idyll  n.田园诗,牧歌;田园生活
idyll•carefree=ordeal•difficult  田园生活•无忧无虑的=严酷的考验•困难的
idyll ◆ experience fraught with tension  田园休闲生活 ◆ 紧张生活

ignite  (to set afire),使灼热;使兴奋
ignite ◆ extinguish  点燃 ◆ 熄灭

ignominy  n. 文盲
illiteracy•education=inequity•redistribution  文盲•教育=不公•重新分配(消除)
erudition ◆ illiteracy 博学 ◆ 文盲

illuminati  (persons who claim to be unusually enlightened)
illuminati•instruct=interpreter•translate  有睿智的人•指导=翻译员•翻译(正面)

illumination  n. 照明;阐明;启发;装饰图案
lamp•illumination=apron•protect=stylus•mark
围裙•保护=灯•照明=铁笔•刻痕(物品及其用途)
flash•illumination=squall•commotion
通过闪烁来照明=通过大叫来扰乱
illumination•manuscript =frieze•building
装饰图案•手稿=雕饰•建筑(装饰关系)
illuminate•darkness=educate•ignorance
照明•黑暗=教育•无知(前者消除后者)
obfuscate ◆ elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly  使迷乱 ◆ 阐明/阐明/解释清楚

illusory  (based on or producing illusion)
mirage•illusory =maelstrom•turbulent  海市蜃楼•幻影的=大旋涡•狂暴的(正面特征)
illusion•fantasy=nicety•precision  幻想•幻想=准确•精确(同义)
illusion•perception=cunning•truth =gaffe•judgment
幻想•感觉=狡诈•事实=过失•判断 (事物及其特征化方式)

imbibe  (to absorb or take in as if by drinking)
thirsty•imbibe=exhausted•rest 喝水解渴=休息消除疲惫

imbroglio  n. 模仿,效法;冒充,赝品
exemplary•imitation=culpable•blame可作模范的•模仿•该责备的•责备(同义)
exemplary•imitation=reverent•deference可仿效的•模仿=虔诚的•尊重 (因果关系)
paragon/paradigm•imitate=reverence•regard模范•效仿=值得尊敬的人•尊重

immaculate  adj纯净的(having no stain or blemish)
squalor ◆ immaculate  肮脏的 ◆ 纯净的

immanent  adj. 普遍存在的,内在的
immanent ◆ explicit/ extrinsic 内在的 ◆ 外在的/外在的

immaterial  (of no substantial consequence)
immaterial•relevance=peripheral•center=circuitous•directness
不相关的•相关=外围的•中心=拐弯抹角的•率直(形容词与名词反义)
relevant ◆ immaterial  有关的 ◆ 无关的

immature  adj. 不成熟的, 未完全发展的
immature•developed=incipient•realized 未完全发展的•发展好的=初始的•实现的

immemorial  (existing since beyond the reach of memory, record)
immemorial ◆ recent  古老的 ◆ 近来的

immune  adj. 免疫的,免除的,不受影响的
vaccination•immune=overexposure•jaded 种疫苗•免疫的=曝光过度•厌腻的(因果)
【注:关键是overexposure的理解,不仅可以理解成胶卷的暴光过度,也可理解成在明星在媒体前
暴光过度,当然不是公众厌倦他们就是他们厌倦媒体了,所以是因果关系有道理。】
vaccinating•immunity=soporific•sleep  接种的•免疫=催眠的•睡觉(因果关系)
immunize•resist=fertilize•grow  使免疫•抵抗=施肥•生长(因果关系)
immune  ◆  having no resistance  免疫 ◆ 无抵抗力
immunity  ◆  susceptibility  免疫性 ◆ 易感性

immure  (to enclose within or as if within walls)
immure ◆ release / liberate  禁闭 ◆ 释放/解放

immutable  (not capable of or susceptible to change)
immutable•altered=implacable•propitiated  不可变的•改变的=不听劝解的•劝解的
immutable•change =transitory•endure  不能变的•改变=短暂的•耐久 (反义)
immutable ◆ variable  不可变的 ◆ 可变的

imp  (a mischievous child)
mischievous•imp=insensitive•boor  淘气的•顽童=感觉迟钝的•粗人(正面特征)

impassive  adj. 冷漠的,无感情的 ,平静的
callous•impassive=dupe•duplicity  冷淡的•冷漠的=欺骗•不诚实 (同义)
mpassive•perturb=voracious•satisfy  冷漠的•打扰=贪婪的•满足(反面被动特征)
impassive ◆ emotional/ perfervid/ excitable  冷漠的 ◆ 情感的/非常热心的/易兴奋的

impeccable  a.没缺点的,正直的
impeccable•flaw=ingenuous•guile没缺点的•缺点=真诚的•狡诈
restive•calmness=impeccable•flaw=sterile•germ
不安静的•平静=没有缺点的•缺点=无菌的•细菌 (缺乏关系)
rectitude•transgress=keen•obtuse=impeccable•flaw=indolent•stir
正直的•犯罪=锋利的•钝的(反义)
impeccable ◆ faulty没缺点的 ◆ 有缺点的

impecunious  (having very little or no money)
impecunious•money=foolish•discretion  贫穷的缺乏钱=愚蠢的缺乏判断力
pelf•impecunious=experience•green钱财•贫穷的=经验•无经验的(缺乏)
impecunious ◆ wealthy/prosperous/affluent  贫穷的 ◆ 富裕的/繁荣的/富裕的
impecunious ◆ lavish/prosperous/ affluent  贫穷的 ◆ 过分丰富的/繁荣的/富裕的

impede  (to interfere with or slow the progress of)
blandishment•cajole=obstacle•impede  甜言蜜语•哄骗=障碍•阻止(目的关系)
facilitate ◆ impeding  促进 ◆ 阻止
impede ◆ promote/foment/ abet/ nurture/ assist 阻碍 ◆ 促进/煽动/教唆支持/抚育/帮助
encumber ◆ remove impediment  阻碍 ◆ 除去阻碍
cultivate ◆ impede  培养 ◆ 阻止

impend  (to be about to occur)
remote ◆ impending  遥远的 ◆ 即将发生的

impenetrable  (incapable of being penetrated or pierced)
enigma•impenetrable=juggernaut•unstoppable
迷一样的•难以理解的=压倒一切的力量•无法阻碍的(事物典型特征)
pierce•impenetrable=change•immutable=profane•inviolable
穿透•难以渗透的=改变•不可改变的=亵渎•不可亵渎的 (动形反义)
porous ◆ impenetrable多孔渗水的 ◆ 难以渗透的

impenitent  (not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain)
impenitent ◆ remorseful/ rueful  不悔的 ◆ 悔改的/悔恨的

imperative  (expressive of a command)
(类)order•imperative=question•interrogative  命令•命令的=怀疑•表示疑问的(同义)
(同)domineering, imperial, imperious, overbearing, peremptory

imperial  adj. 帝王的,至尊的;壮丽的,堂皇的
imperial•significance=grotesque•fantasy堂皇的•重大=奇异的•怪念头(同义)imperial•significant=spartan•austere  至尊的•重要的=非常简朴的•简朴的(程度)
imperial ◆ obedient  最高权力的 ◆ 服从的

imperious  (marked by arrogant assurance)
imperious•fawn=swagger•self depreciate专横的•奉承=自大的•自贬(反义)
rash•circumspective=imperious•servile=bellicose•peaceable
轻率的•慎重的=专横的•卑屈的=好战的•和平的(反义)
fawn•imperiousness=equivocate•directness=elaborate•sketch
奉承•专横=支吾•率直=详细描述•梗概(动名反义)
imperiousness•fawn=self depreciatory•swagger  专横•奉承=自我贬低•大摇大摆
elf•imperious恶人•专横的(人物典型特征)
imperious ◆ servile/obeisant/ obsequious/ humble/ deferential
专横的 ◆  卑屈的/服从的/谄媚的/谦逊的/恭顺的

impertinent  (characterized by insolent rudeness);不恰当的
impertinent•propriety=keen •obtuseness  鲁莽的•适当=敏锐的•迟钝(反义)
perturb•serenity=impertinent•propriety  扰乱:平静=鲁莽的:适当 (缺乏关系)
impertinence ◆ obeisant /respect/relevance  无礼 ◆ 尊敬

imperturbable  (marked by extreme calm)
imperturbable/ calm  ◆ ticklis/ restive  冷静的 ◆ 不稳定的/吵闹的
imperturbability ◆  testiness/volatility  冷静 ◆ 暴躁/易变

impervious  (not capable of being damaged or harmed)
impervious•damaged=indefensible•excused=precarious•stable
不会被损害的•伤害的=无辩护余地的•申辩的=不稳定的•稳定的(反义)
impervious•damaged=indomitable•subdue
不会被损害的•伤害的=不屈服的•屈服的(反义)
impervious•friable=nonflammable•combustible
不会被损害的•易碎的=不燃烧的•易燃的
impervious•penetrate=ineluctable•avoid
不能渗透的•渗透=不可避免的•避免(反义)
translucent ◆ impervious of light透明的 ◆ 不透光的

impetuous  (marked by impulsive vehemence or passion)
impetuous•hesitate=irrepressible•servile
冲动的•犹豫=镇压不住的•顺从的(反义)
impetuous•(vacillation/ hesitation)=bumptious•humbleness
冲动的•踌躇/犹豫=傲慢的•谦逊(形名反义)
impetuous ◆ deliberate 冲动的 ◆ 深思熟虑的
impetuosity ◆ hesitance/vacillation  冲动 ◆ 犹豫/踌躇

impiety (the quality or state of being impious)
impiety ◆ devoutness  不虔诚的 ◆ 虔诚的

implacable  adj. 不易抚慰的
implacable•appease=indomitable•subdue 不安静的•安静=不屈服的•屈服(反义)
implacable•compromise=honest•swindle  不易抚慰的•妥协=诚实的•诈骗(反义)
implacable•propitiated =inalienable•surrendered=immutable:altered
不缓和的•劝解=不能剥夺的•放弃=不能变的•改变的(反义)

implement  n. 工具,器具v. 实现,使生效,执行
implement ◆ foil  实现 ◆ 阻止

implode (to collapse inward as if from external pressure)
collapse•implode=divide•sunder  倒塌•内爆=分开•切开(因果关系)
implosion  ◆  rapid outward movement  内爆 ◆ 快速向外运动

imposing  (impressive in size, dignity, or grandeur)
imposing ◆ modes  t壮丽的 ◆ 适度的

impostor  (one that assumes false identity for deception)
impostor•identity=usurper•authorization  冒名顶替者•身份=篡位者•权利

impotent  a. 无力的,虚弱的,无效的(lacking in power, strength)
clout ◆ impotence权力 ◆ 无力虚弱

imprecise  adj. 不严密的,不精确的
nice  ◆  imprecise  精密的 ◆ 不严密的

impresario  (剧院、乐团等的)经理人
impresario•entertainment=broker•trade 经理人投资娱乐业=经纪人协商交易

impromptu  (composed without previous preparation;extemporaneous)
ad-lib•impromptu=aside•divergent  即兴地•即席的=在旁边•分岔的(同义)
impromptu•performance=unheralded•announcement
即席演出•表演=没有预先通知的•公告(反义)
impromptu•rehearsal=honesty• duplicity=caprice•deliberate
即兴演出•排演=诚实•狡猾=反复无常•深思熟虑的(反义)
impromptu ◆ carefully rehearsed  即席演出 ◆ 仔细排练

improvise  (to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously)
score•improvise =text•extemporize  乐谱•即席而作=演讲稿•即席演讲
rite ◆ improvised act  惯例 ◆ 即兴表演

imprudent  (not prudent•lacking discretion)
impudent ◆ respectful/ judicious  轻率的 ◆ 尊敬的/判断正确的

impudent  (marked by contemptuous or  boldness)
impudence•brazen=deadpan•impassive  厚颜无耻•厚颜无耻=无表情•冷漠的(同义)
impudent ◆ deferential/ respectful/ obeisant/ reverence/ deference
放肆无礼的 ◆ 恭敬的 /恭敬有礼貌的/ 恭敬的/ 尊重

impugn  (to assail by words or arguments)
impugn ◆ champion/ endorse/ extol/ vindicate/ uphold
指责 ◆ 支持/ 同意/ 赞美/ 辩护/ 赞同

impuissance  n.  无权;无力;虚弱
clout ◆ impuissance  权势 ◆ 无权

inadvertent  (not focusing the mind on a matter)
advertent ◆ inattentive  留意的 ◆ 疏忽的
inadvertent ◆ intentional  疏忽的 ◆ 留意的
inadvertence ◆ careful attention  疏忽 ◆ 仔细注意

inalienable  (incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred)
inalienable•surrendered=implacable•propitiated  不能交出的•交出的=难平息的•平息的

inane  (lacking significance, meaning, or point)
expressive 有表现力的  meaningful有意义的  pregnant富有意义的
significant有意义的  weighty有内容的 substantiated实体化的

inanimate  (not animated or lively)
inanimate•living = ephemeral•enduring 无生命的•活的=短暂的•持久的(反义)

inaugurate  (to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies)
inauguration•official=matriculation•student  就职•公务员=入学•学生
inaugurate•president=install•official=crown•king
举行就职典礼•总统=使就职•公务员=加冕•国王(行为及其对象)
cease ◆ inaugurate/ commencement  终止 ◆ 开创/ 开始

incandescent  (strikingly bright, radiant, or clear)
incandescent ◆ dull  白炽的 ◆ 阴暗的

incantation  n. 咒语
incantation•utterance=talisman•object 咒语•话=护身符•东西(种属)

incarnate  (invested with bodily and especially human nature and form)
incarnate ◆ incorporeal  人体的 ◆  灵魂的

incendiary  (involving a deliberate burning of property)
incendiary•agitate=insurgent•rebel  煽动的•煽动=叛乱的•叛乱 (形容词和名词同义)

incense (to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of)
propitiate ◆ incense  劝解 ◆ 激怒

inception  (an instance of beginning;commencement)
inception•termination=matriculation•graduation  开始•终止=入学•毕业(反义)

incessant  (continuing without interruption)
incessant ◆ interrupted  不断的 ◆ 中断的

inch  (to move by small degrees•progress slowly)
inch•advance=accrete•grow  慢慢前进•前进=增长•生长(种属)
inch•move=drawl•speak 慢慢移动•移动=懒洋洋地说•说(程度) 缓慢

inchoate  (being only partly in existence or operation)
inchoate/incipient•realized=immature• developed
未形成的/初始的•形成的=未完全发展的•完全发展的(反义)
inchoate ◆ explicit/ completely formed/ enduring/ fully formed/ fully realized
不完全的 ◆ 明确的/ 完全发展的/ 完全发展的/ 完全发展的/ 完全发展的

incinerate  (to cause to burn to ashes)
singe•incinerate=erode•destruction  烧的微焦•烧成灰烬=腐蚀•毁灭 (程度)

incipient  (beginning to come into being or to become apparent)
incipient/ inchoate•realized=immature•developed
}始的•完成的=不成熟的•成熟的(反义)
incipient•realized=tangible•indefinite { moribund•dead }=hypothetical•proven
}始的•完成的=切实的•不确定的=假说的•被证明的(反义)
incipient ◆ full-blown/ full realized/ plentiful  开始的 ◆ 成熟的/完全实现的/丰富的

incite  v  煽动,刺激(to move to action•stir up•spur on•urge on)
instigator•incite=bully•browbeat  煽动者•煽动=侍强凌弱的人•恫吓(特征行为)
persiflage•incite=exhortation•motivate  恶意抨击•刺激=劝告•促进(动作及表现)
incite ◆ pacify  煽动 ◆ 抚慰
incitant ◆ insensible  兴奋的 ◆ 无知觉的

inclement  (lacking mildness)
draconian•inclemency=fret•vexation  严峻的•严酷=(使)烦恼•烦恼(同义)【词性不符】
inclemency•evade  险恶,严酷•逃避(因果关系)
inclement ◆ balmy/mild 险恶严酷的 ◆ 温和的

incogitant  adj. 『罕』无思想的;粗心的;不体谅的
incogitant•thoughtful=restive•calm  粗心的•深思的=不安的•安静的(反义)
incogitant•thoughtfulness=restive•calmnes  粗心的•深思=不安的•安静(反面特征)

incongruent  (not superposable to be coincident throughout)
incongruent•conform=recalcitrant•obey=scatter•overlap
不协调的•顺从=反对的•顺从=分散的•重叠(反义)

inconsequential (of no significance)
inconsequential•illogical=apocalyptic•prophetic
启示录的•预言的=不符合逻辑的•不符合逻辑的 (同义)
crucial ◆ inconsequential  重要的 ◆ 不重要的

incontrovertible  (not open to question)
incontrovertible•disputed=untenable•defended
无可争议的•争议=无法抵抗的•防卫(反面特征)
incontrovertible•disputed=matchless•equaled
无可争议的•争议的=无法比拟的•相等的(反义)
controvert ◆ substantiate  争论 ◆ 证实

incorrigible  adj. 无药可救的,固执的incapable of being corrected or amended
incorrigible•amend=irradicable•remove 固执的•改正=不能根除的•移动
incorrigible•reformed=inscrutable•understood  固执的•革新=难以了解的•理解
incorrigible ◆ tractable  固执的 ◆ 温顺的
incorrigibility ◆ tractability 固执 ◆ 温顺

incriminate  (to proof of involvement in a crime or fault)
incrimination ◆ exoneration  使负罪 ◆ 免罪

incubator  n. 培养的器具, 孵卵器, 早产儿保育器
incubator•infant =greenhouse•plant  早产儿保育器培育婴儿=温室培养植物

inculpate  vt. 使...有罪
exonerate免罪/ absolve赦免/ exculpate使无罪

incursion  (a hostile entrance into a territory)
incursion ◆ retreat  入侵 ◆ 撤退

indelible  adj. 擦试不掉的,不可磨灭的
indelible•forget=astounding•expect  不可磨灭的•忘记=令人吃惊的•预期(反义)
indelibility•erasure=impermeability•passage  不能消除•擦除=不渗透性•透过
indelible ◆ erasable  去不掉的 ◆ 可抹去的
indelibility ◆ eras ability  擦试不掉 ◆ 擦掉

indemnity  (security against hurt, loss, or damage)
mollification•soothe=indemnity•secure 减轻•缓和=保护•使安全 (动作及其目的)

indict  vt. 起诉,控告,指控
indict•accused 起诉•被告 (因果)
absolve ◆ indict  赦免 ◆ 控告

list 18  indifferent -------inveigle

indifferent  (marked by a lack of interest)
shrug•indifference=embrace•affection  耸肩•漠不关心=拥抱•爱(动作体现情感)
indifferent  ◆ avid/ fervor/ enraptured  漠不关心的 ◆ 热心的/ 热情的/ 狂喜的
zealot ◆ indifference  狂热 ◆ 不关心

indigenous  (having originated in and being produced)(innate,inborn)
indigenous  ◆ exotic/ foreign/nonnative  本地的 ◆ 异国的
indigenous ◆ acquired  先天的 ◆ 后来获取的 

indigent  (suffering from indigence)
indigent•wealth=redundant•indispensability  贫穷的•富裕=多余的•不可缺少
indigent ◆ affluent/ wealth  贫穷的 ◆ 富裕的

indispensability  (absolutely necessary)
indigent•wealth=redundant•indispensability  贫乏的•富裕=多余的•不可缺少
indispensable ◆ trivial  不可缺少的 ◆ 微不足道的

industriousness (constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied)
industriousness•activity=fastidiousness•selectivity  勤勉的•活动=严格•选择

indoctrinate  (to instruct especially in fundamentals)
stickler•exacting=pedagogue•indoctrinate  吹毛求疵者•苛求的=教育者•灌输

indolent  (averse to activity)
indolent•shirk=miserly•hoard  懒惰的•逃避=吝啬的•密藏 (正面特征)
rectitude•transgress=keen•obtuse{ impeccable•flaw=indolent•stir}
正直•违法=锋利•钝的{无瑕的•缺点=懒惰•激动}{事物及其反义}

inducement  n.引诱物
inducement ◆ deterrent 引诱 ◆ 制止

indulgent  adj.放纵的
abstemious•indulge=austere•decorate  节制的•放纵的=朴素的•装饰(反义)
indulge•ascetic=restrain•libertine  纵容•禁欲者/ 苦行的=抑制•放荡不羁者/ 放荡的
glutton•overindulgence=ascetic•self denial  暴食者•放纵=禁欲者•自我约束
indulgent ◆ ascetic  放纵的 ◆ 苦行的
draconian ◆ indulgent/mild  苛刻的 ◆ 放纵
martinet ◆ indulgent person  严守纪律者 ◆ 放纵的人

indurate  (to make hard)
indurate ◆ soften  使坚固 ◆ 使软化

ineffable  (incapable of being expressed in words)
ineffable•description=irradicable•obliterate  不能说的•描述=不能根除的•删除

ineluctable  (not to be avoided,resisted)
ineluctable•chance=serendipitous•effort
无法逃避的•偶然=善于挖宝(有发掘天赋的)•努力(事物及其反面特点)
ineluctable•avoid=irrevocable•repeal  不可避免的不可避免=不可撤回的不可撤回
impervious•penetrate=ineluctable•avoid  密封的不能穿透=无法逃避的不能逃避

inept  (generally incompetent)
inept ◆ judicious/ proficient/ masterful愚笨的 ◆ 明智的/ 精通的/ 技术精湛的
finesse ◆ ineptitude  灵巧 ◆ 愚笨

inert  (deficient in active properties)
inertia•react=persistence•vacillate惯性•反应=坚持•犹豫 (反面特征)
ephemeral•endure=inert•react {ineffectual•proceed}
生命短暂的(事物)难以持久=惰性的(事物)难以反应
inert ◆ active / dynamic  惰性的 ◆ 充满活力
inertia ◆ activity/ tendency to change motion  惯性 ◆ 活力/ 改变方向的趋势
reactant ◆ inert material  反应物 ◆ 惰性物质

inevitable  (incapable of being avoided or evaded)
inevitable•chance=absolute•variability  必然的•偶然性=绝对的•可变性(反面)

inexorable  (not to be persuaded by entreaty)
inexorable•dissuasion=indomitable•conquest  无法说服的•说服=无法征服的•征服
inexorable ◆ relenting 无情的 ◆ 怜惜的

infamy  (evil reputation)
infamy ◆ good repute  声名狼藉  ◆  好名声

infatuate  (to cause to be foolish)
flattering•infatuation=sabbatical•leave  讨人喜欢的•迷恋=假日的•外出 (因果)
odium ◆ infatuation憎恨 ◆ 迷恋

inferno (a place that resembles or suggests hell)
fire•inferno=storm•hurricane  火•火海=暴风•飓风(程度)

infiltrate  (to passsurreptitiously into enemy-held territory)
infiltrate•enter=conspire•plan=insinuate•say=stalk•follow
秘密潜入•进入=阴谋•计划=含沙射影的说•说=暗中追踪•跟随(行为及其特殊方式)

infinite  (immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive)
infinite•end =unique•precedent  无穷的•结束=独一无二•前例(事物及反面特点)
infinite•exhaust=discrete•overlap  无穷的•用尽=离散的•重叠(事物及反面特点)
infinity ◆ bounded space  无限 ◆ 有限空间

infirm  (of poor or deteriorated vitality)
hale ◆ infirm  强壮的 ◆ 柔弱的

inflame (to excite to uncontrollable action or feeling)
inflame ◆ assuage/ subdue  激怒 ◆ 缓和/ 减弱

infelicitous  (not appropriate in application)
infelicity  ◆  appropriateness 不合适的 ◆ 合适的
happy ◆ infelicitous  幸福的 ◆ 不幸的

influx  (a coming in)
exodus ◆ influx  大批的离去 ◆ 涌入

infuse  vt. 灌输,使…充满,鼓舞
inspire•infuse=obliterate•remove  鼓舞•鼓舞•删除•除去 (同义)
infuse ◆ drain away/extract  使…充满 ◆ 排空/榨取

infuriate  (to make furious; enrage)
infuriate•rage=commend•esteem 激怒•大怒=称赞•尊敬 (同义)
infuriate•rage=nonplus•perplexity  激怒•大怒=困惑•困惑  (同义)

ingenious  (marked by originality, resourcefulness, and
cleverness in conception or execution)
ingenious ◆ awkward  机灵的 ◆ 笨拙的
ingenious ◆ prosaic  有独创性的 ◆ 平凡的

ingenuous  (showing innocent simplicity and candidness)
ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
直率的•掩饰=粗俗的•打扮=礼貌•轻视(事物及其反面特征)
fabricate•ingenuous =discompose•placid  捏造• 直率的=使不安•平息的(反义)
ingratiating•win favor=disingenuous•deceive  迷人的•使喜欢=虚伪的•欺骗(因果)
pernicious•injure=disingenuous•mislead  有害的•伤害=虚伪的•欺骗(因果关系)
ingenue•sophistication=cynic•trustfulness  阅历不深的人•老练=悲愤嫉俗者•信赖
ingenuous ◆ cunning/ sly/ hypercritical  直率的 ◆ 狡猾/ 狡猾/ 吹毛求疵的
disingenuousness ◆ guilelessness  无诚意的 ◆ 坦诚的

ingest  (to take in for or as if for digestion)
ingest ◆ expel 摄取 ◆ 排出

ingrained  (to work indelibly into the natural texture)
ingrained ◆ easily to change/ extrinsic  根深蒂固的 ◆ 易于改变/外表的

ingrate (an ungrateful person)adj. 不知恩的,忘恩的
ingrate ◆ thankful person  忘恩负义者 ◆ 感恩的人

ingratiating  (agreeable)逢迎的,讨人欢心的
ingratiating•win favor=disingenuous•deceive  迷人的•赢得喜欢=虚伪的•欺骗(正面特征)
阅读是要费劲的…印刷品终究不如电视那么讨人喜欢

inherent  (belonging by nature or habit)
extrinsic ◆ inherent  外在的 ◆ 内在的

inimical  (having the disposition of an enemy)
inimical ◆ friendly/amiable/amicable/amenable  敌意的 ◆ 友好的/亲切的/友善的/服从的

inimitable  (not capable of being imitated)
indubitable•question=inimitable•copy  不容置疑的•怀疑=无法模仿的•模仿
inimitable ◆ commonplace/ordinary  独特的 ◆ 平凡的

iniquity  (gross injustice)
iniquity ◆ rectitude/disinterestedness 不公正 ◆ 公正

initiate  (to cause or facilitate the beginning of)
catalysis•initiate=supervisor•oversight  催化剂•发动=管理者•小心照顾
eccentric•conventional=doyen•uninitiated
外向的•保守的=老资格的•无经验的(反义)
initiate ◆ follow up  开始 ◆ 跟随
inveterate ◆ uninitiated  熟练的 ◆ 无经验的

inkling (a slight knowledge or vague notion)
inkling•indication=lapse•error  略知•知识=小错误•错误 (少与正常)
inkling•knowledge=modicum•quantity  略知•知识=小量•量 (少与正常)

innocuous  (not likely to give offense)
placebo•innocuous=salve•unctuous=venom•toxious
安慰剂•无害的=油膏•油质的=毒液•有毒的(事物典型特征)
innocuous ◆ injurious/noxious  无害的 ◆ 有害的

innovation  (the introduction of something new)
contumaciou•authority=reactionary/ hidebound/ conservative•change/ innovation/ novelty
顽固的•权威=反动的/ 死板的/ 保守的•变化/ 创新/ 新奇(事物及其反面特征)

inquisitive  (inordinately or improperly curious about the affairs of others)
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好奇的?过分好奇的?疼痛的?疼痛难忍的(程度)

insight n. 洞察力
insight• discern=mettle• endure  洞察力•洞悉=毅力•忍耐 (同义)
insight• discerning=deadpan•impassive 洞察力•洞悉=无表情•消极(动作正面特征)

insipid (lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate);难吃的
insipid•invention=prosaic•imagination 平淡的•创造=平淡的•想象力(缺乏关系)
insipid ◆ piquant  难吃的 ◆ 开胃的

insolent  (exhibiting boldness or effrontery)
insolently•veneration=perfunctorily•inspiration  无礼地•尊敬=马虎地•激情
insolent ◆ polite/courteous  无礼的 ◆ 有礼貌的
insolent ◆ respectful  粗野的 ◆ 恭敬的,有礼貌的

insouciant  (lighthearted unconcern)
tenacious•yield=insouciant•worry  不屈不挠的•屈服=无忧无虑的•担忧

instate (to set or establish in a rank or office)
instate ◆ oust 任命 ◆ 剥夺

instigate  (to goad or urge forward)
instigator•incite=bully•browbeat  煽动者• 煽动=欺凌弱小者•欺凌(人物及其动作)
quell ◆ foment/ instigate/ rouse  镇压 ◆ 煽动/教唆 /煽动

instill (to impart gradually)
instill ◆ drain away  慢慢地灌输 ◆ 渐渐枯竭
instill ◆ remove  慢慢地灌输 ◆ 移开

institute  (to originate and get established)
institute ◆ abrogate/rescind/ efface  创立 ◆ 废除

instrumentalist n. 乐器演奏家
instrumentalist•orchestra=actor•troupe  乐器演奏家•管弦乐队=演员•剧团 
instrumentalist•symphony=dancer•ballet  乐器演奏家•交响乐=舞蹈家•芭蕾舞

insubordinate  (disobedient to authority)
insubordinate•submissive=capricious•deliberate
不顺从的•顺从的=反复无常•深思熟虑的 (反义)
tractable ◆ insubordinate/ intransigent/ incorrigible/ obstinate
易于管教的 ◆ 反抗的/ 不妥协的/ 顽固的/ 倔强的

insular adj. 岛的,孤立的,岛特有的
insular ◆ cosmopolitan 孤立的 ◆ 世界性的
insularity ◆ cosmopolitanism  岛国性质 ◆ 世界大同主义

insulate  (to place in a detached situation)
insulate ◆ expose  使隔离 ◆ 暴露

insurgent  adj. 叛乱的,起事的n. 叛乱分子
insurgent•rebel=incendiary•agitate  叛乱分子•叛乱=煽动者•煽动 (人及其正面动作)
rebelliousness•insurgent=parsimony•miser  叛乱的•叛乱分子=吝啬•吝啬鬼(正面)

intangible  adj. 难以明了的,无形的
impracticable•effected=intangible•known
不可行的•有效的=难以明了的•知道的 (反义)
corporeal ◆ intangible 有形的 ◆ 无形的

integral  (essential to completeness)
integral ◆ superfluous /redundant  完整的 ◆ 多余的

integrity  (the quality or state of being complete or undivided)
entire•integrity =ecumenical•generality=genuine•authenticity
完整的•完整=一般的•一般性=真实的•真实性(正面特征)
taint ◆ integrity/wholesomeness  污点 ◆ 正直/健康
integrity ◆ incompleteness  完整 ◆ 不完全

intelligible  (capable of being understood)
garble•unintelligible=correct•accurate  正确•精确=混淆•难解的(正面特征)

intemperate  (not temperate especially)
intemperate ◆ equable/ constrained  放纵的 ◆ 平静的/ 受约束的

intensify  (to make intense or more intensive)
abate•intensity=taper•width  减轻•强度=逐渐变细•宽度(减轻关系)
alleviate•intensity=abate•tax 减轻•强度=降低•税 (动宾)
moderate•intensity=extenuate•seriousness  缓和•加强=减轻•严肃(反面特征)
intensify  ◆  abate/ assuage/ attenuate  加强 ◆ 减轻/ 减缓/ 削弱

inter  (to deposit(a dead body)in the earth or in a tomb)
inter•burial=obliterate•removal  埋葬•葬礼=擦去•移动(事件及其关联动作)

intercede  (to intervene between parties to reconciling differences)
intercessor•mediate=translator•interpret/ augur•prediction
仲裁者•调解=翻译•解释/ 占卜者•预言(人物及其本征动作)

interdict  (to forbid in a usually formal or authoritative manner)
interdict ◆ authorize  禁止 ◆ 批准

interim (an intervening time)adj. 暂时的
respite•labor=interim•concert {mediate•confliction}  间歇•劳动=中间间隔•音乐会
interim ◆ permanent  暂时的 ◆ 永恒

interlock  (to become locked together or interconnected)
interlocking ◆ independent  联锁的 ◆ 独立

interminable  (having or seeming to have no end)
innumerable•number=interminable•duration
无尽的•数目•无限的•持续时间 (形容词修饰名词)
interminable•lengthy =boundless•extensive  无限的•冗长的=无限的•宽广的(程度)
countless/ innumerable/ myriad/ untold•number=everlasting/ interminable•duration
无尽的/ 无数的/ 无数的/ 无法说出的•数量=永恒/ 无尽的•持续时间 (事物的反面特征)

intermittent  (coming and going at intervals)
intermittent ◆ constant  间歇的 ◆ 持续的

interregnum  (a period during which the normal functions of
government or control are suspended)
interregnum•government=hibernation•activity过渡期政府没有政府=冬眠停止活动

interrogate  (to question formally and systematically)
inquiry•interrogatory =confidence•arrogant  调查•质问=自信•傲慢(程度)
question•interrogative=order•imperative  提问•质问=命令•强制的命令(程度)

intimate  (a friend or confidant)
clique•intimates=flock•sheep  朋党集团•密友=一群•羊(组成关系)
intimate•close= engrossed•absorbed =obsessed•attracted
亲密的:紧密的=全神贯注的:入神的=着迷的:吸引的(程度)

intimate  (to make known especially publicly or formally)
intimate•communicate=allude•refer  宣布•通信=暗指•提及(行为及其特殊方式)

intimidate  (to make timid or fearful)
dauntless•intimidate=irrepressible•restrain  无畏的难以胁迫=无法抑制的难以抑制
bully•intimidate=stupid•gullibility  欺凌弱小者威吓别人=笨人轻信别人
sabotage•subvertness=bull•intimidation  阴谋破坏目的是颠覆=暴力强迫目的是胁迫
cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize  懦弱者容易被胁迫=易怒者容易招致敌对

intransigent  (refusing to compromise or to abandon an
extreme position or attitude;irreconcilable)
intransigent•acquiesce=deferential•offend  不妥协的不会勉强同意=恭敬的不会冒犯
intransigent ◆ open to compromise  固执的 ◆ 妥协的
intransigent ◆ pliant/tractable  固执的 ◆ 柔顺的/容易驾驭的

intrepid  (characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and
endurance)
genteel•vulgarity=intrepid•fear  优雅的•粗俗=无畏的•害怕 (反义)
intrepid•deter=rapt•distract  无畏难以威慑=全神贯注难以分心
intrepid  ◆ apprehensive 无畏的 ◆ 忧惧的

intrigue  (to arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of)
interesting•intriguing=bootless•futile  有趣的•有趣的=无用的•无用的(同义)
pall ◆ interest/intrigue  厌倦 ◆ 兴趣

intrinsic  (the essential nature or constitution of a thing)
intrinsic  ◆  extraneous  内在的 ◆ 无关的

intuitive  (known or perceived by intuition • directly apprehended)
extraneous ◆ intuitive 外来的 ◆ 直觉的
【注:直觉的认知由自身得来,而外来的认知由外部得来 extraneous:inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand;existing on or coming from the outside】

inundate  (to cover with a flood • overflow ;overwhelm)
inundate ◆ drain  淹没 ◆ 排干

inure  (to accustom to accept something undesirable)
inured•tolerance=addicted•dependency  习惯的•耐性=上瘾的•依赖性(前者有后者
特征)

invective  (insulting or abusive language)adj. 谩骂的
exhortation•motivate=invective•discredit  劝告•促进=谩骂•使丢脸(目的)
polemic•disputatious=invective•abusive  争论的•争论=谩骂的•谩骂
invective ◆ flatter  谩骂 ◆ 奉承
invective ◆ laudatory speech/ laudatory words  谩骂 ◆ 赞美之词

inveigh (to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently•rail)
inveigh ◆ verbally provide support  漫骂 ◆ 口头支持

inveigle  (to win over by wiles•entice;to acquire by ingenuity or flattery)
plot•plan=inveigle•interest  密谋•谋划=诱骗•使感兴趣(前者是采取不正当手段进行后者)
inveigle ◆ request directly  诱骗 ◆ 直接要求
inveigle ◆ openly seek to persuade  诱骗 ◆ 公开劝说

list 19  inventory-------lethal

inventory  (an itemized list of current assets)
census•population=inventory•stock  人口普查•人口数=存货清单•库存
inventory•merchandise=manifest•cargo  存货清单•存货=运货单•货物

inveterate  (firmly established by long persistence)
inveterate ◆ uninitiated  根深蒂固的 ◆ 无经验的
inveterate ◆ one-time  根深蒂固的 ◆ 一次,偶尔

invidious  (tending to cause discontent,animosity,or
envy)
invidious ◆ beneficial 容易引起不满的 ◆ 有益个人或社会的
【注:beneficial :conducive to personal or social well-being】

invigorate  (to give life and energy to•animate; also•stimulate)
tonic•invigorate=analgesic•deaden  补品•使健壮=止痛剂•使麻木
debilitate ◆ invigorate  使衰弱 ◆ 使健壮
demoralize ◆ invigorate  士气受挫 ◆  鼓舞
emaciate ◆ invigorate  使憔悴 ◆ 使生气勃勃
sap ◆ invigorate  使衰竭 ◆ 使生气勃勃

invincible  (incapable of being overcome or defeated;
unconquerable)
invincible•conquer=negligible•perceive  不能征服的不易被征服=可以忽略的不易被察觉
invincible•subdue=impervious•damage  不能征服的•征服=不会受到损伤的•损坏

invoke  (to put into effect or operation•implement)
invoke ◆ suspend  实施 ◆ 暂停

irascible  (marked by hot temper and easily provoked anger)
irascible•placate=insensate•conscious 易怒的难以安抚=没感觉难以察觉
affable ◆ irascible  和蔼的 ◆ 易怒的

irate  (arising from anger)
gush•effusive=rage•irate  喷涌•流出的=暴怒•愤怒的(形容词与动词的同义)

iridescence  (a lustrous rainbowlike play of color)
iridescent ◆ monochromatic  彩色 ◆ 单色

irk  (to make weary, irritated, or bored)
irk•enrage••suggest•urge  使苦恼:激怒=建议:力劝
pest•irksome=expert•proficient  让人讨厌的人/ 事:让人讨厌的=专家:精通的
irk ◆ make someone pleased  使不愉快 ◆ 使愉快

ironclad  (so firm or secure as to be unbreakable•as
binding)
ironclad•firm=jammed•full=brilliant•smart
装甲的•坚固=拥挤的•满的=才华横溢的•聪明的(程度)

irradicable  (impossible to eradicate • deep-rooted)
ineffable•description=irradicable•obliterate  不能说的•描述=不能根除的•删除
incorrigible•amend=irradicable•remove 无可救药的•改正=不能根除的•删除

irreducible  (数)不可约的
factorable ◆ irreducible  可约的 ◆ 不可约的

irritate  (to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in•annoy)
antidote•poisoning=balm•irritation  解毒•毒=温和物质•刺激物 (名词反义)
haunt•familiar=harass•irritating  常去的地方是熟悉的=烦扰是烦人的
balm ◆ irritant  温和的 ◆ 刺激的
salve ◆ irritant  药膏 ◆ 刺激物

isthmus (a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas)
isthmus•land=strait•water  地峡联结陆地=海峡联结水

itinerary  (a travel diary;a traveler's guidebook)
itinerary•trip=syllabus•course  旅行日记:旅行=课程提纲:课程

jabber  (to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly)
jabber ◆ speak slowly  快而不清楚地说 ◆ 慢慢地说

jaded  (fatigued by overwork•exhausted)
overexposure•jaded=vaccination•immune
曝光过度•暴光过度的=疫苗接种•免疫的(前者造成后者)
jaded ◆ keen  厌倦的 ◆ 热心的

jape  (to make mocking fun of)
revere ◆ jape at  尊敬 ◆ 嘲笑

jargon  (specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, similar group)
vernacular•place=jargon•profession  方言•地方=行话•行业

jarring adj. 刺耳的
malodorous•smell=jarring•sound  恶臭的•气味=刺耳的•声音
melodious ◆ jarring  音调优美的 ◆ 刺耳的

jaundice  vt. 使怀偏见
jaundice ◆ dispose favorably  使怀偏见 ◆ 好意的处理
jaundiced ◆ unprejudiced/candid  有偏见的 ◆ 公正的
【注:jaundiced :yellowed; prejudiced; envious 黄疸的;偏见的;嫉妒的】

jaunty  (sprightly in manner or appearance•lively)
staid ◆ jaunty 沉静的 ◆ 轻快的

jejune  (devoid of significance or interest•dull)
labyrinthine•simplicity=jejune•interest  迷宫•简单的=内容空洞的•有趣的
jejune ◆ thought provoking  内容空洞的 ◆ 促人思考的

jest  (an utterance intended to be taken as mockery or humor)
jeer•derision••reprimand•censure  嘲笑:嘲笑=.申斥:责难
jest ◆ solemnity  玩笑 ◆ 严肃
jest ◆ solemn utterance  玩笑 ◆ 严肃的话

jeopardy  (exposure to or imminence of death, loss, or injury:danger)
uninformative•fathom=jeopardy•overcome信息贫乏的难以彻底了解=危险难以克服
【注:uninformative :providing little or no information; not informative.】

jettison  (to get rid of as superfluous or encumbering • discard)
jettison ◆ retain  丢弃 ◆ 保留

jibe  (to be in accord• agree)
jibe ◆ conflict  一致 ◆ 冲突

jingoist  n. 沙文主义者
nepotism•kinship=jingoist•nationality 偏袒亲戚•亲戚=沙文主义者•国家
dove ◆ warmonger/jingoist  鸽派 ◆ 鹰派/沙文主义者

jitter  (to be nervous or act in a nervous way)
jittery ◆ resolute  战战兢兢 ◆ 坚定的

jocular (given to jesting•habitually jolly or jocund; playful)
jocular ◆ lachrymose/serious  诙谐的 ◆ 爱哭的/严肃的

jocund  (suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness)
jocund ◆ dour/ dreary/ morose/ serious 欢乐的 ◆ 阴郁的/ 沉闷的/ 郁闷的/ 严肃的

jog  (a movement, pace, or instance of jogging as for exercise)
jog•exercise=barter•trade  慢跑•运动=以物易物•交易(种属)

jolt  (to cause to move with a sudden jerky motion)
jolt•move=check•stop  使颠簸•运动=使突然停止•停止(动作程度)

jot  (to write briefly or hurriedly•set down in the form of a note)
nip•eat=jot•write  小口吃•吃=略记•记下(前者是后者的小量)

jovial  (markedly good-humored esp. as evidenced by jollity and conviviality)
jovial ◆ drab/ lachrymose/ lugubrious/ maudlin/ morose/ mournful/ saturnine
愉快的 ◆ 悲惨的/ 悲哀的/ 伤感的/ 郁闷的/ 哀伤的/ 忧郁的
joviality ◆ moroseness 快活 ◆ 郁闷

jubilant  (exultant)
dolorous ◆ jubilant  悲哀的 ◆ 喜悦的

judicious  (sound judgment•discreet)
miser•stingy=sage•judicious  吝啬鬼•吝啬=贤人•明智的
judicious ◆ daft/ unwise  明智的 ◆ 愚蠢的/无智的
judicious ◆ imprudent  慎重的 ◆ 轻率的
politic ◆ injudicious  慎重的 ◆ 不慎重的
judiciousness ◆ indiscretion  慎重 ◆ 不慎重

juggernaut  (a massive inexorable force that crushes everything
in its path)
juggernaut•unstoppable=enigma•impenetrable
□ㄔi挡的力量是无法阻碍的=迷是难以理解的
juggernaut•stoppable=exacting•satisfied
不可挡的力量是难以可阻止的=苛求的是难以使满意的
siren•unresist=juggernaut•unstop  海妖的魅力无法抗拒=势不可挡的力量无法阻止
juggernaut:crush=charlatan:deceive=quisling•betray
□ㄔi挡的力量:碾碎=江湖骗子:行骗=卖国贼:背叛(人物典型行为)

kangaroo  n. 袋鼠
kangaroo•marsupial=squirrel•rodent  袋鼠 •有袋类动物=松鼠•啮齿类动物 (种属)

ken  (the range of vision)
earshot•hear=ken•see  听力范围•听=视野范围•看

kidnap  (to seize and detain by unlawful force or fraud or carry away
and often with a demand for ransom)
kidnap:detainment=extortion:retribution 绑架是强行拘留=勒索是强求回报

kindle  (to stir up•arouse)
extinguish ◆ kindle/ rekindle  熄灭 ◆ 点燃/重新点燃

kindred (of a similar nature or character)
kindred ◆ dissimilar  相似的 ◆ 不相似的

knack  (a clever trick or stratagem)
knack ◆ foolish  诀窍 ◆ 愚蠢

knave  (a tricky deceitful fellow)
sage•judgement=knave•deceive  贤哲•判断=流氓•行骗(人物典型行为)

knead  (to work and press into a mass with or as if with the hands)
knead•malleable=penetrate•permeable  揉捏•可塑的=渗透•可渗透的

knit  (to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles)
knit•yarn=plait•hair  编织:纱线=编辫子:头发(用后者实现前者)
needle•knit=loom•weave  针:编织=织布机:纺织
ravel ◆ knit  解开 ◆ 编织

knotty  (intricate; difficult; tangled)
knotty ◆ easy/ simple  棘手的 ◆ 容易的/简单的

kudos  (award, honor; compliment, praise)
kudos ◆ disparage  荣誉 ◆ 贬损

labile  (likely to change ;unstable)
labile ◆ stable  不稳定的 ◆ 稳定的

labored (lacking ease of expression)
glib ◆ labored 口齿伶俐的 ◆ 表达困难的

labyrinth  (maze;something extremely complex or tortuous in
structure, arrangement, or character•intricacy, perplexity)
labyrinthine•simplicity=jejune•interest  迷宫不简单=空洞的不有趣
ribald•seemly=labyrinthine•direct  下流的•适宜的=迷宫似的•直接的 (反义)
labyrinth•tortuous=ornament•decorative  迷宫:曲折的=装饰物:装饰的

lackluster  (lacking in sheen, brilliance, or vitality:dull, mediocre)
lackluster  ◆  radiant

laconic (用字)简洁的
audacious•trepidation=laconic•volubility  大胆的•胆怯=简洁的•冗长
laconic•speech••austere•design  简洁的• 演说=简朴的:设计
laconic ◆ garrulous/ loquacious/ voluble/ verbose  简洁的 ◆ 饶舌的/ 多话的/ 冗长的
laconism ◆ verbosity  简洁 ◆ 罗嗦

lachrymose  (tearful; mournful)
lacrimose ◆ gladness  悲哀的 ◆ 快乐的

lambaste  (to attack verbally•censure)
lambaste ◆ extol  严责 ◆ 表扬

lamentable  (expressing grief)
lamentable•pity=responsible•censure  令人惋惜的•可惜=应该责斥的•责斥 (动宾)
celebration•lamentful=slight•show respect  庆祝•不快的=鄙视•尊敬(反义)

lampoon (a harsh satire usually directed against an individual)
panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize  颂词•赞扬=讽刺文章•讽刺(同义)
satire•lampoon=diligence•effort  讽刺•讽刺=勤奋•努力 (同义)
paean ◆ harshly lampoon  颂歌 ◆ 尖刻的讽刺

landfill  (a system of trash and garbage disposal)
cistern•liquids=landfill•refuse  蓄水池储存液体=垃圾堆储存垃圾

languid (drooping or flagging from or as if from
exhaustion•weak)
desultory•plan=languid•energy 断断续续的缺乏计划=没精打采的缺乏精力
languid ◆ energetic  懒散的 ◆ 有精力的
languid ◆ vehement/ vivacious  没精打采的 ◆ 激烈的/快活的

languish  (to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated)
languish ◆ thrive  萧条,衰败 ◆ 欣欣向荣

languor (listless indolence or inertia)
languor ◆ thriveness  衰弱 ◆ 兴旺

lank  (not well filled out:slender, thin)
lank ◆ stalwart  虚弱的 ◆ 强壮的

lapse  (a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention)
lapse•error=misbehavior•criminality  小过错•错误=轻罪•犯罪 (程度)
misdemeanor•crime=lapse•error 轻罪•罪行=小错•错误 (程度)

larder  (a place where food is stored:pantry)
larder•food=wardrobe•clothes  食物柜储存食物=衣柜储存衣物
larder•provisions=vault•valuables  食物柜储存供应品=地窖储存贵重物品
larder•food••armory•munitions  食品橱:食物=军械库:军需品

largesse  (generosity)
largesse ◆ parsimony  慷慨 ◆ 小气
largesse ◆ penury  慷慨 ◆ 贫穷

lariat  (a long light rope used with a running noose to catch livestock or tether grazing animals:lasso)
lariat•wrangler=crook•shepherd  套索•牧马者=牧杖•牧羊者(职业及其工具)

lash  (to bind with or as if with a line)
lash ◆ unbind  捆住 ◆ 解开

lassitude  (a condition of weariness or debility•fatigue)
arrogance•defer=lassitude•stir  傲慢难以服从=疲乏难以激起
lassitude ◆ verve/vim/animation  倦怠 ◆ 活力/活力/精力
lassitude ◆ vitality/ebullience  疲倦 ◆ 活力/热情
lassitude  ◆  a feeling of vigor  疲倦 ◆ 活力
lassitude ◆ effervesce 疲乏 ◆ 兴奋

latent  (present and capable of becoming though not now visible)
latency•response=incubation•disease  潜伏过后发生反应=潜伏过后疾病发作
latent ◆ menifest  潜在的 ◆ 明显的

lathe  n. 车床
lathe•shape=clasp•fasten  车床用来成型•扣子用来扣紧

latitude  (freedom from normal limitations, or regulations)
latitude ◆ strict limitation  自由 ◆ 严格的限制
latitude ◆ constrained 自由 ◆ 被限制的

laudatory  (expressing praise)
consel•advice=laud•homage  劝告是表达建议=赞美是表达敬意
execrable ◆ commendable/ laudable  极坏的 ◆ 值得赞扬的
pejorative ◆ laudatory 贬低的 ◆ 赞美的

lavish  (expended or produced in abundance)v.浪费
lavish ◆ hoard/stint  浪费 ◆ 储藏/吝啬
impecunious ◆ lavish/prosperous  贫穷的 ◆ 过分丰富的/繁荣的
lavish ◆ austere/ economical/ mean/ parsimonious/ penurious
浪费的 ◆ 朴素的/ 节约的/ 吝啬的/ 吝啬的/ 吝啬的

leaven  (to raise as bread with a leaven)
distill•purity=leaven•volume  蒸馏提高纯度=发酵扩张体积

leer  (to cast a sidelong glance)
stare•leer=peruse•smatter  凝视•斜视=精读•涉猎(反义)

leery  (suspicious or distrustful;wary)
leery ◆ showing no doubt  怀疑的 ◆ 毫不怀疑的

legacy  n.遗产
legacy•predecessor=gift•donor 遗产来自先人=赠品来自捐赠者
legacy•predecessor=endowment•patron  遗产来自前辈=捐赠来自捐赠者

legend  (an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart)
glossary•text=legend•map  文本注释文字列表•文本=地图说明文字列表•地图
legendary ◆ obscure  传奇的,杰出的 ◆ 无名的,不杰出的

legion  (a very large number:multitude)
legion ◆ lack in number  大量 ◆ 少量
martinet•leniency=dabbler•dedication  严格者缺乏宽厚态度=涉猎者缺乏投入精神

lethal  (capable of causing death)
disagreeable•hateful=harmful•lethal  令人不快的•可憎的=有害的•致命的(程度)

list 20  lethargic---------maudlin

lethargic  (being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent)
antidote:poison=tonic:lethargy  中毒需要解毒药=缺乏精力需要补品
lethargic•stimulate=skeptical•convince 没精打采的•激励=好怀疑的•使信服
lethargy  ◆  vigor  缺乏精力 ◆ 精力

levee  (an embankment for preventing flooding)
levee•river=cordon•crowd  防波堤防止河水涌入=警界线防止人群涌入
rampart•invasion=levee•flood  堡垒防止入侵=防洪堤防止洪水
padding•damage=levee•flooding 填塞物防止损伤=防洪堤防止洪水

levelheaded  (having sound judgment:sensible)
levelheaded ◆ foolish  明智的 ◆ 愚蠢的

levity  (excessive or unseemly frivolity;lack of steadiness)
levity ◆ gravity/seriousness  轻浮 ◆ 严肃

lexicographer  (an author or editor of a dictionary)
cartographer•map=weaver•cloth=lexicographer•dictionary
制图家•地图=织布者•布=编辞典者•辞典 (人及其工作成品)

liability  (something for which one is liable; esp. pecuniary obligation)
exempt•liability=pardon•penalty  免除(债务)•债务=免除(惩罚)•惩罚 (消除关系)
asset ◆ liability  资产 ◆ 负债
liability ◆ immunity  责任 ◆ 豁免权

liberalist  (the quality or state of being liberal)
liberalist ◆ enfetterist  自由者 ◆ 被束缚者

libertine  (a person who is unrestrained by convention or morality;
specifically:one leading a dissolute life)
caviler•carping=libertine•licentious  吹毛求疵者•吹毛求疵的=放荡不羁者•放肆的
libertine•dissolute=sycophant•obsequious  放荡不羁者•放荡的=谄媚者•谄媚的
ludicrous•buffoon=dissolute•libertine=humorous•wag
滑稽的•小丑=放荡的•放荡者•幽默的•诙谐者
libertine ◆ ascetic  放荡不羁者 ◆ 禁欲者

libretto  (the text of a work as an opera for the musical theater)
libretto•opera=lyrics•song  剧本•歌剧=歌词•歌曲

licentious  (lacking legal or moral restraints;especially disregarding sexual restraints)
voluble•verbosity=licentious•dissoluteness  健谈的•多话=放荡的•放荡
licentiousness ◆ moral restrain  放纵而不受道德限制 ◆ 道德限制

lien  (legal claim until a debt on it is repaid)
lien•claim=subpoena•command  扣押权是法律意义上的权利=传票是法律意义上的命令

liken  (compare)
liken•similarity=discriminate•difference  比拟依靠相似性=区别依靠差异性

limber  (capable of being shaped•flexible)
limber•flexibility=spindly•frailty  柔软的•弹性=脆弱的•脆弱

limerick  n. 打油诗
farce•performance=limerick•poem  闹剧是一种滑稽表演=打油诗是一种幽默短诗
limerick•poem=lampoon•satire  打油诗•诗=讽刺文•讽刺文学 (种属)

limousine  n. 豪华轿车
mansion•residence=limousine•automobile  大厦,毫宅•居所=豪华小轿车•汽车

limp  (lacking firm texture, substance, or structure)
limp•walk=stutter•talk  跛行•行走=口吃•说话
limp ◆ firm  松软的 ◆ 坚硬

limpid  (marked by transparency:pellucid)
limpid ◆ murky/unclear/turbid  透明的 ◆ 模糊不清的/浑浊的

linen  n. 亚麻布
clay•porcelain=flax•linen  粘土制成陶器=亚麻制成亚麻布
flannel•cloth=linen•fabric  法兰绒•布=亚麻布•织物(种属)

linger  (tarry;saunter; to be slow to act:procrastinate)
lingering ◆ fleeting  漫步的 ◆ 飞速的

linoleum  n. 油布
varnish•wood=wax•linoleum  清漆•木头=蜡•油布(保护和修饰作用)

lint  (fuzz consisting especially of fine ravelings and short fibers of yarn and fabric)
lint•covering=tarpaulin•garment  皮棉•覆盖物=油布雨衣•衣服(种属)

lissome adj. 柔软的,敏捷的
lissome ◆ solid  柔软的 ◆ 坚硬的
lissome ◆ ungainly  敏捷的 ◆ 笨拙的

list  (a deviation from the vertical:tilt; to tilt to one side)
list ◆ upright/ be upright  倾斜 ◆ 垂直

lithe  (characterized by easy flexibility and grace)
lithe ◆ awkward  优雅的 ◆ 笨拙的
lithe ◆ inelastic  柔软的 ◆ 无弹性的

loath  (unwilling to do something contrary to one's ways of thinking)
loath ◆ eager  不情愿的 ◆ 渴望的
loathsome ◆ delectable 讨厌的 ◆ 使人愉快的

loathe  (to dislike someone or something greatly; abhor)
loathe ◆ amusing  讨厌 ◆ 有趣的

loathing  (extreme disgust:detestation)
castigation•reproof=loathing•dislike  苛责:责备=极端厌恶:不喜欢(程度)
dislike•loathing=pleasure•bliss  讨厌:极度厌恶=快乐:天赐之福 (程度)

lode  (an ore deposit)
shale•lode=well•aquifer  页岩•矿脉=源泉•含水土层 (事物及其发源地)

lofty  (elevated in status:superior)
lofty ◆ ignominious/ mean  崇高的  ◆ 可耻的/ 卑鄙的
lofty ◆ cast down  提高的 ◆ 下降的

loll  (to act or move in a lax, lazy, or indolent manner:lounge)
loll ◆ move vigorously 懒洋洋的 ◆ 精力旺盛的

lopsided  (lacking in balance, symmetry, or proportion)
even handed ◆ lopsided 平衡 ◆ 不平衡的

loquacious  (given to fluent or excessive talk•garrulous)
flatter•praise=loquacious•talkative  奉承是过分赞扬=饶舌是过分喜欢说话
loquacious•succinct=adroit•ungainly  饶舌的•简洁的=熟练的•笨拙的 (反义)
loquacious•talkative=rash•adventurous 饶舌的•多话的=鲁莽的•大胆的(同义)
loquacious•word=profligate•money  饶舌的人不吝惜话=浪费的人不吝惜钱(动宾)
loquacious ◆ taciturn/reticent /laconic  饶舌的 ◆ 沉默寡言的/用词简洁的
loquacity ◆ disinclination to speak /reluctance to speak  多话 ◆ 不愿说话

lottery (contest in which winners are selected in a drawing of lots)
lottery•raffle=ticket•admission  彩票是抽彩售货的凭证=门票是入门的凭证

loutish (resembling or befitting a clumsy,stupid fellow)
coltish•discipline=loutish•grace  不受拘束的人不会守纪律=粗鲁的人不会优雅
genteel ◆ loutish  有教养的 ◆ 粗鲁的

lubricate  (to make smooth or slippery)
oil•lubricate=antiseptic•disinfect  油用来润滑=杀菌剂用来消毒
lubricate•abrasion=seal•leakage  润滑防止磨损=密封防止渗漏

lucid  (clear to the understanding•intelligible)
lucid•perceive=transparent•understand=prominent•notice
明晰的容易觉察=明显的容易理解=杰出的容易注意
lucid  ◆  murky / vague / obfuscated  清晰的 ◆ 模糊的

lucubration  n. 刻苦钻研,苦心的着作laborious or intensive study
lucubration ◆ cursory consideration  刻苦钻研 ◆ 草草了事

lug  (to carry laboriously)
lug•carry=trudge•walk 拖拉是艰难地运送=跋涉是艰难地走

lugubrious  (mournful;esp. exaggeratedly or affectedly mournful)
lugubrious ◆ facetious/jovial  悲哀的 ◆ 幽默的/快乐的
lugubriousness ◆ cheerfulness  悲哀 ◆ 高兴

lull  (to cause to sleep or rest•soothe)
lull ◆ hectic period/ revive/ startle/ galvanize
暂停,麻痹 ◆ 狂热的时期/ 使复兴/ 使震惊/ 刺激
lull ◆ increased activity

lullaby (a song to quiet children or lull them to sleep)
lullaby•song=diatribe•discourse  摇篮曲•歌曲=谩骂•谈话(种属)

lumber  (to move ponderously; stumble)
lumber•grace=waver•resolution 笨重地行动不优雅=犹豫没有决心
lumber ◆ glide 笨重地行动 ◆ 平滑不费力地滑动

lumen  (a unit of luminous)
lumen•light=decibel•sound=volt•electricity=watt•power
分贝•声音=伏•电流=瓦•功率=流明•亮度

luminary  (a person of prominence or brilliant achievement)
master/maven•experience=luminary•eminence  专家/ 行家有经验=杰出人物显赫

lurch  (to move forward unsteadily while swaying from side to side)
lurch ◆ progress smoothly  举步蹒跚 ◆ 平稳前进

lurk  (to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose)
lurk•wait=abscond•depart=hoard•save  潜伏•等候=潜逃•离开=密藏•保存
lurk•concealment=espouse•marriage=purloin•appropriation
潜伏•潜藏=嫁娶•结婚=偷窃•占用(种属)

lush  (growing vigorously especially with luxuriant foliage)
sere ◆ lush  干枯的 ◆ 苍翠繁茂的

lustrous  (reflecting light evenly and efficiently without glitter or sparkle)
numb•insensible=burnish•lustrous  麻木使无知觉=磨光使有光泽
lustrous•polish=pure•refine  擦亮就会有光泽的=精炼就会纯净的

luxury  (a condition of abundance or great ease and comfort)
ascetic•luxury=teetotaler•alcohol  禁欲者不嗜奢华=禁酒者不嗜饮酒
luxuriant/luxuriouss ◆ partan  奢华的 ◆ 简朴的

lyric  n. 抒情诗, 歌词
pleasurable•paradisical=melodious•lyrical
愉快的•天堂般的=曲调优美的•抒情诗般的(程度)
ballad•song=lyric•poem=comedian•actor
民谣•歌曲=抒情诗•诗歌=喜剧演员•演员(种属)

macabre (gruesome; grisly)(having death as a subject)
macabre•shudder=hilarious•laugh  恐怖的•颤栗=高兴的•笑(因为前者所以后者)

macerate  (steep, soak)
macerate  ◆  harden by drying  浸软 ◆ 烘干变硬

maculate  (marked with spots:blotched ;impure, besmirched)
maculated  ◆  unspotted  玷污的 ◆ 清白的

maelstrom  (violent whirlpool; violent or tublent situation)
maelstrom•turbulent=mirage•illusory  大漩涡是狂暴的=海市蜃楼是错觉的

magnificent  (grand or noble in thought or deed; exalted.)
magnificent ◆ base  高尚的 ◆ 卑鄙的

maladroit  (lacking adroitness:inept)
complaisance•intractable=adeptness•maladroit  柔顺•倔强的=灵巧•笨拙的
maladroit•deft=voluble•terse  笨拙的•灵巧的=冗长的•简洁的
maladroit•skill=glib•profundity  不灵巧的•技巧=口齿伶俐的•深度 (缺乏关系)
maladroit ◆ deft/dextrous  笨拙的 ◆ 灵巧的

malaise (uneasiness; vague feeling of ill health)
malaise ◆ cheerful feeling  不舒服 ◆ 舒服

malcontent  (dissatisfied ;discontented)
dilatory•procrastinate=malcontent•complain  拖拉的•耽搁=不满的•抱怨
sycophant•fawn=malcontent•complaint  谄媚者爱奉承=不满者爱抱怨

malicious  (given to, marked by, or arising from malice)
malicious•ill will=diligent•effort=exaggerating•hyperbole
恶毒的•恶意=勤勉的•努力=夸大的•夸张
expansive ◆ malicious  宽容的 ◆ 恶毒的

malign  (intense often vicious ill will•malevolent)
malign ◆ extol/ laud  诽谤 ◆ 赞美

malinger  (to pretend incapacity as illness to avoid duty or work)
parsimonious•skimp=malingering•shirk  吝啬的•吝啬=逃避工作的•逃避
hoard•miser=shirk•malinger  秘藏•守财奴=逃避•逃避工作者
malinger•duty=camoflage/disemble•detection  逃避工作是逃避职责=掩饰是逃避侦察
malingerer•duty=recluse•humanity  装病者逃避责任=隐遁者逃避人类
malinger•ail=flatter•appreciate  装病是假装生病=阿谀是假装欣赏
【注:ail:vi. to suffer ill health 生病】

malleable  (capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces)
friable•crumble=malleable•alter  易碎的容易被弄碎=有延展性的容易被改变
knead•malleable=penetrate•permeable  揉捏•可延展性的=穿透•能透过的
malleable•shape=irresolute•opinion  有延展性的•形状=无决断的•主张(前修饰后)
malleable ◆ hard to shape  可延展性的 ◆ 难以变形的

malodor (an offensive odor)
cacophony•sound=malodor•scent 刺耳的声音•语音=恶臭•气味
malodorous•smell=jarring•sound  恶臭的•气味=刺耳的•声音

mandatory  (containing or constituting a command:obligatory)
mandatory•comply=forbidden•abstain  强制的必须被遵守=禁止的必须被戒绝
discretionary ◆ mandatory  任意的 ◆ 强制的

mangle  (to spoil, injure, or make incoherent especially through ineptitude)
mangle ◆ praise extravagantly  毁损 ◆ 过分赞美

mangy  (having many worn or bare spots•seedy, shabby)
mangy ◆ decorous  褴褛的 ◆ 优雅的

mania  (excessive or unreasonable enthusiasm)
enthusiasm•mania=suspicion•paranoia  热情•狂热=怀疑•偏执狂 (程度)
mania•enthusiasm=doting•fondness  狂热•热情=溺爱•喜爱(程度)
hidebound•conservative=manic•interested/excited
顽固的•保守的=疯狂的•感兴趣的/激动的(以上程度关系都有有褒贬意味)

manifest  n. 载货清单
repertoire•performance=manifest•cargo=agenda•meeting=inventory•merchandise
全部剧目•演出=载货清单•货物=议程•会议=存货清单•存货

manifest  (easily understood or recognized by the mind:obvious)
manifest•perceive=brittle•break=transparent•understand
明显的•觉察=易碎的•破碎=透彻的•理解(容易关系)
audible•stentorian=discernible•manifest=palatable•savory
听得见的•声音洪亮的=可辨别的•明显的=美味的•风味极佳的(程度)
manifest ◆ latent/ occult  明显的 ◆ 潜在的/神秘的

manipulate  (control or change by artful means)
dexterous•manipulate=prescient•predict
灵巧的•巧妙操作=预见性的•预言(前者是后者的性质)
manipulate ◆ guileless 假造 ◆ 不狡猾的 (词性不符)
manipulative ◆ guileless  暗中操纵的 ◆ 坦率正直的

manumit (to release from slavery)
manumit ◆ detain /enslave  解放  ◆ 拘留/奴役

manuscript  n. 手稿
archive•manuscript=arsenal•weapon  档案室•手稿=武器库•武器

mar  (to impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil)
burnish•dull=mar•flawless  磨光消除暗淡=破坏消除完美
mar ◆ enhance  损坏 ◆ 加强

marsh  n. 沼泽,湿地
marsh•sodden=desert•arid  沼泽•湿的=沙漠•干燥的
marshy ◆ arid  潮湿的 ◆ 干旱的

marsupial  n.有袋类动物
kangaroo•marsupial=squirrel•rodent  袋鼠•有袋类动物=松鼠•啮齿类动物(种属)

martial adj. 战争的, 军事的
martial•military=runic•mysterious  军事的:军事的=神秘的:神秘的
【注:rune :(MYSTERY)。Runic:adj.神秘的】

martinet  (a strict disciplinarian)
martinet•discipline=pedant•learning  纪律严明之人执着于纪律=学究执着于学问
martinet ◆ indulgent person/ individual  要求严格之人 ◆ 纵容之人

marvel  (something that causes wonder or astonishment)
marvel ◆ mean  奇迹 ◆ 平庸
pedestrian ◆ marvelous 平凡的 ◆ 非凡的

masquerade  (to disguise oneself)
dissemble•information=masquerade•feeling  掩盖•事实=掩饰•感情

masticate  (chew)
lung•respire=tooth•masticate  肺•呼吸=牙齿•咀嚼

matriculate  vt. 入学
inauguration•official=matriculation•student  就职•官员=入学•学生
inception•termination=matriculation•graduation  开始•结束=入学•毕业
commencement ◆ matriculation  毕业典礼 ◆ 入学

mattress  n. 床垫
tablecloth•table=sheet•mattress  桌布•桌子=床单•床垫

maudlin (weakly and effusively sentimental)
maudlin•sentiment=pedantic•scholarship
感情脆弱的•感性=书生气的•学识(形名相关义)
maudlin•sentimental=obsequious•deferential
感情脆弱的•多愁善感的=谄媚的•逢迎的(同义)
【注:deference:respect and esteem due a superior or an elder ; also:affected or
ingratiating regard for another's wishes】
maudlin•sentimental=peeved•annoyed
感情脆弱的•多愁善感的=气恼的•苦恼的(同义)
maudlin ◆ jovial  感伤的 ◆ 高兴的

list 21  maven ---------mordant

maven  (one who is experienced or knowledgeable:expert)
maven•experience=luminary•eminence=augur•prediction
专家•经验=权威者•显赫=预言者•预言(人物正面特征)

maverick  (an independent individual not go along with a group)
dissenter•orthodox=maverick•group  持不同政见者背离正统=特立独行者背离团体
maverick•conformity=extrovert•reserve 特立独行者不和别人一致=性格外向者不内敛
maverick ◆ follower  特立独行之人 ◆ 追随者
maverick ◆ conform to tradition  特立独行的 ◆ 遵从传统的

mawkish (sickly or puerilely sentimental)
mawkish•sentimental=peeve•annoy  自作多情的:多愁善感的=使怒:使苦恼 (同义)
mawkish•sentimental=gullible•trust  自作多情的•感伤的=易上当的•信任 (程度)
mawkish ◆ unsentimental  自作多情的 ◆ 不动情感的

meager  (deficient in quality or quantity)
amplitude ◆ meagerness 广阔,丰富 ◆ 贫乏,稀少
liberal ◆ meager  慷慨的 ◆ 贫乏的

meander (to wander aimlessly without urgent destination • ramble)
meander ◆ move purposively  无目的的闲逛 ◆ 有目的的走动

measly  (contemptibly small)
measly•contemptibly=puny•weakly  低贱的•可鄙地=微弱的•微弱地 (形副同义)
measly ◆ grand 卑贱的 ◆ 重要的

measured  (marked by due proportion)
measured ◆ inappropriate  标准的 ◆ 不适当的

meddle  (interfere without right or propriety)
officious•meddle=disaffected•rebel  好管闲事的•管闲事=有叛意的•反叛
meddlesome•pry=contentious•argue  好管闲事的人喜欢打探=好争吵的人喜欢争吵
attentive•meddlesome=envious•jealous  留意的•好管闲事的=羡慕的•嫉妒的(褒贬程度)

media  (a nutrient system for the artificial cultivation of cells or bacteria)
plantation•tobacco=media•bacteria  种植园种植烟草=营养基培养细菌

mediate vt. 调解,调停
intercessor•mediate=translator•interpret  调解者•调解=翻译•翻译
mediation•compromise=prosecution•conviction  调解•妥协=起诉•定罪 (目的)

mediocre  (of moderate or low quality,value, ability, or performance)
virtuosity ◆ mediocrity  大师 ◆ 平庸之才

medley  (a musical composition made up of a series of songs)
montage•images=medley•songs  蒙太奇•图像=集成曲•歌曲 (组成关系)

meet  (very proper)
meet ◆ inappropriate/unsuitable  合适的 ◆ 不合适的

meliorism  (the belief of tendency toward improvement)
meliorism•progress=egalitarian•equity 世界改良论主张进步=平等主义主张平等

mellifluous  (having a smooth rich flow)
mellifluous•music=ambrosial•food  曲调优美的的音乐=天赐美味的食物
mellifluous•sound=savory•taste  悦耳的•声音=美味的•味道 (形容词及其修饰对象)
mellifluous ◆ cacophonous/ raspy  悦耳的 ◆ 刺耳的

melody  (tunefulness)
cacophony•melody=genteel•churl  刺耳音调•悦耳音调=绅士的•粗野的人(反义)
melodious ◆ jarring  音调优美的 ◆ 不和谐的

melodrama  (a work as a movie or play characterized by extravagant theatricality and by the predominance of plot and physical action over characterization)
melodrama•subtlety=chimera•authenticity  情节剧缺乏微妙之处=梦幻缺乏真实性

membrane  (a thin soft pliable sheet or layer especially of animal or plant origin)
pore•membrane=door•room  气孔是薄膜的入口=门是房间的入口
cell•membrane=seed•hull  细胞•细胞膜=种子•外壳

menace  (to make a show of intention to harm)
odious•disgust=menacing•fear=blatant•arrest
令人作呕的•引起恶心反感=威胁的•害怕=炫耀的•吸引(因果)
odious•repugnance=menacing•fear  可厌的令人反感=威胁的令人害怕

mendacious  (deception/falsehood/divergence from absolute truth)
ambiguous•clarity=mendacious•truth  模糊的不清楚=虚假的非事实
mendacious ◆ honest/veracious  虚假的 ◆ 诚实的
mendacity ◆ veracity/ honesty/ candor/ truthfulness  虚假 ◆ 诚实/ 坦白

mentor  (a trusted counselor or guide•tutor, coach)
mentor•guidance=oracle•prophecy=prevaricator•deceive(或mislead)
导师能够指导=神谕者能够预言=说话搪塞的人能欺骗

mercenary  (one that serves merely for wages)
mercenary•money=vindictive•revenge  唯利是图的•金钱=有报仇心的•报仇
mercenary•soldier=hack•writer 雇佣兵:士兵=雇用作家:作家

mercurial  (rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood)
mercurial•mood=fickle•affection=whimsical•behavior
情绪善变的•情绪=变幻无常的•情感=行为古怪的•行为
scurrilous•propriety=mercurial•constancy  下流的•适当=易变的•一致(反面特征)
mercurial ◆ constant  善变 ◆ 不变

merited (deserved, be worthy of or entitled or liable to)
merited ◆ gratuitous/unsuitable  理所当然的  ◆ 无理由的/不适合的

mesh  (to cause as gears to engage)
disengage ◆ mesh  解开 ◆ 啮合

mesmerism  n. 催眠,着迷
zeal•dedication=mesmerism•interest  热衷•奉献=着迷•兴趣(程度)
exhaustive•careful=mesmerized•interesting  详尽的•仔细的=着迷•兴趣(程度)

metaphor  (figurative language)
metaphor•literal=melody•spoken  比喻•文字上的=悦耳音调•口头的(前者比后者美丽)
insect•butterfly=philosophy•metaphysics  昆虫•蝴蝶=哲学•形而上学(种属)

metamorphose  (change strikingly the appearance of• transform)
metamorphose ◆ remain unaltered  改变 ◆ 保持不变
metamorphosis ◆ continuation without change  变形 ◆ 保持原形

meteoric  (resembling a meteor in speed or in sudden and temporary brilliance)
fleeting•pass=meteoric•rise  飞逝的很快经过又消失=流星般的很快发生又消失
meteoric•constancy=archaic•currency  昙花一现的•恒久不变=过时的•现存
meteoric ◆ plodding  疾速的 ◆ 沉重缓慢的
meteoric ◆ gradual  昙花一现的 ◆ 逐渐的

meteorology  (a science that deals with weather and weather forecasting)

demography • population=meteorology • weather=pathology • disease
人口统计学研究人口=气象学研究天气=病理学研究疾病

meticulous  (extreme care in the consideration of details)
interested•agog=careful•meticulous  感兴趣的•热切的=仔细的•小心翼翼的(程度)
meticulous ◆ carelessness  细心的 ◆ 粗心的

metrical  (of, relating to, or composed in meter)
scan•metrical=parse•grammatical  分析韵律•韵律的=解析语法•文法的 (动宾)

mettle  (staying quality • stamina)
insight•discern=mettle•endure 洞察力•洞悉=毅力•忍耐(同义)

miff  (a trivial quarrel)
miff•quarrel=foible•flaw  小争吵•争吵=小缺点•缺点(小和正常)
miff ◆ please {compliment/commend}  使恼怒 ◆ 讨好,和解

migratory  (wandering, roving)
migratory ◆ sedentary  迁移的 ◆ 不迁移的

mime  (to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words)
parody•style=mime•gesture  拙劣的模仿•样式=哑剧•手势(事物及其特征化方式)
charade•word=mime•story  用手势表示的字谜•字=哑剧•故事
mimicry•camouflage=mutation•variation 模仿:伪装=变化:变化(同义)
注:无论是模仿还是伪装都是取事物的相似之处加以利用。

minaret (a tall slender tower of a mosque)
spire•church=minaret•mosque  塔尖•教堂=尖塔•清真寺 (建筑物及其顶端)

minatory  (having a menacing quality•threatening)
minatory ◆ nonthreatening  威胁的 ◆ 无威胁性的
minatory  ◆  reassuring/ unthreatening  威胁的 ◆ 安心的 /无威胁的

mince  (to walk with short steps in a prim affected manner)
mince•walk=sip•drink  小步走•走=小口饮•喝
stride•mince=quaff•sip  迈大步走•碎步走=大口喝•啜饮(程度)

mindful (inclined to be aware)
mindful ◆ unaware  留心的 ◆ 没察觉到的

mingle  (to bring or mix together)
mingle ◆ separate  混合 ◆ 分离

minion  (a servile dependent, follower, or underling)
minion•dependent=groveler•petitioner  奴才•依赖者=卑恭屈节者•请求者

mint  vt. 铸造;n. 巨额
strike•medal=mint•coin  打造•奖牌=铸造•硬币
mint ◆ modicum 巨额 ◆ 少量

minuscule  (very small)
small•minuscule=moist•saturated  小•微小=湿的•饱和的(程度)
minuscule•letter=minnow•fish  小写字•字母=小鱼•鱼 (种属)

minutia (a minute or minor detail)
minutia•details=quibbles•objections  小细节•详情=小反对•放对
minutia ◆ essential point/vital feature  琐事 ◆ 要点/重要特征
minutia ◆ lengthy account  细节 ◆ 冗长的说明
minute ◆ gargantuan  微小的 ◆ 巨大的
minutia ◆ crucial aspects  琐事 ◆ 重要方面

miraculous  (of the nature of a miracle:supernatural)
ordinary ◆ miraculous  平凡的 ◆ 奇迹的

mirage  (something illusory and unattainable)
maelstrom•turbulent=mirage•illusory  大漩涡•混乱的=海市蜃楼•幻影的(正面特征)

mire  (to hamper or hold back as if by mire:entangle)
mire ◆ extricate  使陷入困境 ◆ 使解脱

mirth  (gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter)
mirth•laughter=approval•applause  因欢乐而笑=因赞成而鼓掌

misanthrope  (a person who hates or distrusts mankind)
misanthrope•humane=ascetic•voluptuary 厌恶人类者•人道的=苦行者•耽于酒色的
misanthrope•people=xenophobe•strangers  厌恶人类者:人=仇外者:外人,陌生人
【注:mis 作为前缀有三层意思。1、bad, wrong 2、not 3、强调 】

misbehave  (to behave badly)
castigation•disapproval= crime• misbehave  苛责•不赞成=犯罪• 行为不端(程度)
lapse•error=misbehavior•criminality  小错•差错=不正当的行为•犯罪行为(程度)
reprobate•misbehave=sycophant•fawn  堕落的人•行为不端=马屁精•奉承(典型特征)

mischievous  (able to cause trouble, or minor injury)
insensitive•boor=mischievous•imp  不老练的•粗野之人=淘气的•顽童(典型特征)
tightfisted•parsimonious=brattish•mischievous 吝啬的• 吝啬的=淘气的•淘气的
rapscallion•mischievous=sluggard•lazy 流氓•为害的=懒鬼•懒惰 (人物典型特征)
mis+chiev 联想:用坏的方法达到顶端→恶作剧的

misconstrue  (misinterpret)
misjudge•assess=misconstrue•interpret 判断错误作出错误评估=误解作出错误解释

miscreant  (one who behaves criminally or viciously)
miscreant•criminal=visionary•delusion 堕落的•罪犯=幻觉的•幻觉 (典特)
miscreant ◆ law-abiding individual/saint  有罪恶的人 ◆ 遵守法纪的人/圣人

misdemeanor  (a crime less serious than a felony)
crime•misdemeanor=commitment•decision 犯罪•轻罪=承诺•决心 (程度)
misdemeanor•crime=lapse•error 轻罪•罪=小错误•谬误,差错(程度)
 
miser  (one who is extremely stingy with money)
miser•munificent=zealot•blase 吝啬鬼•慷慨的=热心者•冷漠的
miser•parsimonious=spendthrift•prodigal  吝啬鬼•吝啬的=挥霍者•奢侈的(典特)
miser•hoard=dandy•preen  守财奴好贮藏=花花公子好打扮
parsimony•miser=rebelliousness•insurgent  吝啬•守财奴=造反•暴动者
miser•thrift••chauvinist•patriotism 吝啬鬼过分的节约=盲目的爱国主义者盲目爱国
spendthrift ◆ miser  挥霍者 ◆ 守财奴

misfortune  (a distressing or unfortunate incident or event)
boon ◆ misfortune  幸运 ◆ 不幸

misgiving  (a feeling of suspicion especially concerning a future event)
misgiving ◆ certainty  疑虑 ◆ 必定
compunction ◆ absence of misgiving  后悔 ◆ 没有疑虑

mishap  (an unfortunate accident)
catastrophe•mishap=humiliation•embarrassment  大祸•不幸=耻辱:困窘
mishap•accident=peccadillo•offence  不幸•事故=小罪•犯罪(种属)

misrepresent  (to give a false or misleading representation
of usually with an intent to deceive or be unfair)
tamper•adjust=misrepresent•communicate  篡改是错误的修改=误传是错误的传达

mite  n. 微生物,□虫
mite•creature=speck•amount  微生物•生物=少量•量 (种属)

mitigate  (to make less severe or painful)
mitigate•severe=qualify•general  使严重的减轻=使普通的具有资格
mitigate ◆ exacerbate  缓和,减轻 ◆ 使加剧

mnemonics  (a technique of improving the memory)
regiment•health=mnemonics•memory  养生法为了促进健康=助记法为了促进记忆
mnemonics•remember=staff•walk 助记法帮助记忆=拐杖帮助行走

mobility  n. 灵活性
splint•mobility=ballast•instability=purchase•slippery
夹板•灵活性=压舱物•不稳定性=支点•滑动(消除关系)
splint•immobilize=duct•convey 夹板用来固定=导管用来传送
splint•immobilize=sling•support(干扰sieve•flow)夹板用来固定=吊带用来支撑

mockery (a subject of laughter, derision, or sport)
diatribe•abuse=burlesque•mockery  抨击•咒骂=用文字模仿以讽刺•嘲弄(程度)
mock•imitate=taunt•challenge  (以模仿方式)嘲弄:模仿=(以挑战方式)嘲弄:挑战

moderate  (to lessen the intensity or extremeness of)
exorbitant•moderation=perfidious•loyalty  过分的•温和的=不忠的•忠心
moderate• intensity =extenuate•seriousness  缓和•强度=减轻•严重性

modicum (a small portion:a limited quantity)
inkling•knowledge=modicum•quantity  小知识•知识=小量•量(程度)
modicum ◆ large amount 少量 ◆ 大量

molar  (a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food)
rib•bone=molar•tooth  肋骨•骨头=臼齿•牙齿 (种属)

molding (a decorative plane or curved strip used for ornamentation or finishing)
hem•garment=molding•cabinet  褶边•衣服=嵌线•橱柜

mollify (to soothe in temper or disposition•appease)
mollification•soothe=indemnity•secure 安抚是为了使安心=保险是为了保护
mollify•anger=heart•dejection 缓和消除怒火=鼓励消除颓丧
antagonize 使敌对反对  ire忿怒 rouse唤醒  vex使恼怒  pique激怒
discomfit 挠乱  exasperate激怒  bait使生气  disaffect使敌对 nettle激怒
rankle激怒  incite to anger /rouse to anger 激怒/惹怒
mollification  ◆  inflammation  缓和 ◆ 怒火

mollycoddle  (a pampered or effeminate man or boy)
chide•pillory=humor•mollycoddle  叱责•示众=迁就•溺爱(程度)
mollycoddle ◆ treat harshly  溺爱 ◆ 粗鲁的对待

molt  (ecdysis)
molt•bird=slough•snake  鸟换毛=蛇蜕皮
molt•feathers=shed•hair  脱毛掉羽毛=脱发掉头发
【注:to cast off some natural covering(as fur or skin)
例:the cat is shedding 猫正在脱毛】
fledging ◆ molt  长羽毛 ◆ 换毛

momentous  (important, consequential)
atrocious•bad=momentous•important  极坏的:坏的=极重要的:重要的

momentum  (a property of a moving body that the body has by virtue of its mass and motion and that is equal to the product of the body's mass and velocity)
vacillate•swing=momentum•scutter  犹豫•动摇=动力•疾走(因果关系)
oscillation•swing=momentum•scooter  振荡•秋千=动力•划板(后者运动需要前者)

mongrel n. 杂种,混血儿 adj. 杂种的, 混血儿的
mongrel ◆  purebred  杂种的 ◆ 纯种的

monochromatic  (having or consisting of one color or hue)
iridescent ◆ monochromatic  彩色的 ◆ 单色的
chromatic ◆ colorless  彩色的 ◆ 无色的

monocle (an eyeglass for one eye)
monocle•eye 单片眼镜•眼睛

monologue  (soliloquy; a dramatic sketch performed by one actor)
opera•aria=play•monologue  歌剧•独唱曲=戏剧•独白

monotone  (monotonic)
stammer•halting=drone•monotonous
结巴的说•犹豫=单调而低沉地说•单调的(行为及正特)
monotonous ◆ piebald/ vociferous  单调的 ◆ 花斑的/嘈杂的

montage (the production of a rapid succession of images in a motion picture to illustrate an association of ideas)
zigzag:turns=montage:images 之字型:转弯=蒙太奇:图画(后者组成前者)

moratorium  (a suspension of an ongoing or planned activity)
reprieve•punishment=moratorium•activity  缓刑是暂缓实施惩罚=延期是暂缓实施行为
fast•eat=moratorium•act  斋戒是暂停吃饭=延期是暂停行动
moratorium•activity=respite•labor=tourniquet•bleeding
延期是暂停活动=休息是暂停劳动=止血器使出血暂停(延期和正常)

morbid  adj. 疾病的,病态的
morbid ◆ hale/ salubrious/ wholesome  病态的 ◆ 健康的
morbid ◆ verdant  病态的 ◆ 青翠的

mordant (biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style•incisive)
mordant ◆ genial  尖酸的 ◆ 和蔼的

list 22  moribund ---------obsess

moribund  (being in the state of dying•approaching death)
moribund ◆ beginning/nascent  即将结束的 ◆ 开端/初生的
moribund  ◆  increasingly vital  垂死的 ◆ 日益充满生机的
moribund  ◆ current  垂死的 ◆ 现存的(occurring in or existing at the present time)

morose  (having a sullen and gloomy disposition)
morose ◆ cheerful/ jovial/ jocund/sanguine/ lighthearted
郁闷的 ◆ 高兴的/ 快活的/ 欢乐的/ 乐天的/ 快乐的
rejoiced ◆ morose  高兴的 ◆ 忧郁的

mortar  (a strong vessel in which material is pounded/rubbed with a pestle)
hammer•anvil=pestle•mortar  铁锤•铁砧=杵•小臼(配对工具)
mortar•grind=vat•dye  小臼:碾碎=染缸:染色(容器及其用途)

mosaic  (一种装饰品由某种材料拼成的图)
mosaic•tile=image•pixel=jigsaw• piece
镶嵌图案•(装饰用)瓷砖=图象•象素=拼板玩具•板块(组成关系)

mosque  (a building used for public worship by muslims)
spire•church=minaret•mosque  塔尖•教堂=尖塔•清真寺(顶和建筑物)

moth-eaten  adj. 虫蛀的,过时的
moth-eaten ◆ fresh and new  虫蛀的, 破旧的, 过时的 ◆ 崭新的

motile  (exhibiting or capable of movement)
motility ◆ stasis  运动 ◆ 静止

motivate  (to provide with a motive•impel)
exculpatory•absolve=motivational•stir 辩明无罪的•赦免=激发的•激动(行为及结果)
exhortation•motivate=invective•discredit  规劝•激励=痛骂•不信任(前者表达后者)
fungi•ecologist=motivation•psychologist  菌类•生态学者=行为的动机•心理学家

motley  (variegated in colorcomposed of diverse elements)
motley ◆ colorless/unique/ unvaried  杂色的 ◆ 无色的/唯一的,单色/没变化的

mottle  (to mark with spots of different color or shades of color as if stained)
striated•groove=mottled•spot  有条纹的•条纹=斑驳的•斑点(形修饰名)
mottle ◆ blanch  使成杂色 ◆ 使变白
mottled ◆ homogenious/ solidary  斑驳的 ◆  均匀的/ 一致的

mournful  (causing sorrow or melancholy•gloomy)
jovial ◆ mournful  快活的 ◆ 悲恸的
revelry ◆ mournfulness 狂欢 ◆ 悲哀

movement  n. 乐章
stanza•poem=movement•orchestra
诗节是诗歌写作的一种结构方式=乐章是管弦乐队演奏的一种结构方式

muddy  (lacking in clarity or brightness)
muddy ◆ clarity  浑浊的 ◆ 清晰

muffle  (to wrap up so as to conceal or protect)(to deaden the sound of)
muffle•sound=assuage•grief  压低声音•声音=缓和•悲痛
muffler•neck=mitten•hand  围巾•脖子=手套•手
【注:muffler :a scarf worn around the neck】
muffled ◆  plangent/ resonant  声音低沉的 ◆ 轰鸣的/声音洪亮的

mulish  (unreasonably and inflexibly obstinate)
despicable•value=mulish•flexible  可鄙的•重要性=执拗的•灵活的 (反义)
mulish ◆ flexible/pliant  顽固的 ◆ 灵活的/易受影响的

mumble  (to utter with a low inarticulate voice)
enunciate ◆ mumble  (清楚地)表达 ◆ 咕哝

mundane (worldly as opposed to spiritual)( commonplace)
mundane ◆ extraordinary/ exotic/unusual  平凡的 ◆ 非凡的/ 奇异的 /不寻常的
mundane ◆ spiritual / unearthly  世俗的 ◆ 精神的/ 非尘世的,怪异的

munificent  (characterized by great liberality or generosity)
miser•munificent=zealot•blas□  守财奴•慷慨的=热心者•厌烦于亨乐(反面特征)
munificence ◆ stinginess  慷慨 ◆ 小气

mural  (a mural work of art as a painting)
petrography•rock=mural•wall  岩相学•岩石=壁画•墙 (事物及其对象)

murky  (dark and gloomy; thick with fog; vague)
murky ◆ clear/ limpid/ pellucid  朦胧的 ◆ 清澈的,清晰的

murmur  (a low indistinct but often continuous sound)
croon•sing=murmur•speak  低声歌唱•歌唱=低声说话•说话
glimmer•dazzle=murmur•resound 闪光•受强光而目眩=低声说话•响亮地说出(程度)

mutate  (to cause to undergo change)
mutate ◆ remain the same  改变 ◆ 不变

mute  (to muffle, reduce, or eliminate the sound of)(to tone down:soften, subdue)
muted•color=muffled•sound  使颜色柔和=使声音降低
mutter•indistinct=drone•monotonous  嘀咕•不清楚的=嗡嗡声•单调的(典型特征)
mute ◆ amplify 减弱声音 ◆ 扩大声音

mutter  (to utter sounds or words indistinctly or with a low voice)
mutter  ◆  speak distinctly  说话嘀咕不清楚 ◆ 说话清楚

myopic  (a lack of foresight or discernment)
myopic ◆ discerning  缺乏远见的 ◆ 有辨别力的
myopia ◆ prescience  短见 ◆ 预见

myriad  (having innumerable aspects or elements)
myriad•number=everlasting•duration  无数的•数字=永恒的•持续时间
myriad ◆ few/scarce/scanty  无数的 ◆ 很少的/缺乏的

nadir  (the lowest point)
nadir ◆ summit/acme  最低点 ◆ 顶点
nadir ◆ topmost point  最低点 ◆ 最高点

naive  (deficient in worldly wisdom or informed judgment; credulous)
guile•naif=tardy•prompt  狡诈•天真=拖拉•迅速
worldly ◆ na?ve  世故的 ◆ 纯朴的

narcissism  (love of or sexual desire for one's own body)
narcissist•self absorbed=sycophant•obsequious 自恋者•自我迷恋的=马屁精•谄媚的
narcissism•love=guilt•blame  自恋是爱自己=自责是谴责自己

nascent (coming or having recently come into existence)
nascent ◆  fully established/ nascent  新生的 ◆ 完全确立的/ 将死的

natty  (trimly neat and tidy•smart)
natty ◆ sloppy/ slovenly  整洁的 ◆ 邋遢的

nauseate  (to feel disgust)
vertigo•nauseate= treat•cure  眩晕•恶心=治疗•痊愈(动作及其结果)

naysay  (denial, refusal)
concur ◆ naysay  同意 ◆ 拒绝

nebulous  (indistinct, vague),星云的
nebulous ◆ distinct/ unambiguous/ clear cut  模糊的 ◆ 明显的/ 明确的/ 清楚的

needy  (being in want)
affluent ◆ needy  富有的 ◆ 贫困的

nefarious  (flagrantly wicked or impious•evil)
nefarious•wickedness=generous•liberality  邪恶的•邪恶=慷慨的•心胸开阔 (同义)
nefarious ◆ above reproach/virtuous/ beneficial/ exemplary
邪恶的 ◆ 无可指责的/品德高尚的/ 仁慈的/ 模范的

negation  (a negative statement, judgment, or doctrine; especially:a logical proposition formed by asserting the falsity of a given proposition)
negation ◆ affirmation 否定 ◆ 肯定

negligence  (the quality or state of being not taking prudent care)
negligence ◆ care  疏忽 ◆ 注意

neologism  (a new word, usage, or expression)
neologism ◆ archaism/ well-established expression  新语 ◆ 古语/ 旧表达法

negotiate  (to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter)
clog•drainage=stalemate•negotiations
堵塞•下水道=胶着状态•谈判,协商 (事物及其特殊状态)
negotiator•aggrement= mediation•compromise  谈判者•协议=调停者•妥协(目的)
tenacious ◆ negotiable 固执的 ◆ 可商量的

neophyte  (a new convert•proselyte)
inexperience•neophyte=irresponsibility•wastrel
无经验•新信徒,开始者=不承担责任的人•败家子
neophyte•experience=boor•sensitivity  新信徒无阅历=粗野的人不敏感

nepotism  (favoritism as in appointment to a job based on kinship)
nepotism•relative=cronyism•friend  裙带关系•亲戚=任人唯亲•朋友(动宾)
nepotism•kinship=jingoist•nationality
裙带关系是不正常爱亲戚=沙文主义是不正常爱国家

nerve  (to give strength or courage to) n. 神经,胆量
appall ◆ nerve 使胆寒 ◆ 鼓起勇气
nervy ◆ diffident  有勇气的 ◆ 缺乏自信的

nettle  (to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger)
nettle ◆ conciliate/ mollify  激怒  ◆ 安抚

nexus  (connection,link; a connected group or series; center,
focus)
nexus ◆ disconnected components  相互连结的一组,一系列 ◆ 不连贯的成分
nexus ◆ trivial point  核心 ◆ 微不足道的问题

nibble  (to eat or chew in small bits)
quaff•sip=gobble•nibble  痛饮•啜饮=狼吞虎咽•小口咬

nil  (NOTHING, ZERO)
nil•quantity=vacuum•matter  零没有数量=真空没有:物质

nip  (to take liquor in nips)
nip•eat=jot•write  小口饮酒•吃=略记•写(程度)

nitpick v. 挑剔,吹毛求疵
fluent•glib=meticulous•nitpick/finicky
流利的•口齿伶俐的=很仔细的•吹毛求疵/苛求的(褒贬程度)
nitpick•criticize=cavil•object  吹毛求疵•批评=苛责•反对(过分的后者导致前者)
nitpicker•criticize=preacher•sermon=quibbler•cavil
吹毛求疵者•责备=传教士•布道=吹毛求疵的人•吹毛求疵(人物典型特征)

nocturnal  (of, relating to, or occurring in the night)
nocturnal ◆ happen during daytime/ diurnal  夜间发生的 ◆ 白天发生的/ 每日的,昼间的

noisome (noxious, harmful)(offensive to the senses and especially to the sense of smell)(highly obnoxious or objectionable)
noisome ◆ appealing/ pleasant  令人讨厌的 ◆ 有吸引力的/令人愉快的
noisome ◆ attractively fragrant  恶臭的 ◆ 具有迷人香味的
noisome ◆ beneficial/ healthy  有害的 ◆ 有益的/令人愉快的/健康的

nomad  (a member of a people who have no fixed residence)
nomad•domicile=freelancer•employer  游牧民无固定住所=自由作家无顾主
nomadic ◆ settled  游牧的 ◆ 定居的

nominal (trifling, insignificant)
nominal•significance=disjunctive•unity  有名无实的缺乏重要性=分离的缺乏统一
nominal•figurehead=absolute•autocrat  不重要的•有名无实的领袖=绝对的•独裁者

nonchalant  (having an air of easy unconcern or indifference)
anonymous•identify=nonchalant•excite  匿名的难以识别=冷漠的难以激动

nondescript  (lacking distinctive or interesting qualities)
nondescript ◆ conspicuous/ remarkable/striking 平凡的 ◆ 引人注目的/非凡的/惊人的

nonentity  (a person of little consequence or significance)
dilettante•commitment=nonentity•consequenc
业余爱好者缺乏义务=不重要之人缺乏重要性
mogul  ◆  nonentity  显要人物 ◆ 不重要的人

nonplus (a state of bafflement or perplexity:quandary)
infuriate•rage=nonplus•perplexity  狂怒•大怒=迷惑•困惑 (同义)

nonsense  (words or language having no meaning or conveying no
intelligible ideas)
nonsensical•drivel=pompous•bombast  胡言乱语的•胡言乱语=虚夸的•夸大的言词

notch  (to cut or make a notcha usually v-shaped depression in an edge or surface)
serrated ◆ without notches  齿状的 ◆ 没有刻痕的

novelty (something new or unusual)
threadbare/timeworn•novelty=labyrinthine•directness  陈旧的•新奇事物=曲折的•笔直
ballad•stanza=novel•chapter  民歌•节,段=小说•章;回 (组成关系)
novel ◆ banal/ timeworn  新颖的 ◆ 陈腐的/ 陈旧的

noxious (physically harmful or destructive to living beings)
noxious ◆ beneficial/salubrious  有害的 ◆ 有益的/有益健康的

nuance  (a subtle distinction or variation)
nuance•distinction=hint•suggestion  细微差异•差别=暗示•显示 (程度)
nuance ◆ patent difference/ lack of subtlety/ sharp distinction/ patent
细微的差异 ◆ 明显的差别/ 缺乏精妙/ 明显的差别/ 明显的

nucleate  (to form into a nucleus)
nucleate ◆ disseminate/ scatter  聚集成核 ◆ 散布/ 分散

nudge  (seek the attention of by a push of the elbow)
doze•sleep=nudge•prod 瞌睡•睡觉=轻推•推动 (程度)
butt•head=nudge•elbow 以头抵撞•头=用肘轻推•肘 (动作及其身体部位)

nugatory  (of little or no consequence;trifling, inconsequential)
nugatory  ◆  consequential  无关紧要的 ◆ 重要的

nurture (to supply with nourishment)
nurture•child••cultivate•crop  抚育:小孩=培养:农作物
nurture ◆ withhold sustenance from  提供营养物 ◆ 停止提供营养物
nurture ◆ impede/ stunt  抚育 ◆ 阻止/阻碍生长
disregard ◆ nurture  忽略,漠视 ◆ 培育,教育

oasis  (a fertile or green area in an arid region as a desert)
glade•wood=oasis•desert  林间空地•树林=绿洲•沙漠

oath  (solemn promise)
oath•promise=contract•agreement  誓言•允诺=合同•协议(前者比后者正式)

obdurate  (resistant to persuasion or softening influences);冷酷的
energetic•frenetic=firm•obdurate=frugal•penurious
精力旺盛的•狂乱的=坚定的•顽固的=节俭的•吝啬的(褒贬程度)
firmness•obdurate=carefulness•meticulous
坚定•执迷不悟的=仔细的•谨小慎微的(褒贬程度)
penitent•obdurate=skeptic•credulous  悔过者•顽固的=怀疑者•轻信的(不容易)
obdurate•budge=lachrymose•cheer  固执的•移动=爱哭的•欢呼
obdurate•move=irrepressible•quell  冷酷无情的难以打动=镇压不住的难以镇压
obdurate  ◆  amenable/ complaisant/flexible/pliable  执拗的 ◆ 温顺的
toward ◆ obdurate  和顺的 ◆ 顽固的
【注:toward :propitious, favoring  顺利的,和顺的 例a toward breeze 和顺的微风】

obedient  (submissive to the restraint or command of authority)
obedient ◆ contumacious/ imperial  顺从的 ◆ 顽固的/最高权力的

obeisance  (a movement of the body made in token of 表示respect or submission)
obeisant•esteem=embrace•affection  鞠躬•尊敬=拥抱•爱 (行为及其表达内容)
obeisant ◆ impertinent/ impudent/ imperious  恭敬的 ◆ 不礼貌的/放肆无礼的/专横的

obfuscate  (to make obscure)
equivocation•truth=euphemism•offense=obfuscation•clarity
说模棱两可的话•真理=委婉的说法•攻击,伤感情=使模糊•清楚(反面特征)
headstrong•willfulness=obfuscate•confusing  顽固•任性=使困惑•胡涂(同义)
rationalization•plausible=obfuscation•indiscernible(干扰:equivocation•definite)
自圆其说•给人假象的=困惑•难识别的(正面特征)
【注:plausible :giving a deceptive impression of truth, acceptability, or reliability;specious
给人假象的,华而不实的
rationalize:vi. to provide plausible but untrue reasons for conduct 找借口,自圆其说,文过饰非】
cowardice•intimidate=perplexity•obfuscate  懦弱容易被胁迫=困惑容易被迷惑
obfuscate ◆ demystify/ elucidate/ illuminate/ clarify / explain clearly 使迷惑 ◆ 澄清,阐明
obfuscated/ obfusticated ◆ lucid  困惑的 ◆ 清晰的

obituary  (a notice of a person's death usually with a short biographical account)
roster•staff=obituary•death  花名册记录职员=讣告记录死亡

obligatory  (binding in law or conscience; mandatory, required)
obligatory ◆ discretionary/ selective/ elective  强制性的 ◆ 自由选择的

obliging  (willing to do favors)
visionary•idealistic=officious•obliging
空想的•空想主义的=好管闲事的•乐于助人的(褒贬)

oblique (not straightforward•indirect)
oblique ◆ direct  倾斜的 ◆ 笔直的

obliterate  (to remove from existence)
inspire•infuse=obliterate•remove  鼓舞•鼓舞=删除•除去(同义)
ineffable•description=irradicable•obliterate  不能说的•描述=不能根除的•删除
inexpurgate ◆ obliterate  无法除去 ◆ 除去

oblivious  (lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention)
erudite•fathom=oblivious•neglect  博学的•看穿=健忘的•忽略
【注:oblivious :lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention 健忘的】
【注:fathom :to penetrate and come to understand看穿,看透 例如:He couldn't fathom the problem 他不能看透这个问题】
oblivious ◆ mindful/ vigilant/ cognizant  不在意的 ◆ 留意的/机警的/自觉的

obloquy (abusively detractive language or utterance; calumny)
adulation ◆ obloquy  奉承 ◆ 漫骂

obscure (not clearly seen or easily distinguished)v. 使模糊
obscure ◆ explicit/ manifest  模糊的 ◆ 明晰的/明显的
obscure ◆ elucidate  使含糊 ◆ 阐明
legendary ◆ obscure  有名的 ◆ 无名的
obscurity ◆ celebrity  默默无闻的 ◆ 名人
obscurity ◆ clarity  模糊 ◆ 清晰
certitude ◆ obscurity  确实 ◆ 含糊

obsequious  (marked by or a fawning attentiveness)
condescending•patronize=obsequious•fawn  屈尊的• 屈尊=顺从的•巴结 (形动同义)
libertine•dissolute=sycophant•obsequious=narcissist•self absorbed
淫荡者•放荡的=马屁精•顺从的=自我陶醉者•自我吸引(人物典型特征)
sycophantic•obsequious=rebellious•resurgent
阿谀的•奉承的=反叛的•起义的(同义)
obsequious•fawn=compliant•yield
从的•巴结=顺从的•屈服的 (褒贬程度)
obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive
谄媚的•卑曲的=好战的•过分自信的(前者源于后者)
obsequious•attentiveness=parsimonious•frugality
献媚的•关心的=吝啬•节俭(褒贬程度)
supercilious ◆ obsequious  傲慢的 ◆ 顺从的

observatory  n. 天文台
conservatory•music=seminary•theology=observatory•astronomy
音乐学院•音乐=神学院•神学=天文台•天文学

obsess  (to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of)
agonized•distress=obsessed•concern  使苦恼•苦恼=使困扰•困扰
firm•intransigent=concerned•obsessed  坚定的:不妥协的=担心的:关心的 (同义)
obsessed•attracted=rash•adventurous  着迷•被吸引的=轻率的•冒险的
obsessed•attracted=intimate•close  着迷的•被吸引的=亲密的•接近的 (程度)
obsession ◆ intense disgust  迷住 ◆ 极度厌恶

list 23  obstinate -------parrot

obstinate  (perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course)
obstinate•preserve=tactless/insensitive•offend  固执的•坚持=无礼的•冒犯(不容易)
unflappable•upset=obstinate•persuade  镇定的•慌乱=倔强的•说服 (不容易被)
firm• obstinate=supple•spineless=thin•emaciated
坚定•顽固=逢迎的•没有勇气的=瘦的•瘦弱的(程度)
obstinacy  ◆  tractability  固执 ◆ 温顺
obstinate  ◆  tractable  固执的 ◆ 温顺的

obstruct  (to hinder from passage, action, or operation)
obstruct ◆ facilitate  阻碍 ◆ 促进
occluded ◆ unobstructed  闭塞的 ◆ 开放的
obstructed ◆ unocclude 阻塞的 ◆ 开放的
abet ◆ obstruct  教唆 ◆ 阻止
obstructionist ◆ one who facilitates  防碍者 ◆ 促进者

obtuse  (lacking sharpness or quickness of sensibility or intellect)
parsimonious•liberal=obtuse•keen=restive•calmness
吝啬的•慷慨的=钝的•锋利的=失控的•镇静(反义)
impertinent•propriety=keen•obtuseness 鲁莽的•适当=敏锐的•迟钝(形名反义)
obtuse ◆ insightful  愚笨的 ◆ 有深刻见解的

obviate vt. 除去,排除
emulate•exemplary=obviate•unnecessary 效仿•可效仿的=除去•不必要的

occlude (to close up or block off•obstruct)
occluded ◆ unobstructed  闭塞的 ◆ 不闭塞的
obstructed ◆ unocclude 阻碍的 ◆ 不阻塞的

occult  (not easily apprehended or understood)
occult ◆ bare/ manifest/ patent/ readily fathomable
神秘的 ◆ 暴露的/ 明显的/ 明显的/ 可理解的

ode  (a lyric poem marked by exaltation of feeling and style, varying length of line, and complexity of stanza forms)
chord•tone=ode•poem  和弦•曲调=颂诗•诗 (种属)
ode•poetry=spoof•parody  颂诗•诗=讽刺诗•讽刺作品

odium  (hatred and condemnation accompanied by loathing or contempt)
odium ◆ esteem/ hankering / infatuation  憎恨 ◆ 迷恋/ 渴望/ 着迷

offbeat (eccentric, unconventional)
offbeat ◆ conventional 反传统的 ◆ 传统的
offbeat ◆ bathetic/ hackneyed  离奇的 ◆ 平庸的

offhand (without premeditation or preparation•extempore)
offhand ◆ premeditated 即兴的 ◆ 事先谋划的

officious  (meddlesome)
attentive•officious=refined•snobbish  留意的•多管闲事的=雅致的•俗不可耐的
officious•meddle=disaffected•rebel  多管闲事的•干涉=有叛意的•背叛
visionary•idealistic=officious•obliging  空想的•空想主义的=多管闲事的•乐于助人的
officious•attentive=parsimony•frugal  多管闲事的•留意的=吝啬•节俭(褒贬程度)

offish  (somewhat cold and reserved•standoffish)
offish ◆ sociable  冷漠的 ◆ 友善的

off-key (varying in pitch from the proper tone of a melody)(irregular)
off-key ◆ at the proper pitch  走调的 ◆ 调子正确的

olfaction  (the sense of smell)
olfaction•odor=gustation•flavor  嗅觉能闻到气味=味觉能品尝滋味

ominous (being or exhibiting an omen:portentous; especially:
foreboding or foreshowing evil:inauspicious)
auspicious ◆ ominous  吉兆的 ◆ 不吉利的

omniscient  (having infinite awareness/understanding/ insight)
vacuous ◆ omniscient  空洞的 ◆ 全知的

onerous (involving, imposing, or constituting a burden:troublesome)
onerous ◆ requiring little effort  费力的 ◆ 省力气的

opaque  (exhibiting opacity),难懂的
slack•tension=opaque•translucence  松弛的•拉紧=不透明的•半透明(形名同义)
opacity•light=impermeability•fluid=nonporous•liquid
不透明•光线=不可渗透•流体=无孔的•液体(不可穿越关系)
opacity ◆  clarity/diaphanous/transparency 不透明 ◆ 透明
opaqueness ◆ clarity  不透明性 ◆ 透明

opine  (to express opinions)
augur•predict=pundit•opine= recidivism•relapse
占卜师•预言=权威•表达观点=重犯•再发(人物及其特征行为)

opportune  (suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence)
opportune•convenience=impermanent•transience  适当的•方便=短暂的•顷刻
opportune ◆ inappropriate/inconvenient/ untimely  适当的 ◆ 不适当的/不便的/不合时宜的

opprobrious  (expressive of opprobrium•scurrilous)
opprobrious ◆ irreproachable  无礼的 ◆ 无过失的
opprobrium ◆ good repute  不名誉 ◆ 好名声

oracle  (a person through whom a deity is believed to speak)
mentor•guidance=oracle•prophecy  导师•指导=神谕•预言

oration (an elaborate discourse delivered in a formal and dignified manner)
oration•heard=novel•read  演说•能听到=小说•能读

orient  (get one's bearings; adjust; make familiar with a situation)
orient  ◆  confuse 使适应 ◆ 使迷惑

original  (not secondary, derivative, or imitative)
babble•sense=parrot•originality  胡言乱语缺乏理性=鹦鹉学舌缺乏创新
original ◆ commonplace/ banal/trite  有创意的 ◆ 普通的/陈腐的
pastiche ◆ original work  仿作 ◆ 原创

ornithology  (a branch of zoology dealing with birds)
ornithology•eagle=astronomy•planet  鸟类学•鹰=天文学•行星

orthodoxy  (quality of being conforming to established doctrine)
religion•devoutness=canon•orthodoxy
信仰•虔诚=正统经典•信仰正统(后者致力于前者)
【注:devout:devoted to religion or to religious duties or exercises】
dissenter•orthodox=maverick•group  反对者脱离正统=特立独行者脱离团体

oscillate  (swing like a pendulum;vary between opposing beliefs,feelings,or theories)
oscillate ◆ remain static  振动 ◆ 静止
oscillation ◆ absence of variation  犹豫 ◆ 不变

ossify  (to become hardened or conventional and opposed to change)
depreciation•value=ossification•flexibility  贬值•重要=僵化•灵活 (反义)
ligneous•wood=osseous•bone  木质的:木头=骨质的:骨头
ossified ◆ amenable to change  僵化的 ◆ 顺应变化的
ossify ◆ make pliant  硬化 ◆ 使柔软
ossify ◆ transcend conventions 僵化 ◆ 超越传统

ostentatious  (marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious display)
ostensible ◆ inapparent  明显的 ◆ 不明显的
ostentation ◆ artlessness/ austerity/ modesty  卖弄 ◆ 朴实/ 朴素/ 谦逊
ostentatious ◆ modest  卖弄的 ◆ 谦让的

ostracize  (exclusion by general consent from common privileges)
pariah•ostracize=prisoner•confine  贱民被驱逐=囚犯被囚禁
ostracize ◆ take in  驱逐 ◆ 接纳
ostracize ◆ include/embrace/ welcome  排斥 ◆ 包容/包含/欢迎

oust  (to remove from or dispossess of property by legal action or force)
instate ◆ oust 任命 ◆ 剥夺

outgoing  a dj. 外向的,爱社交的(openly friendly and responsive•extroverted)
extrovert•outgoing=perfectionist•exacting  好社交者•爱社交的=完美主义者•苛求的

outlandish  (strikingly out of the ordinary:bizarre)
outlandish  ◆  conventional  古怪的 ◆ 常规的

outmaneuver  (to maneuver with better effect than; outwit)
outmaneuver ◆ yield  智取 ◆ 屈服

outset  (beginning, start)
outset  ◆  termination  开端 ◆ 终止

outwit  (to get the better of by superior cleverness)
taunt•provoke=plot•outwit  逗弄目的是刺激=谋划目的是以智取胜

overbearing  (harshly and haughtily arrogant)
overbearing ◆ meek/ unassuming 傲慢的 ◆ 谦逊的

overlap (to occupy the same area in part•lap over)
infinite•exhaust=discrete•overlap  无限的•穷尽=离散的•重叠 (形动反义)
inconsonant•concord=scatter•overlap  不协调的•一致的=分散的•重叠的(反义)

overt  (open to view:manifest)
clandestine•secretly=overt•openly  秘密的•秘密地=公然的•公然地 (形副同义)
shadowy ◆ overt  朦胧的 ◆ 明显的

overture  (something introductory•prelude)
veto•prohibitive=overture•introductory  否决•禁止的=序曲•开端的(名形同义)
overture/ preamble•introduction=caveat•warning/cautionary  序曲•介绍=警戒•警告
overture•symphony=preface•book  序曲•交响乐=前言•书(事物的开始)
overture•opera=preamble•statute  序曲•歌剧=导言•.法令
coda ◆ overture  乐章结尾 ◆ 前奏

oxymoron  (a combination of contradictory or incongruous words)
apophasis•claim=oxymoron•paradox  委婉表述与表述有关=矛盾修饰法与矛盾有关
oxymoron•contradictory=mishap•catastrophic  矛盾修饰法•矛盾的=不幸•灾难的
equivocation•ambiguous=oxymoron•incongruous
模棱两可的话•暧昧的=矛盾修饰法•不调和的(正面特征)

pachyderm  n. 厚皮类动物, 迟钝的人
pachyderm•animal=ant•insect  厚皮类动物•动物=蚂蚁•昆虫(种属)

pacify  (to allay the anger or agitation of•soothe)
solace•grief=pacification•anger  安慰•痛楚=平定•愤怒 (消除关系)
pacify ◆ incite/ rankle/ tantrum/ vex  安慰 ◆ 煽动/ 激怒/ 发怒/ 恼怒
discompose ◆ pacificate  使不安 ◆ 使镇静
pacific ◆ truculent  和平的 ◆ 好战的

pack  (a group of often predatory animals of the same kind)
orchestra•musician=pack•wolf  管弦乐队•音乐家=狼群•狼 (团体与个体)

padding (material with which something is padded)
padding•damage=disguise•recognition  填塞物•损伤=假面目•认识(防止关系)
padding•damage=levee•flooding 填塞物•损伤=防洪堤坝•洪水(防止关系)

paean  (a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph)
paean•song=elegy•poem 赞美歌•歌=挽诗•诗(种属)
paean•joy=dirge•grief 赞美歌表达欢乐=挽歌表达悲痛
paean ◆ harshly lampoon  赞歌 ◆ 讽刺文章

painstaking  (taking pains)
pain•analgesic=symptom•palliative  痛苦•止痛的=症状•减轻的
cursory ◆ painstakingly thorough  粗略的 ◆ 十分详尽的
slipshod ◆ painstaking 漫不经心的 ◆ 艰苦的

palatable  (agreeable to the palate or taste)
palatable•savory=discernible•manifest 美味的•可口的=可分辨的•明显的

palatial  (magnificent)
hovel•palatial=city(metropolis)•bucolic
小屋•豪华的=城市(大城市)•田园生活的(反面特征)

palette (a particular range, quality, or use of color)
palette•color=repertoire•play 调色板•颜色=节目单•节目(前者安排后者)

pall  (to lose in interest or attraction)
pall ◆ interest/intrigue  失去兴趣 ◆ 激发兴趣

palliate  (to reduce the violence of (a disease))
palliate•anger=enfeeble•vigor 减轻•愤怒=使衰弱•精力(动宾关系)
symptom•palliative=pain•analgesic  病症•减轻的=疼痛•止痛的(消除)
palliate ◆ exacerbate/worsen/increase intensity  减轻 ◆ 加剧/恶化/增加强度
caustic ◆ palliating/genial  讽刺的 ◆ 缓和的/和蔼的

pallid  (having an abnormally pale complexion)
rubicund红润的/ piquant 兴奋的

palmy  (marked by prosperity)
palmy•prosperity=draconian•severity  繁荣的•繁荣=苛刻的•严格(形名同义)

palpable  (easily perceived)
palpable•touch=pliable•mold  可触知的•触摸=柔韧的•塑造
palpable ◆ explicate/subtle  明显的 ◆ 隐晦的/细微的
impalpable ◆ clear  不易察觉的 ◆ 清楚的

palter  (to act insincerely or deceitfully)
palter•candor=diehard•budge  欺骗•诚挚=顽固•移动(反面特征)
【注:budge :to alter a position or attitude:改变立场或态度】
palter ◆ candor  欺骗 ◆ 坦率

paltry  (practically worthless; trifling)
paltry ◆ significant/important 微不足道的 ◆ 意义重大的/重要的

pan  (to criticize unfavorably, as in reviewing)
pan•harsh=barb•caustic  严厉批评•严厉的=尖锐的批评•严厉的(同义)
rave 过分赞扬 eulogize称赞 extol称赞

panache (dash or flamboyance in style)
panache ◆  humility  炫耀  ◆  谦逊
panache ◆  unremarkable behavior  炫耀  ◆  寻常举止
panache ◆  dullness  华丽  ◆  缺乏光彩(dull:lacking brilliance or luster)

pancreas  n. 胰腺
insulin•pancreas=bile•liver  胰岛素•胰腺=胆汁•肝脏(分泌关系)

pandemic  adj. 全国流行的
pandemic  ◆  limited 流行的 ◆ 限制的

pandemonium  (wild uproar or noise)
pandemonium ◆ serene  喧嚣 ◆ 安静

panegyric  (a eulogistic oration or writing)
panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize  颂词•称颂=讽刺文章•讽刺 (前者表达后者)
panegyric•praise=valediction•farewell 颂词•赞扬=临别致词•告别 (前者表达后者)
anathema诅咒  denunciation谴责  condemnation谴责

panoramic  (an complete view of an area in every direction)
panoramic ◆ narrow  全景的 ◆ 狭窄的

pantry  (a room for preparation of foods on order)
pantry•food=armory•weapons=closet(wardrobe)•clothes
餐具室•食物=军械库•武器=壁橱(衣柜)•衣服(存储地方与物品)

parable n. 寓言,比喻
parable•story=homily•lecture  寓言•故事=说教•教训(种属)

paradigm  (example, pattern)
corrective•amends=paradigm•exemplify
矫正物•补偿=范例•作为…例子(事物作用)
paragon(paradigm)•imitate=reverence•regard
模范值得被效仿=应该尊敬的人值得被尊重

paradise  (a place or state of bliss, felicity, or delight)
pleasurable•paradisical=melodious•lyrical
愉悦的•极欢乐=曲调优美的•抒情诗调的 (同义)

paradox (a statement that is seemingly contradictory to common sense and yet is perhaps true)
paradox•contradictory=epigram•wise
矛盾论点•对立的=警句•有智慧的(事物典型特征)
oxymoron•paradox=apophasis•claim
矛盾修饰法•矛盾的话=表面否认要说或正说的话•表述
paradoxical ◆ common荒谬的 ◆ 普通的

paragon (a model of excellence or perfection)
paragon•admire=pariah•contempt  典范常常被赞美=底层民众常常被轻蔑
paragon•excellent=hoax•fraudulent  模范•优秀的=愚弄•欺骗的(正面特征)
paragon•exemplary=corrected•amend  典范•示例=修正的•改正(同义)
travesty ◆ paragon  曲解 ◆ 典范
virtue.

paramount  (superior to all others)
important•paramount=painful•agonizing 重要的•最重要的=痛苦的•痛苦难耐的(程度)
paramount ◆ ancillary  最主要的 ◆ 辅助次要的

paranoia  (a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational suspiciousness and distrustfulness of others)
suspicion•paranoia=enthusiasm•mania  猜疑•偏执狂=热情•狂热(褒贬程度)
suspicious•paranoid=admiring•idolatrous  怀疑的•偏执狂的=钦佩的•盲目崇拜的(褒贬)

paraphrase  (to make a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form)
paraphrase•verbatim=approximate•precise 简要重述•一字不差地=近似•精确的(反义)

parch  (to dry or shrivel with cold)
steep ◆ parch  浸泡 ◆ 烤干

parenthesis  n.插入语;附带;插曲;圆括号
enclose•parentheses=separate•comma  括号使围住=句号使隔开
parenthesis•explanation=ellipsis•omission  圆括号表示解释=省略号表示省略

pariah  (a member of a low caste of southern india)
pariah•ostracize=prisoner•confine  底层民众遭排斥=囚犯遭囚禁(人物典型特征)

parity  (the quality or state of being equal)
inequality不公平/ incommensurateness不平衡

parlance  (manner or mode of speech)
parlance•speak=gait•walk  说话的方式•说=步法•行走(动作与其方式)

parody  n.诙谐改编的诗文 v. 做模仿诗文
parody•style=mime•gesture 诙谐改编模仿的是诗文风格=哑剧模仿的是姿态
【注:mime:to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words
parody:n. a literary or musical work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule  v. to imitate in the manner of a parody】
spoof•parody=nicety•distinction  轻浮的改编•拙劣的模仿=细微差别•差别(种属)spoof•parody=ode•poetry  轻浮地讽刺模仿品•模仿作品=颂诗•诗(种属)

paroxysm  (a sudden violent emotion or action)
paroxysm•sudden=ruse•deceived 突发•突然的=诡计•欺骗的 (正面特征)

parquetry  (inlaid woodwork in geometric forms, usually of
contrasting woods, used esp. in flooring)
parquetry•floor=fresco•wall  镶木地板图案•地板=壁画•墙壁(事物安置位置)
parquet•wood=mosaic•glass  镶木地板•木头=镶嵌图案•玻璃

parrot  (to repeat by rote)
parrot•originality=babble•sense  机械地模仿缺乏创意=胡说八道缺乏理智

list 24  parry --------pixel

parry  (to evade especially by an adroit answer)
parry•question=shirk•duty  躲避•问题=推卸•责任(逃避关系)

parse  n./v. 从语法上分析
parse•grammatical=scan•metrical
语法分析•合乎语法的=分析韵脚•有韵律的(行为及其相关对象)
sentence•parse=specimen•dissect  句子•语法分析=标本•解剖(行为及其对对象)

parsimony  (unreasonable economy; stinginess)
parsimony•frugal=hubris•proud 节俭•节俭的=傲慢•高傲的(名形同义)
parsimonious•liberal=obtuse•keen  吝啬的•慷慨的=钝的•锋利的
parsimonious•profligacy=impetuous•hesitance  吝啬的•挥霍的=冲动的•犹豫的
parsimonious•resource=curt•words
吝啬的•资源=简略的•话语(形容词修饰名词,二重关系•简或少)
tightfisted•parsimonious=brattish•mischievous 吝啬的•吝啬的=宠坏的•淘气的(同义)
parsimony ◆ largesse  吝啬 ◆ 慷慨
parsimonious ◆ wasteful/ liberal/ profligate/ prodigal/ munificent/ lavish/ generous
小气的 ◆ 浪费的/ 慷慨的/ 浪费的/ 挥霍的/ 慷慨大方的/ 浪费的/ 大方的

partial (inclined to favor one party more than the other:biased)
partial ◆ dispassionate  偏袒的 ◆ 不动感情的

particularize  (to state in detail)
particularize•details=illustrate•pictures
详细说明•细节=作图解•图片(行为及其相关对象)

partisan  (a firm adherent to a party, faction)
allegiance•partisans=authoritativeness•pundits
效忠•同党之人=权威•权威人士(人物典型特征)
patriot•country=partisan•course  爱国者•国家=党羽•方针(前者忠诚于后者)

pastiche  (a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous work)
pastiche ◆ original work  模仿 ◆ 原创

partition  n.分割,划分,瓜分 vt.区分,隔开,分割
partition ◆ unify瓜分 ◆ 联合

patent  (readily visible or intelligible)
patent ◆ abstruse / not evident/ occult / recondite
明显的 ◆ 晦涩难懂的/ 不明显的/ 神秘的/ 深奥的
nuance ◆ patent difference  细微差别 ◆ 显着区别

pathology  n. 病理学;病状
stimulation•arousal=pathogen•diseasing  刺激物•激励= 病原体•疾病
pathological ◆ normal  病态的 ◆ 正常的

patina  n. 铜绿;薄层;光泽
patina  ◆  essential quality  薄层光泽 ◆ 本质

patrician  (a person of high birth•aristocrat)
base ◆ patrician  底层社会 ◆ 贵族

patriot (one who loves his or her country)
patriot•country=partisan•course
爱国者忠于国家=党徒忠于(某一政党的)路线(人及其目标)

patronize  vt. 资助,赞助,让人领情
condescending•patronize=obsequious•fawn
使领情的•资助=谄媚的•奉承(形动同义)
patron•support=apologist•defend
赞助人•支援=辩护者•辩护(人物典型动作)
patronize•condescension=deride•mockery
资助•要人领情的态度=嘲弄•嘲笑(动名同义)
subject.

paucity (smallness of number:fewness)
slew大量 plethora过剩 profusion丰富

paunchy dj. 大肚子的(having an enlarged or protruding abdomen)
paunchy and awkward ◆ svelte  大腹便便的 ◆ 苗条的

pebble  (a small usually rounded stone)
droplet•deluge=pebble•landslid  小滴•洪水=小卵石•山崩泥石(小与大)

peccadillo  (a slight offense)
peccadillo•error/sin/offense=glitch•flaw  小过失•错误/罪孽/犯罪=小故障•缺陷(程度)
peccadillo•sin=admonishment•castigation  小过失•错误=警告•惩罚
peccadillo•offense=cameo•sculpture  小过失•错误=贝雕•雕塑 (种属)
peccadillo•offence=mishap•accident  小罪•犯罪=不幸•事故(种属)

peck  n. 轻吻
peck•kiss=glance•look 轻吻•吻=一瞥•看(轻和正常)

pedagogue  (a dull, formal, or pedantic teacher)
pedagogue•indoctrinate=stickler•exacting
教育者•灌输=坚持者•严格苛求(人物典型行为)

pedant  n. 迂腐之人,书呆子,学究式人物
pedant•learning=hack•writing
学究•学习=雇佣文人•写作(人物典型行为)
pedantic•learned=moralistic•principled
学究式的•有学问的=道学的•有原则的(褒贬对比)
scholarly•pedantic=modest•prudish (褒贬对比)
儒雅的•书呆的=谦虚的•假装正经
pedantic•scholar=histrionic•actor
学究的•学者=戏剧的•演员(人物典型属性)
scholar.

pedestal  n. 基架,底座,基础
pedestal•statue=foundation•house  底座•雕像=地基•房子

predestine  vt. 预定,注定
predestine  ◆  leave to chance 注定 ◆ 顺其自然

pedestrian  (commonplace;unimaginative)  imaginative 富于想象的  marvelous非凡的 inspired有灵感的  rarefied 稀少的

pediatrics  (to look cautiously or slyly)
peck•kiss=peep•sound  啄•亲吻=瞥见•听见

peer  n. 同等的人;贵族vi.凝视;窥视 vt.与...同等;封为贵族
peer ◆ a subordinate person  同辈 ◆ 下级者

peerless  (matchless;imparable)
peerlessness ◆ equality  出类拔萃 ◆ 同等

peeve  (to make peevish or resentful)
peeved•annoyed=patronizing•condescending
气恼的•恼怒的=恩人自居的•使领情的(同义)
peeved•annoy=saturated•wet  恼怒的•骚挠=湿透的•弄湿(行为及结果)
placate ◆ peeve  安抚 ◆ 使气恼
peevish ◆ good-natured 易恼怒的 ◆ 好脾气的

pejorative  (having negative connotations)
pejorative ◆ laudatory 贬低的 ◆ 赞美的

pelf  n. 金钱财物尤指以欺诈行为而得到的金钱和财富
pelf•impecunious=experience•green  钱财•贫穷的=经验•无经验的

pellucid  (easy to understand)
pellucid•understand=venial•excuse  易懂的•明白=可宽恕的•原谅(因果关系)
pellucid ◆ murky  清楚的 ◆ 不清楚的
【注:murky :Lacking clarity or distinctness】

pen  (a female swan)
swan•pen=sheep•ewe  天鹅•雌天鹅=羊•母羊(种属)

penalty n. 刑罚,罚款,报应
ardon•penalty=exempt•liability  原谅•处罚=免责•责任,债务(消除)

penchant  (a strong and continued inclination)
penchant ◆ aversion/dislike爱好 ◆ 厌恶/讨厌

penitent  (feeling or expressing regretful pain)
penitent•obdurate=skeptic•credulous  悔过者•顽固的=怀疑者•轻信的
impenitent ◆ contrite  不悔悟的 ◆ 后悔的

pensive (musingly or dreamily thoughtful)
lamentable•pensive=museful•ruminative 哀伤的•悲哀的=沉思的•沉思的

penury  (severe poverty)
frugal•penurious=firm•obdurate  节俭的•吝啬的=坚定的•顽固的(反义)
penury ◆ affluence  贫困 ◆ 富裕
penurious ◆ lavish/largesse  吝啬的 ◆ 非常大方的/慷慨的

perambulate  v. 巡行
foot•perambulate=eye•observe  脚•巡行=眼睛•观察(器官及其功能)

perceptible  (capable of being perceived)
perceptible•obvious=relevant•crucial  可察觉的•明显的=相关的•至关紧要的(程度)
appreciable ◆ imperceptible  可感知的 ◆ 不能感知的

peremptory  (imperious or arrogant self-assurance)
peremptory•fawn=parsimonious•spend  专横的不会奉承=吝啬的很少花费
peremptory•dispute=prohibitive•purchase
专横的•争辩=禁购的•购买(前者排斥、不容后者)
【注:prohibitive:tending to preclude use or purchase 禁购的,禁用的】
peremptory ◆ open to challenge 不容反抗的 ◆ 接受挑战的

perfervid  (marked by overwrought emotion)
perfervid ◆ impassive  非常热心的 ◆ 冷漠的

perfidy (the quality or state of being faithless)
exorbitant•moderation=perfidious•loyalty  过度的•适度的=背信的•忠诚的(褒贬对照)
perfidy ◆ trustworthiness  不诚实 ◆ 可信赖
perfidious ◆ faithful/loyal  不诚实的 ◆ 忠实的/忠实的

perforate  (to make a hole through)
perforate•hole=pleat•fold  打孔•孔=打褶•褶皱 (行为及其作用结果)

perfunctorily  ad(lacking in interest or enthusiasm)
perfunctorily•inspiration=insolently•veneration  敷衍难有灵感=傲漫难受尊敬

perimeter  (the boundary of a closed plane figure)
circle•perimeter=country•border  圆•周界周长=国土•边界

periodical  adj. 周期的n. 期刊,杂志
magazine•periodical=mystery•fiction  杂志属期刊=神秘故事属小说

peripatetic  (moving or traveling from place to place)
peripatetic ◆ rooted/ sedentary/ stationary  巡游的 ◆ 根深蒂固的/ 不迁徙的/固定的

peripheral  (a periphery or surface part)
peripheral•center=immaterial•relevance  边缘的•中心的=非实质的•中肯的(反义)
peripheral ◆ in essence  外围的 ◆ 核心
crux ◆ peripheral element  症结 ◆ 次要因素
periphery ◆ center/core/important part/central area  外围 ◆ 中央/核心/重要部分/中心地带

perish  vi. 毁灭,死亡,腐烂,枯萎vt.毁坏;使麻木
perish  ◆  survive 死亡 ◆ 存活

perjury (the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to do what has been promised under oath)
perjury•testimony=calumny•assertion(representation)
伪证•证词=中伤•声明(陈述)(种属)
perjury ◆  truthful deposition  诽谤 ◆ 真实的证词
perjure ◆ depose  诽谤 ◆ 作证

permanence  (the quality or state of being permanent)
evanescent•permanence=archaic•currency  短暂的•永久=陈旧的•流通
erratic•permanent=heroic•craven  不稳定•持久的=英勇的•胆小的
impermanent•transience=opportune•convenience
暂时的•短暂=恰好的•便利(同义)
transitory•permanence=achromatic•hue  短暂的•永久=无色的•色调
permanence ◆ transience  永久 ◆ 短暂
extinction ◆ perpetuation  消失 ◆ 永久,不朽
permanent ◆ ephemeral/interim  永久的 ◆ 短暂的/暂时的

permeable  (penetrable;having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through)
penetrate•permeable=knead•malleable
穿透•可穿透的=揉捏•有延展性的(动形同义)
penetrate•impermeable=change•immutable/ profane•inviolable
穿透•不能透过的=变化•不变的/ 亵渎•无法亵渎的(形动反义)
impermeability•fluid=opacity•light  不渗透•流体=不透明•光线
permeable ◆ waterproof 能透过的 ◆ 不透水的
impermeable ◆ easily penetrated  不能渗透的 ◆ 容易渗透的
diaphanous ◆ impermeable of light  透明的 ◆ 不透光的

pernicious  (highly injurious or destructive)
pernicious•injure=disingenuous•mislead
有害的•伤害=没有诚意的•误导(行为典型特征)

peroration  (演讲的)结束语;演讲高谈阔论
peroration•speech=coda•sonata 结束语•演讲=尾声•奏鸣曲

perpetual  (continuing forever•everlasting)
constant•perpetuate=transient•vanish  不变的•不朽=短暂的•消失
perpetual ◆ ephemeral/transitory/intermittent  永久的 ◆ 短暂的/短暂的/暂时的
extinction ◆ perpetuation  消失 ◆ 永存
debunk ◆ perpetuate to sham  揭穿真相 ◆ 永远的伪装

persecute  (to come to mind continually)
persecute•injure=haunt•remember  残害•损伤=经常想•记住(程度)

persevere  (to persist in a state)
obstinate•preserve=tactless/insensitive•offend
固执的•坚持=不老练的/不懂事的•冒犯(个性及其结果)
【注:insensitive :lacking feeling or tact 缺乏感情或阅历,不懂事的
例:he is so insensitive as to laugh at someone in pain.他太不懂事了,竟去嘲笑痛苦中的人。】
persevere ◆ give up  坚持 ◆ 放弃
perseverance  ◆  cessation of effort  坚持不懈 ◆ 停止努力

persiflage  (to provide with an incentive)
persiflage•incite=exhortation•motivate
挖苦•激发=勉励•激发(动作及其结果)

persistence  n. 坚持, 持续
persistence ◆ inconstancy  持续 ◆ 反复无常

personable  (pleasant or amiable in person)
personable ◆ unattractive  优雅的 ◆ 无魅力的

perspicacious  (of acute mental vision•keen)
perspicacious ◆ obtuse/undiscerned/dull  敏锐的 ◆ 迟钝的/呆滞的
【注:干扰选项awkard 笨拙的 这个词形容人的动作而不是头脑】

perspicuity  (plain to the understanding)
perspicuity ◆ opacity  明了的 ◆ 不透明
perspicuous ◆ dull  明了的 ◆ 阴暗的

pertain v. 适合,属于
pertain ◆ be irrelevant  属于 ◆ 无关

pertinacious  (stubbornly unyielding or tenacious)
pertinacity•refractory=inexperience•green
顽固•难控制的=无经验•无经验的(同义)
pertinacious ◆ tractable / pliable/ irresolute/ capricious
顽固的 ◆ 易于管教的/ 易变的/ 犹豫不决的/ 反复无常的
pertinacity ◆ vacillation  顽固 ◆ 游移不定

pertinent  (having a clear decisive relevance)
pertinent•relevance=redundant•superfluity
中肯的•中肯=多余的•多余(形名同义)
pertinent ◆ irrelevant/immaterial/lack of relevance
相关的 ◆ 无关系的/非实质的/无关系的

perturb (to disturb greatly in mind•disquiet)
impassive•perturb=voracious•satisfy
冷漠的•让人担忧=贪婪的•满意(缺乏关系)
perturb•serenity=reassure•doubt  扰乱•平静=使安心•疑虑(消除关系)
stoic•perturb=avaricious•satisfy
坚韧自制的难以被扰乱=贪婪的难以被满足
perturbation  ◆  equanimity  扰乱 ◆ 镇静

peruse  (to examine with attention and in detail)
peruse•smattering=stare•leer  细读•略知=凝视•斜视(反义)
peruse ◆ glance at  细读 ◆ 看一眼

pervade (to become diffused)
pervasive ◆ limited distribution  普遍的 ◆ 限量发送的

pesticide  (an agent used to destroy pests)
insect•pesticide=plant•herbicide  虫子•杀虫剂=草•除草剂(消灭)

pestle  (grinding substances in a mortar)
pestle•mortar=hammer•anvil  杵•臼=锤子•铁砧(配套工具)
pestle•grind=flint stone•sharpen  槌•研磨=硬石头•磨快(前是后的工具)
pestle•grind=whetstone•sharpen  槌•研磨=磨刀石•磨快
【注意:双重对应,除了工具的意味外还有磨的意味】
pestle•hash=awl•pierce  锥子•刺穿=杵•捣碎(动作关联名词)

petition  (to make a request)
groveler•petitioner=minion•dependent
卑恭屈节者•请求者=奴才•依赖者(褒贬类比)

petrify v.石化;吓呆
petrify•stone=evaporate•vapor 使石化成石头=使蒸发成蒸气

petrography  (研究岩石分类和体系)
petrography•rock=mural•wall  岩石记述学•岩石=壁画•墙壁

petty  (having secondary rank or importance)
petty•notice=mysterious•explain  细微的难以被注意=神秘的难以被解释

phenomenal  adj. 显着的,非凡的,杰出的
phenomenal ◆ ordinary/ unexceptional/ commonplace  非凡的 ◆ 普通的/ 普通的/ 平凡的

philanthropic  (characterized by philanthropy)
philanthropist•beneficence=comedian•humor
慈善家•善行=喜剧演员•幽默(人物典型特征)
philanthropist•endow=prevaricater•mislead
慈善家•捐赠=支吾搪塞者•误导(人物典型动作)
philanthropic•geniality=resourceful•inventiveness
慈善的•亲切=足智多谋•善于创造(人物典型特征)

philatelist  n. 集邮家
philatelist•stamps=numismatist•coins  集邮家•邮票=钱币收藏家•钱币

philistine  (a person who is guided by materialism and is usually disdainful of artistic values)
philistine ◆ aesthete  庸人 ◆ 审美家

phlegmatic  (stolid temperament)
phlegmatic•provoke=intractable•manage 冷淡的•激怒=难处理的•处理
spirited生气勃勃的 / vivacious 活泼的 / sprightly轻快的

piddling  (trivial, paltry)
piddling•considerable=restive•calmness
微不足道的•可观的=烦躁的•平静的(反义)

piebald (spotted with black and white)
piebald ◆ monotonous  花斑的 ◆ 单调的
pied  ◆  solid-colored  斑驳的 ◆ 单色的

pixel  (显示器或电视机图象的)象素
image•pixel=mosaic•tile  图象•象素镶嵌=图案•瓷砖(组成关系)

list 25  pigment -------- preposterous

pigment n. 颜料,色料
albino•pigment=prairie•tree白化病人•颜色=大草原•树(缺乏)
pigment•color=spice•flavor 颜料•颜色=调味品•味道(事物及时相关对象)

pilfer  (to steal stealthily in small amounts)
pilfer•take=abscond•depart  潜逃•离开=偷窃•拿取 (偷偷•正常关系)

pillar  (a firm upright support)
colonnade•pillar=queue•person 柱廊•柱子=队列•人(组成关系)
pillar•support=stockade•enclose  柱子•支持=栅栏•围住(事物及功用)
derelict ◆ pillar of society  被遗弃的人 ◆ 栋梁

pillory (to expose to public contempt)
chide•pillory=humor•mollycoddle  斥责•示众=牵就•溺爱(程度)
punish•pillory=admonish•denounce  惩罚•公开嘲弄=警告•公开指责
pillory•ridicule=guillotine•execute  示众• 嘲笑=断头台•处死(目的)
pillory ◆ exalt/ praise publicly  嘲弄 ◆ 赞美/公开赞美

pilot  (one employed to steer a ship:helmsman)
pilot•ship=conductor•orchestra  领航人•轮船=指挥•管弦乐队

pine  (to yearn intensely and persistently)
longing•pine=remorse•rue  渴望•盼望=后悔•懊悔(程度)
needle•pine=leaf•oak  针叶•松树=叶子•橡树
pine  ◆  become invigorated  憔悴 ◆ 受到鼓舞

pinnacle  (an upright architectural member generally ending in a small spire and used especially in gothic construction to give weight especially to a buttress)
pinnacle ◆ low point  顶点 ◆ 低处

pinpoint  (to locate or aim with great precision)
pinpoint ◆ exam cursorily  精确地定位 ◆ 粗略的检查

piquant (agreeably stimulating to the palate)
vapid索然无味的 / flat 单调乏味的 / insipid平淡的 / pallid无生气的

pique  n. 不满,愤怒vt.伤害...自尊心,使...生气
pique ◆ mollify  使愤怒 ◆ 平息

pirate  n. 海盗;盗版者 vt. 盗版,翻印;掠夺
pirate•take=forge•copy  欺骗掠夺•拿走=伪造•复制(非法•正常)

pitch  n.音品;程度
pitch•sound=color•light  音品•声音=颜色•光线(都由波的频率决定)

pithy  (having substance and point)
pithiness•aphorism=exaggeration•caricature  精炼•格言=夸张•讽刺画
pithy ◆ prolix/verbose/ diffuse/ wordy/ insubstantial/ insignificance
精练的 ◆ 冗长累赘的/ 无实质的/ 无关紧要
circumlocution ◆ pithy utters  累赘的话 ◆ 简练的话

pitiless  (devoid of pity•merciless)
pitiless ◆ clement  冷酷的 ◆ 仁慈的

pittance  (a meager wage or remuneration)
pittance•allowance=rivulet•stream  少量供应•定量供应=小溪•溪流
pittance ◆ crop/ cornucopia  少量 ◆ 收获/富饶

placate (to soothe or mollify)
irascible•placate=insensate•conscious暴躁的•安抚=没感觉的•有意识的
implacable•propitiated=inalienable•surrendered
无法平息的•劝解的=不可剥夺的•投降的(反义)
placate ◆ peeve/ gall/ antagonize/ rile/ foment/ surprise
抚慰 ◆(使)气恼/ 使焦躁/ 使成敌人/ 激怒/ 刺激/ 使吃惊

placebo n.安慰剂
placebo•innocuous=venom•toxious=salve•unctuous
安慰剂•无害的=毒液•有毒的=药膏•油的(事物典型特征)
【placebo:an inert or innocuous substance used especially in controlled experiments testing the efficacy of another substance(as a drug)】
placebo•painkiller=backdrop•vista
安慰剂•止痛药=背景•远景(前者指思维后指实体)
【注:vista:an extensive or distant view 广阔而辽远的景色,远景
placebo:a medication prescribed more for the mental relief of the patient than for its actual effect on a disorder 】

plagiarize  (to steal as one's own)
plagiarism•ideas=forgery•documents/rustling•cattle
窃•思想=伪造•文件/偷牛•牛(动宾关系)

plangent  (having a loud reverberating sound)
plangent ◆ muffled  轰鸣的 ◆ 无声的

plantation  n. 大农场,种植园
plantation•tobacco=media•bacteria 种植园•烟草=培养基•细菌

plasticity  n.可塑性,塑性
plasticity  ◆  rigidity  可塑性 ◆ 僵硬性

plateau (上升后的)稳定水平(或时期、状态)
plateau•change=respite•activity  稳定•改变=暂缓•行动 (反义)

platitude  (a banal, trite, or stale remark)
platitude•banal=equivocation•ambiguous
陈词滥调•陈腐的=含糊话•意思含糊的(事物典型特征)
platitude ◆ original observation  陈词滥调 ◆ 新颖的观测

plausible  (superficially fair)
rationalization•plausible=obfuscation•indiscernible
文过饰非•给人假象的=困惑•难识别的(正面特征)
implausible ◆ believable  难以置信的 ◆ 可相信的

pleat  (to arrange in pleats)
pleat•fold=perforate•hole  使打褶•褶皱=打孔•孔(行为及作用结果)

plentitude  n. 充分
plentitude ◆ dearth  充分大量 ◆ 稀少

plethora  (excess, superflutty;profusion, abundance)
dearth缺乏/ paucity 缺乏/ scarcity 缺乏

pliable adj. 易曲折的,柔软的,易受影响的,温顺的
pliable•inflexible=static•move  易弯曲的•不易弯曲的=静止的•移动的
pliable ◆ rigid / difficult to crumble/ pertinacious  易曲折的 ◆ 坚定不变的/不易碎的/固执的

pliant  (easily influenced)
pliant•indomitable=model•differentiated
从的•不屈的=模范的•不同的 (反义)
pliant•influence=ticklish•offend  易受影响的•影响 =易触怒的•冒犯
pliant•yield=evanescent•disappear
易受影响的•屈服=容易消失的•消失
pliant ◆ mulish/ intransigence/ intractable/ incorrigible/ unbending
从的 ◆ 固执的/ 不妥协/ 倔强的/ 无法修正的/ 难弯曲
pliant ◆ rigid 易弯曲的 ◆ 不灵活的

plight  (a situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one)
plight ◆ favorable condition  困境 ◆ 有利的条件

plodding  (working laboriously monotonously)
plodding ◆ meteoric  沉重缓慢的 ◆ 疾速的
plod ◆ flit  缓慢移动 ◆ 迅速飞过

pluck  (courageous readiness to fight)
pluck•quit=pride•grovel  勇气不放弃=骄傲不卑躬屈膝
pluck ◆ cowardice/ coward/ spinelessness  勇气 ◆ 怯弱/ 胆小/ 没有勇气

pluck  n. 猛拉;弹奏
harp•pluck=horn•blow  竖琴•演奏=喇叭•吹(器具及其作用方式)
plucky ◆ craven  勇敢 ◆ 懦弱

plumb  (to measure the depth of with a plumb)
plumb•depth=assess•value=measure•dimensions=calibrate•diameter
测量•深度=评定•价值=测量•尺寸=校准•直径
plumb•depth =gauge•pressure=verify•accuracy
测量•深度=测量•压力=校验•精确性(动作及其相关对象)
plumb ◆ examine cursorily superficially  用铅锤探测 ◆ 粗略地的检查
plumb ◆ horizontal  垂直的 ◆ 水平的

plummet (to drop sharply and abruptly)
fall descend•plummet=move•dart  降落•垂直落下=移动•飞奔(程度)
plummet•fall=swerve•turn  突然地堕下•落下=突然转向•转向
plummet ◆ rise sharply 垂直下落的 ◆ 急剧上升的

plump  (having a full rounded)
svelte ◆ plump 苗条的 ◆ 丰满的

plutocracy  n. 富豪统治
plutocracy•wealth=geroncracy•age  富豪统治财富多=老人统治年龄大

podiatrist  n. 足病医生
podiatrist•feet=dermatologist•skin  足科病专家研究脚=皮肤病专家研究皮肤

polarize  (to break up into opposing factions or groupings)
coalesce  合并  make compatible 使一致  unity 联合

polemic (the art or practice of disputation)
polemic•disputatious=invective•abusive  好争论的•好争辩的=漫骂的•辱骂的(同义)
polemical ◆ compromising/ conciliatory 好争论的 ◆ 妥协的/ 调和的

polished  (highly developed, finished)
polished ◆ rustic/ untutored/ gauche  优美的 ◆ 粗俗的/未受教育的/粗鲁的

politic adj. 精明的,圆滑的,慎重的,策略的
politic•offend=aloof•associate  圆滑的•冒犯=孤僻的•交往(反面特征)
politic ◆ unsophisticated/injudicious  精明的 ◆ 单纯的/判断不当的

pollster  n. 民意测验专家
pollster•canvass=exponent•advocate
民意测验者•民意测验=倡导者•提倡(人物典型动作)
【注:exponent :one that speaks for, represents, or advocates 拥护者,示范者,倡导者】

pompous (self-importance;arrogant)
pompous•bombast=exaggerated•hyperbole
浮夸的•夸大的言辞=夸大的•夸张法 (事物典型特征)
pompous•bombast=nonsensical•drivel
华而不实的•夸大的言辞=言辞荒谬的•胡言乱语(事物及其特征)
pontificate•pompous=scoff•derisive=bluster•loud=prate•aimless
武断的说话•自负=嘲笑•嘲笑的=怒号•响亮=空谈•无目的(行为典型特征)

ponderable  (significant enoug:appreciable)
ponderable ◆ inappreciable  有价值的 ◆ 微不足道的

ponderous  (of very great weight)
ponderous ◆ ethereal/ gossamer/ lively/ slight/ vibrant/ briskly
笨重的 ◆ 轻飘飘的/ 轻微的/ 活泼的

pontificate  (to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way)
pontificate•speak=strut•walk=swagger•walk
□C的说•说话=大摇大摆的走•走=大摇大摆的走•走(程度)
pontificate ◆ comment tentatively/ speak diffidently/ speak modestly
自大武断地说 ◆ 试探性的评论注释/ 缺乏自信地说/ 谦虚地说

porcelain  n. 瓷,瓷器
glaze•porcelain=varnish•wood=veneer•furniture
釉•瓷器=表面清漆•木材=饰面•家具(事物及其表面装饰物质)
clay•porcelain=flax•linen  粘土•瓷器=亚麻•亚麻布(事物及其原料)

pore  n. 毛孔,气孔,细孔
pore•membrane =door•room  孔•隔膜=门•房间 (事物及其入口)

porous  (capable of being penetrated)
porous•liquid=transparent•light  可渗透的• 液体=透明的• 光
porous•penetrate=fragile•break  可渗透的容易被穿透=易碎的容易被打破
porous ◆ impenetrable  可渗透的 ◆ 无法穿透的

portentous  (eliciting amazement or wonder)
portentous ◆ regular  不寻常的 ◆ 规则的

portfolio  n. 部长职务;公事包
portfolio•securities=dossier•reports  公事包•债券保险=材料汇编•报告(组成关系)

poseur  (a person who pretends to be what he is not)
poseur•sincerity=recluse•gregariousness
装摸做样的人•真诚=隐居者•群居 (缺乏关系)
poser•sincere=recluse•gregarious
装摸做样的人•真诚的=隐居者•社交(缺乏关系)
poseur•unaffected=stickler•derelict
装模做样的人•真挚的=坚持己见的人•缺乏责任感的(人物及反面特征)
poseur ◆ sincere person  装模作样的人 ◆ 真诚的人

posit  (to assume or affirm the existence of•postuate)
posit ◆ deny as false  假设假定 ◆ 否认

postulate  (depend upon or start from the postulate of)
postulate ◆ deny as false  假定为真 ◆ 认定为假的

posture (to assume an artificial attitude)
posturer•unaffected=bigot•tolerant  装腔作势的人不真挚=不容异己的人不容忍
posture ◆ behave naturally  作姿势 ◆ 自然的举止

potable (suitable for drinking)
potable•beverage=habitable•dwelling  适于饮用的•饮料=可以居住的•住处 (同义)
water•potable= meat•edible  水•可以饮用的= 食物•可以吃的
potable ◆ undrinkable  适于饮用的 ◆ 不能饮用的

potboiler  (a literary or artistic work of poor quality, produced
quickly for profit)
doggerel•verse=potboiler•article  歪诗•诗=粗制的作品•艺术品(种属)

potentate  (one who wields great power or sway)
potentate•power=virtuoso•skill  当权者•权力=艺术名家•技艺
potentate ◆ subject/powerless person  统治者 ◆ 臣服者/无势力的人

potentiate  (to make more effective or more active)
potentiate ◆ deactivate  加强 ◆ 使无效

pout  (to show displeasure by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression)
pout•displeasure=wince•pain=smile•pleasure= sneer•contempt
撅嘴•不悦=退缩•疼痛=微笑•愉快=冷笑•蔑视 (动作体现情感)
pout ◆ grin 绷脸 ◆ 露齿笑

prairie n. 大草原,牧场
prairie•tree=albino•pigment  大草原•树=白化病•颜色(缺乏关系)

prate  (to talk long and idly)
prate•speak=saunter•walk  闲聊•说话=闲逛•行走(动作的闲和正常)

preach  (to deliver a sermon)
preacher•sermon=nitpicker•criticize= quibbler•cavil
□□h•布道=吹毛求疵者•挑剔=吹毛求疵者•挑剔(人物典型行为)

precarious  (characterized by a lack of security)
precarious•stability=spent•efficacy  不稳定的•稳定=失去效能的•功效 (反义)
【注:spent 与spend无关的一个词。词义:筋疲力尽的,衰竭的】
precarious ◆ secure/ stable/ safe/  firmly grounded
不稳定的 ◆ 安全的/ 稳定的/ 安全的/ 稳定的

precedent  (prior in time, order)
unique•precedent=unexceptionable•oppose  独一无二的没有先例=无懈可击的无法攻击
simpleton•precedent=turncoat•constancy  笨蛋•典范=变节者•忠诚(反义)
preempt•precedence=acquire•possession 取得优先权•优先权=占有•占有物(动宾)

precipice  (a very steep or overhanging place)
precipice•steepness=defile•narrowness悬崖•险峻=隘路•狭窄(正面)
precipitous ◆ level陡峭的 ◆ 平坦的

precipitate  (to bring about abruptly)
precipitate ◆ retard/dilatory/deliberate  加速的/匆忙的 ◆ 减速的/缓慢的/有准备的

precipitation  (something precipitated)
snow•precipitation=hurricane•cyclone  雪•降水=飓风•气旋 (种属)

precipitous  (very steep, perpendicular)
precipitous ◆ gradually sloping/slope slowly  非常陡峭的 ◆ 逐渐倾斜/慢慢倾斜

preclude  (prevent)
preclude ◆ to make possible/enclose  阻止 ◆ 使可能/装入

precursor  n. 先驱者,先导
precursor ◆ sequela  先驱 ◆ 后继者
precursory ◆ derivative  先驱的 ◆ 衍生而来的

predecessor  n. 前任,先辈
legacy•predecessor=gift•donor 遗产来自先辈=赠品来自捐赠人

predilection  n. 爱好,偏袒
predilection ◆ propensity to dislike  爱好 ◆ 倾向于讨厌

preeminent  (having paramount rank,dignity)
preeminence•importance=preponderance•weight  卓越具有重要性=优势具有分量
preeminent ◆ negligibility  卓越的 ◆ 可忽略,不重要
efface ◆ bring to preeminent  抹去 ◆ 使出类拔萃

preempt (to replace with something considered to be of greater
value or priority:take precedence over)
preempt•precedence=acquire•possession 取得优先权•优先权=占有•占有物(动宾)

preen  (to dress or smooth up•primp)
preen•self-satisfaction=fume•anger  打扮•自我满意=发怒• 愤怒
ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
坦率的•掩饰=天然的状态•打扮=客气的•不敬 (反义)
preen  ◆  rumple  打扮 ◆ 弄皱

preface (the introductory remarks of a speaker)
preface•book=overture•symphony  前言•书序=曲•交响乐(事物及开始)
preface ◆ epilogue  前言 ◆ 尾声
prefatory ◆ conclusive 前言的 ◆ 结尾的

pregnant  (inventive)
inane ◆ expressive/ meaningful/ pregnant/ significant/ weighty
空洞/空虚 ◆ 富于表情的/ 意味深长的/ 充满的/ 有意义的/ 有影响力的

premeditated  adj. 预想的,有计划的
premeditated ◆ offhand/spontaneous  有计划的 ◆ 即兴的/自发的

preoccupation  n. 当务之急
preoccupation ◆ unconcern  当务之急 ◆ 无关紧要

preponderant  (having superior weight)
preponderance•weight=preeminence•importance  优势有分量=卓越有重要性
preponderant ◆ commensurate/subsidiary 优势的 ◆ 相称的/辅助的
preponderate ◆ secondary  重要的 ◆ 次要的

prepossessing  (attractive)
unprepossessing ◆ entrancing/winsome  不吸引人的 ◆ 使入神的/迷人的

preposterous  (contrary to nature, reason, or common)
preposterous ◆ commonsensical 荒谬的 ◆ 常识的

list 26  presage -------- purlieu

presage (foretell, predict)
harbinger•presage=archetype•exemplify 预兆•预示=原型•示例 (作用)

prescience  (foreknowledge of events)
prescience•future=erudition•esoteric  预知•未来=博学•深奥
prescient•predict=dexterous•manipulate  预见性的•预言=灵巧的•熟练操作
myopia ◆ prescience  短见的 ◆ 预计

prescription  n. 处方;命令,指示
overdose•prescription=indiscretion•convention
用药过量•处方=不守规矩•规矩 (违反关系)

preservative  n. 预防法,预防药,防腐剂
preservative•decay=anchor•drifting=censorship•communication =seal•leakage
防腐剂•腐烂=锚•飘流=审查•信息=密封•泄漏(防止关系)

prestige  (standing in the eyes of people)
abase•prestige=damp•ardor  降低地位•特权=抑制•热情 (动宾关系)
eclipse•prestige=enfeeble•vigor  丧失威望•声望=使衰弱•精力(动作及其对象)

presumptuous  (taking liberties)
presumptuous•propriety=transgression•morality 放肆•恰当=犯罪•道德(违反关系)
presumptuous ◆ humble  专横的 ◆ 微贱的

pretense  n. 虚假,伪装
pretense•deceive=admonition•reprove  假装•欺骗=警告•责备(目的)

preternatural  adj.超自然的
preternatural  ◆  ordinary/ prosaic 自然的 ◆ 平凡的

prevail (to gain ascendancy through strength)
prevail ◆ yielding  获胜 ◆ 屈服

prevalent  (generally or widely accepted)
prevalent ◆ unusual/absent  普遍的 ◆ 与众不同的/缺少的

prevaricate  (to deviate from the truth)
prevarication•deceive=blandishment•coax
搪塞•欺骗=哄诱•哄(行为及其目的)
prevaricater•mislead=philanthropist•endow
支吾搪塞者•误导=慈善家•捐赠(人物典型动作)
prevarication  ◆  veracity  支吾搪塞 ◆ 说真实话

primordial  (existing in the beginning)
primordial ◆ most recent  原始的 ◆ 最近的

primp  (to dress, adorn in a finicky manner)
primp•vain=gloat•smug 打扮•虚荣=心满意足•自鸣得意的(动作表内心)

principal  (most important, consequential)
principal ◆ subordinate  主要的 ◆ 次要的

pristine  (not spoiled, corrupted)
pristine•decay=stable•fluctuation=still•movement
原始的•腐烂=稳定的•起伏=静止的•运动(反义)
adulterate•pristine= demand•satisfactory=dismantle•unity
掺假•纯净=苛求•满意=拆除•完整(行为及其消除对象)
pristine ◆ taint/ squalid contaminated/ corrupted by civilization
纯洁的 ◆ 污点的/ 肮脏的/ 污染的/ 被文明破坏了的

privation  (the state of being deprived)
privation ◆ repletion  缺乏 ◆ 充满

probe  (to make a searching exploratory investigation)
probe•investigate=cavil•criticize  探索是深入的调查=挑剔是苛刻的批评

probity (adherence to the highest principles)
probity ◆ unscrupulousness/shiftness  正直 ◆ 狂妄/奸诈
improbity  ◆  honesty 不正直 ◆ 诚实

proclivity  (a natural propensity or inclination)
proclivity ◆ aversion/ antipathy/ disinclination  倾向 ◆ 厌恶/ 反感/ 憎恶

procrastinate  v. 耽搁,拖延
alacrity•procrastinate=husbandry•dissipate  爽快•拖延=节约•挥霍
dilatory•procrastinate=malcontent•complain  拖拉的•耽搁=不满的•抱怨 (同义)
procrastination ◆ diligence  懒散 ◆ 勤奋

procure (to get possession of)
procure ◆ relinquish  获得 ◆ 放弃

prod  (to incite to action:stir)
nudge•prod=doze•sleep 轻推•推动=瞌睡•睡觉(程度)
prod ◆ rein  刺激 ◆ 抑制

prodigal  adj. 浪费的,挥霍的,放荡的
generosity•prodigality=courage•rashness
慷慨•挥霍=勇气•鲁莽(褒贬)
mean•prodigality=meek•arrogance
吝啬的•挥霍=谦恭的•自大(反义)
spendthrift•prodigal=miser•parsimonious
挥霍者•挥霍的=守财奴•吝啬的(人物典型特征)
prodigality•spending=gluttony•eating
浪费•花费=暴食•吃(过度与正常)
prodigal ◆ frugal/ parsimonious  浪费的 ◆ 节省的/吝啬的
prodigality ◆ penury / husbandry  浪费挥霍 ◆ 贫困/节约

prodigy n.惊人的事物,不凡的人,神童
prodigy•person=miracle•occurrence  不凡的人•人=奇事•事件 (种属)
prodigious ◆ slight  巨大的 ◆ 微小的

profane v. 亵渎,玷污
profane•inviolable=pierce•impenetrable= change•immutable
亵渎•不可亵渎的=穿破•无法穿破的=改变•不可改变的
profane ◆  treat relevantly  亵渎 ◆ 体贴的对待
profaned ◆ unviolated/ inviolable  亵渎的 ◆ 未受侵害的/神圣的

proffer (to present for acceptance)
proffer ◆ retain/withhold  提供 ◆ 保留/保留

proficient  adj. 熟练的,精通的
proficient ◆ inept/incompetent 精通的 ◆ 无能的/无法胜任的

profligate  (wildly extravagant)
profligate•money=querulous•words
挥金如土的•金钱=多话的•话(形容词及其相关对象)
profligate•solvent=mercurial•committed
挥霍的•还得起债的=活泼多变的•受约束的(反义)
parsimonious•profligacy=impetuous•hesitance
吝啬的•挥霍=冲动的•犹豫(反义)
profligate ◆ parsimonious/ provident/ thrift/ economize/ frugality
挥霍的 ◆ 吝啬的/ 节俭的/ 节俭的/ 节俭/ 节俭

profundity  n. 深奥,深刻
profundity  ◆  superficiality  深刻 ◆ 肤浅

profusion  (great quantity:lavish)
profusion ◆ paucity  大量 ◆ 极小量
profuse ◆ scanty  丰富的 ◆ 缺乏的

proliferate  (to increase in number by proliferating)
proliferate ◆ decrease in mount/dwindle  增生 ◆ 数量减少/缩小
barren ◆ prolific  不育的 ◆ 大量繁殖的

prolix  (marked by or using an excess of words)
aphorism•prolix euphemism•offensive=格言不会冗长的=委婉的说法不会令人不快的
prolix  ◆ pithy/taciturn/terse 冗长的 ◆ 精炼的/沉默寡言的/精炼的
prolixity ◆ succinctness/conciseness/extreme brevity  冗长 ◆ 简洁/简洁/非常简洁

prologue  n. 序言
prologue•novel=preamble•statute  序言•小说=导言•法令
prologue  ◆  epilogue  序言 ◆ 结尾

prolong (to lengthen in extent, scope, or range)
prolong ◆ truncate  延长 ◆ 截短

promulgate  vt.发布,公布,传播
promulgate  ◆  keep secret  公布传播 ◆ 保密

propagate  (to cause to spread out)
propagate ◆ check/ fail to mutiply  普及 ◆ 阻遏/没有普及
propagation  ◆  extirpation  繁殖 ◆ 根除

propensity  (an often intense natural inclination)
propensity ◆ aversion  倾向 ◆ 厌恶

prophetic  (foretelling events)
apocalyptic•prophetic=inconsequential•illogical
启示录的•预言的=不符合逻辑的•不符合逻辑的(同义)
oracle•prophecy=mentor•guidance
神谕•预言=导师•指导(人物及职能)

propitiate  (to gain or regain the favor)
implacable•propitiated=inalienable•surrendered
不可平息的•平息的=不可剥夺的•放弃所有的(反义)
propitiate ◆ incense / antagonize/ arouse hostility  劝解 ◆ 激怒/ 使反感/ 引起对抗

propitious  (favorably disposed)
propitious ◆ unfavorable/inauspicious  吉利的 ◆ 不利的/不吉利的

proponent  n. 建议者,支持者
proponent  ◆  detractor  支持者 ◆ 诋毁者

propriety  n.适当
indecorous•propriety=boorish•sensitivity  不得体的•适当=粗野的•敏感(缺乏关系)

prosaic adj.单调的,无趣的
prosaic ◆ exceptional/ imaginary/ exciting/ extraordinary/ preternatural
平凡的/ 实际的/ 无趣的 ◆ 杰出的/想象的/令人兴奋的/杰出的/超自然的
ingenious ◆ prosaic { spontaneous }有独创性的 ◆ 平凡的

proscribe  (to condemn or forbid)
proscribe  ◆  sanction  禁止 ◆ 允许
proscribed ◆ permitted 禁止的 ◆ 允许的
proscription ◆ permission  禁止 ◆ 允许

prosecution  n. 实行;经营;起诉
prosecution•conviction=mediation•compromise
起诉•定罪=调停•妥协(动作及其结果)

proselytize  (to recruit or convert especially to a new faith or cause)
proselytizer•convert=hunter•quarry  劝诱改宗的人寻求皈依者=猎人寻求猎物
proselytizer•convert=salesperson•buy  劝诱改宗的人劝别人皈依=售货员劝别人购买
points of view.

prospect  (to explore(a region) for mineral deposits or oil.)
prospect•mineral=investigate•information勘探矿产•矿产=调查•信息

prosperous  (enjoying vigorous and healthy growth)
palmy•prosperity=draconian•severity  繁荣的•繁荣=严峻的•严肃
prosperous ◆ depressed 繁荣的 ◆ 萧条的
impecunious ◆ wealthy/prosperous/affluent  贫穷的 ◆ 富有的/繁荣的/富裕的

prostrate  (stretched out with face on the ground in
adoration or submission);沮丧的;衰竭的
prostrate ◆ erect/upright  伏地的 ◆ 直立的/垂直的

protean (displaying great diversity)
protean•rigid=circular•asymmetrica  l变化多端的•呆板的=圆形的•不对称的(反义)
protean ◆ static  变化不定的 ◆ 固定的

protocol  n. 外交礼节,协议
protocol•blunder=bumper•damage  外交礼节•大错误=缓冲器•伤害 (防止关系)

protract  (to prolong in time or space)
protract•length=throng•number 延长•长度=群集•数量 (动宾关系)
protract ◆ curtail/ abridge/ abbreviate  延长 ◆ 缩减/删减/缩短
transient ◆ protracted 短暂 ◆ 拖延的

protuberant  (thrusting out from a surrounding or
adjacent surface often as a rounded mass)
protuberant ◆ depressed  突起的 ◆ 下陷的
protrude ◆ concave  隆起 ◆ 凹陷
protuberance ◆ concavity  隆起 ◆ 凹陷

provident  adj. 深谋远虑的;节俭的
provident ◆ profligate 节俭的 ◆ 挥霍的

providential  (happening as if through divine intervention; opportune)
providential ◆ unfortunate/mishap  幸运的 ◆ 不幸的

provincial  (limited in outlook)
provincial•cosmopolitan=bigot•tolerant  狭隘的不会四海为家=不容异己的人不会容忍
ecumenical ◆ factionalism/provincial  世界范围的 ◆ 党派主义/狭隘的

provisional  (serving for the time being)
provisional ◆ definitive  暂时性的 ◆ 决定性的

provisory  adj. 有附文的,有附带条件的,暂时的
provisory ◆ unconditional  有条件的 ◆ 无条件的

provoke (to call forth)
taunt•provoke=plot•outwit  嘲弄•挑拨=密谋•以智取胜 (同义)
choleric ◆ difficult to provoke  易怒的 ◆ 难以激怒的
jejune ◆ thought provoking  枯燥乏味的 ◆ 发人深省的

prowess (distinguished bravery)
prowess ◆ timid  英勇 ◆ 胆怯

prowl  (to move about stealthily in or as if in search of prey)
prowl•prey=reconnoiter•information巡游•猎物=侦察•信息 (目的)

prude  n. 装成规矩的女人,过分正经的女人
prude•proper=fanatic•devoted  过分正经的人•正经的=狂热者•投入的

prudent (marked by circumspection)
prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton 谨慎•蛮勇的人=睿智•笨蛋
fool ◆ prudent傻的 ◆ 精明的

prudish (marked by prudery)
modest•prudish=scholarly•pedantic
正派的•过分规矩的=学者气的•学究式的(人性格的正常与过分)
prudish•propriety=finicky•quality  过分规矩的•适当=过分讲究的•质量

prune  n.梅干;深紫红色;傻瓜 v.修剪
prune•hedge=trim•hair修整•障碍物=整理修整•头发
prune•plum=raisin•grape梅干•梅子(李子)=葡萄干•葡萄(水果干和水果)

pry  v 刺探,打听(to look closely or inquisitively);撬开
pry•watch=connive•cooperate  窥探•注视=暗中合作•合作(偷偷和正常)
prying•inquisitive=garish•colorful  爱打听的•好奇的=过分妆饰的•华丽的(同义)

pseudonym  n. 假名;笔名
pseudonym•name=mask•face  假名•名字=面具•脸(掩饰关系)

psychology  n. 心理学,心理状态
motivation•psychologist=fungi•ecologist
动机•心理学家=真菌•生态学家(人物研究对象)

pucker  (to contract into folds or wrinkles)
pucker•mouth=squint•eye  噘嘴•嘴巴=斜视•眼(人物器官及其特殊形态)

puckish adj.精灵似的;爱恶作剧的,淘气的,顽皮的
puckish ◆ sober/grave/staid  淘气的 ◆ 严肃的/严肃的/>认真的

puerile adj. 幼稚的,儿童的
puerile ◆ sagacious  幼稚的 ◆ 精明的

puissance  (power; might)
puissance ◆ powerlessness  权势 ◆ 没有影响

pulchritude  (physical comeliness)
pulchritude ◆ ugliness/ homeliness  美丽 ◆ 丑陋/不好看
pulchritudinous ◆ hideous  美丽的 ◆ 丑陋的

pullet  n. 小母鸡;小姑娘
pullet•chicken=filly•horse  小母鸡•鸡=小雌马•马

pulverize  (to reduce as by crushing to very small particles:atomize)
pulverize ◆ solidify  粉碎 ◆ 巩固

pun  (a joke using words with similar sounds or two different meanings)
pun•joke=supernova•star=termite•insect
双关语•玩笑=超新星•恒星=白蚁• 昆虫(种属)

punch line  (the sentence, statement, or phrase as in a joke that makes the point)
joke•punch line=plot•denouement  笑话•妙语=情节•结局(事物之结局)
【注:所谓妙语就是中国相声中那句抖开包袱的话;至此笑话结束。】

punctilious  (marked by precise accordance with the
details of codes or conventions)
punctilious ◆ remiss /slipshod一丝不苟的 ◆ 玩忽职守的/马虎的

pundit  n.权威人士,专家
authoritativeness•pundits=allegiance•partisans
权威•权威人士=忠诚•党徒(人物典型特征)

pungent (causing a sharp or irritating sensation)
pungent•odor=caustic•comment  刺激性的•气味=刻薄的•评论
pungency ◆ blandness  辛辣 ◆ 乏味

puny  (slight in power, size, or importance)
puny•weakly=measly•contemptibly  微不足道的•软弱的=微不足道的•卑微的(同义)
puny ◆ enormous  微小的 ◆ 巨大的

purity  (the quality or state of being pure)
distill•purity=leaven•volume  蒸馏•纯度=发酵•体积 (前者加强后者)
purify•imperfection=verify•doubtfulness  净化•不完美=查证•疑问(前者消除后者)
distillate•purity=synopsis•conciseness  蒸馏物•纯净=大纲•简明(事物典型特征)
purification•dross=desalinization•salt  提纯剩下糟粕=脱盐剩下盐分
impurity•filter=mosquito•netting  杂质•过滤器=蚊子•用网捕捉
purist•adulteration=stickler•approximation  纯粹主义者反对搀假=坚持己见的人反对近似
【注:purist :one who adheres strictly and often excessively to a tradition;  especially:
one preoccupied with the purity of a language and its protection from the use of foreign
or altered forms】
inviolable ◆ profane/impure  不可亵渎的 ◆ 亵渎的/不纯的

purlieu (a frequently visited place)
extraordinary•purlieu=taut•commodiousness  非凡的•平常=紧张的•宽松(反义)
purlieu ◆ an unfrequent place/infrequently visited place  常去的地方 ◆ 不常见的地方

list 27  purloin-----------redolent

purloin (to appropriate wrongfully and often by a breach of trust)
lurk•wait=purloin•appropriate=abscond•depart
潜伏•等=盗窃•挪用=潜逃•离开 (正常与非法)

purvey  (大量)供给,供应
vendor•purvey=censor•expurgate  卖主•供给=审查员•删除(人及典型行为)

pusillanimous  (lacking courage and resolution)
pusillanimous ◆ stouthearted/dauntless/valianc 胆小的 ◆ 胆大勇猛的
temerity ◆ pusillanimity/circumspection  卤莽 ◆ 优柔寡断/慎重

quack  (指鸭)呷呷叫(鸭子)呷呷叫声, 庸医,骗子adj.骗人
quack ◆ honest practitioner  骗子 ◆ 诚实从业者

quaff  (to drink(a beverage)deeply)
quaff•sip=stride•mince  大口喝•啜饮=迈大步走•碎步走(程度)

quail  (to recoil in dread or terror)
quail ◆ become resolute/ give bold  畏缩 ◆ 变得坚决/ 使大胆

qualified  (limited or modified in some way)
qualify•general=mitigate•severe  限定•一般的=减轻•严重的(消除关系)
qualified ◆ unreserved/ absolute/ categorical  受限制的 ◆ 无受限制的/ 绝对的/ 绝对的

quandary  (a state of perplexity or doubt)
quandary  ◆  state of complete certainty  进退两难 ◆ 胸有成竹

quarantine  (to isolate from normal relations)
quarantine•contact=embargo•commerce  隔离•接触=禁运•贸易(防止)
quarantine•contamination=safeguard•accident  隔离•污染=保护措施•事故 (防止)

quarry  n. 采石场
quarry•stone=fell•timber=mine•ore
采石场•石头=一季所伐的木材•木材=矿•矿石(采集场所)
【注:fell:the timber cut down in one season】

quarry  (one that is sought or pursued)
aspirant•quarry=hunter•prey  有抱负者•目标=狩猎者•猎物(人及其追求对象)

quash  (to suppress or extinguish summarily and completely)
quash ◆ engender  镇压 ◆ 引起,产生
foment ◆ quash/quell  煽动 ◆ 镇压

quell  (to thoroughly overwhelm and reduce to submission)
irrepressible•quell=obdurate•move  镇压不住的难以镇压=冷酷无情的难以打动
quell ◆ foment/instigate/rouse/incite  压制 ◆ 煽动/怂恿/鼓舞/煽动
foment ◆ quash/quell  煽动 ◆ 镇压

quench  (to cool suddenly by immersion)
damp•quench=tint•suffuse  使潮湿•冷浸=染色于•遍布,充满(程度)

querulous  (habitually complaining)
querulous•words=profligate•money  发牢骚的•话=浪费的•金钱

quibble n. 遁辞,谬论,双关话  v. 推托,诡辩,说模棱两可的话
quibble•cavil =faultfinding•criticize
遁词•挑剔=挑剔•批评(程度)
quibbler•cavil=encomiast•eulogize
吹毛求疵的人•吹毛求疵=赞美者•赞美(人物典型动作)

quiescent  (marked by inactivity or repose)
quiescent ◆ rambunctious  平静的 ◆ 骚乱的
quiescence ◆ tumult /action /restless activity 平静 ◆ 骚动/行动/不平静行为

quixotic  (foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit
of ideals;  especially:marked by rash lofty romantic ideas or extravagantly chivalrous action)
quixotic•idealistic=touchy•sensitive  狂想家的•理想主义的=易暴躁的•敏感的
quixotic ◆ displaying consistently practical behavior  不切实际的 ◆ 很实际的行为

quota  (a proportional part or share)
quota ◆ unlimited number  限额 ◆ 不限数量

quotidian  adj.每日的,平凡的
quotidian ◆ remarkable / striking/ extraordinary/  unusual
平凡的 ◆ 不平常的/ 醒目惊人的/ 不平常的

rabble  n. 乌合之众,暴民,下等人
people•rabble=items•hodgepodge  人•乌合之众=名目•混煮,杂菜(组成,杂乱的特征)

rabid  adj. 猛烈的,热烈的,急进的,疯狂的,固执的,狂怒的
rabid ◆ logical/ detached  疯狂的 ◆ 合乎逻辑的/镇静的

raconteur  n.善于讲故事的人
raconteur•storytelling=wordsmith•writing
善于讲故事的人讲故事=文字匠写作(人及其擅长)

racy  (having a strongly marked quality)
tame ◆ racy  乏味的 ◆ 生动的

raffish (marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness)
ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
坦白的不掩饰=粗俗的不打扮=有礼貌的不怠慢
raffish•decorum=merciless•leniency
粗俗的•礼貌=无怜悯心的•宽大的(反义)

raffle  n. 抽彩售货,废物
lottery•raffle=ticket•admission  彩票•抽彩售货=票•允许进入 (行为及其凭证)

rafter  n. 椽;椽架屋顶;筏夫
roof•rafter=table•leg 屋顶•椽子=桌子•腿儿(组成,支撑)

rage  n. 愤怒,情绪激动,狂暴 vi.大怒;狂吹;风行
rage•anger=bigotry•dedication 大怒•生气=顽迷•致力(程度)
infuriate•rage=commend•esteem=nonplus•perplexity
激怒•大怒=称赞•尊敬=困惑•困惑(同义)

ragged  (torn or worn to tatters)
cloth•ragged=furniture•rickety  织品布料•破烂褴褛的=家具•摇晃的(形修饰名)

rail  vi. 责骂,抱怨to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language) n.围栏
rail•vehemence=entreat•urgency  责骂•激烈=乞求• 紧急

rakish  (of, relating to, or characteristic of a rake ;dissolute)
rakish• restraint=slothful•assiduity  放荡的不抑制=偷懒的不刻苦

ramble  (to move aimlessly)
travel•ramble=draw•doodle  旅行•漫游=画•涂鸦(正常与特殊)

rambunctious  adj. 粗暴的,难控制的,骚乱的
rambunctious ◆ quiescent  骚乱的 ◆ 平静的

rampart (a protective barrier;bulwark)
rampart•barrier=tower•edifice 壁垒•障碍=堡垒•大厦(坚实•正常)
rampart•invasion=levee•flood  壁垒•入侵=大堤•洪水 (防止)

ramshackle  (appearing ready to collapse)
ramshackle•soundness=garbled•clarity  摇摇欲坠的不稳固=混淆的不清楚

rancid  (offensive in odor or flavor)

rancor  (bitter deep-seated ill will)
rancor ◆ goodwill/charitableness  敌意 ◆ 善意

randomize  v. 使随机化,完全打乱
randomize  ◆  systematize  随机化 ◆ 综合化

ranger  n. 守林人,骑警,徘徊者
ranger•forest=curator•museum  守林人看管森林=馆长看管博物馆

rankle  (to cause irritation)
rankle ◆ pacify/calm/ mollify  激怒 ◆ 使平静安慰

rant  (to scold vehemently)
anger•rant=fear•cower 生气•咆哮=害怕•畏缩(因果关系)

rapacious  (excessively grasping)
rapacity•covetous=mania•enthusiasm=distraught•troubled
十分贪婪•贪婪的=极端狂热的•热情=发狂的•不平静的(程度)

rapport n.和睦,意见一致 (relation marked by harmony, conformity)
rapport ◆ discord  和睦 ◆ 意见不合

rapprochement  n. 建立或恢复友谊或和睦关系
rapprochement ◆ estrangement  恢复和睦关系 ◆ 疏远

rapscallion  n. 流氓,恶棍
rapscallion•mischievous=sluggard•lazy 流氓•为害的=懒鬼•懒惰 (人物典型特征)

rapt  (wholly absorbed)
rapt•distract=intrepid•deter  全神贯注的难以分心=无畏的难以威慑
rapt ◆ distracted  全神贯注的 ◆ 心烦意乱的

rash  (proceeding from undue haste)
rash•adventurous=obsessed•attracted
轻率的•大胆的=沉迷的•被吸引的(褒贬程度类比)
rash•circumspective=imperious•servile
轻率的•慎重的=专横的•卑屈的 (反义)
rash ◆ circumspective  鲁莽的 ◆ 谨慎的

raisin  n. 葡萄干
raisin•grape=prune•plum  葡萄干•葡萄=梅干•梅子(水果及其干果)

rarefy  (to make thin, less compact, or less dense)
rarefy  ◆  concentrate /condense /make denser  使稀薄 ◆ 使稠密
rarefaction  ◆  condensation  稀薄 ◆ 压缩

raspy  adj. 刺耳的;粗糙的;易怒的
raspy ◆ mellifluous  刺耳的 ◆ (声音音乐)甜美的

ratify  (to approve and sanction formally)
repeal•ratification=repatriate•emigration  废止,撤销•批准=遣返•移民(动宾)

ratiocination  (the process of exact thinking)
ratiocination•thinking=articulation•talking
推理是一种清晰的思考=清晰发音是清晰的讲话

ration  (a food allowance for one day)
ration•food=dose•medicine  配给•食物=剂量•药(事物及其定量配给)

rationalize  (明明做错还要找借口)
rationalization•plausible=obfuscation•indiscernible
文过饰非•给人假象的=困惑•难识别的(正面特征)

ravel  (to separate the texture)
ravel ◆ knit  拆开 ◆ 编织结合

rave  (an extravagantly favorable criticism)
rave ◆ pan  极力赞扬 ◆ 严厉的批判

ravenous  (very eager or greedy for food,
satisfaction, or gratification)

ravish  v. 强夺 -ing•adj.令人陶醉的
ravishing•attractive=perspicacious•discerning
令人陶醉的•吸引人的=聪颖的•有洞察力的

raze  (to destroy to the ground;demolish)
raze ◆ build  摧毁 ◆ 建造

reactant  n. 反应物
reactant ◆ inert material  反应物 ◆ 惰性物质

reactionary  adj.反动的,反对变革的
contumacious•authority= reactionary•change  不听命令的反权威=反动变革的反变化
votary ◆ reactionary  信仰者 ◆ 怀疑者

ream  (a quantity of paper)
ream•paper=cord•wood  令•纸=木头的单元•木头=亩•土地(事物及其计量单位)
【注:cord:a unit of wood cut for fuel equal to a stack 4 x 4 x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet】

reap  (to gather by reaping)
scythe•reaper=axe•woodcutter  镰刀•收割者=斧子•伐木者 (人及工具)
reap ◆ plant  收割 ◆ 种植

reassure  (to restore to confidence)
reassure•doubt=perturb•serenity  使安心•疑虑=扰乱•平静(消除关系)
reassure•uneasiness=feed•hunger  使安心•不安=喂•饥饿(消除关系)
formidable ◆ reassuring  困难的 ◆ 可靠的

rebuff  (to reject or criticize sharply)
rebuff ◆ approve/welcome  严厉拒绝 ◆ 赞同/欢迎

recalcitrant  adj.固执的,顽抗的
recalcitrant•obey=incongruent•conform 顽固的•服从=不和谐的•一致
recalcitrant•resist=fastidious•outshine  反抗的•抵抗=挑剔的•胜过(人物典型行为)
recalcitrant  ◆  amenable/submissive  顽固的 ◆ 服从的

recant  vi. 放弃信仰,撤消声明,公开认错
recantation•error=confession•crime  公开认错•错误=招供•罪行 (动宾关系)
recantation•heresy=apostasy•faith  放弃信仰•异端,邪教=背教,变节•信仰(动宾关系)
recant ◆ reaffirm  公开认错 ◆ 重申,再肯定

recessive  (producing little or no phenotypic
effect when occurring in heterozygous condition with a contrasting allele)
recessive ◆ dominant  隐性的 ◆ 显性的

recidivism  (relapse into criminal behavior)
recidivism•relapse=rehabilitation•convalesce =pundit•opine
重犯•再发=复原•康复=博学者•发表意见(人物及其特征行为)

reciprocate  (to move forward and backward)
reciprocating ◆ moving unidirectional  往复运动 ◆ 单向运动

reckless  (careless of consequences)
reckless ◆ circumspect/ measured  草率的 ◆ 慎重的/有规则的

recluse (a person who leads a secluded life)
recluse•compassion=turncoat•consistency
隐遁者•同情=背叛者•一致性(人物反面特征)
recluse•crowd=shirk•duty=claustrophobia•enclosure
隐遁逃避人群=推卸逃避责任=幽闭恐怖症逃避关闭
recluse•gregariousness=poseur•sincerity
隐遁者•群居性=装模作样的人•真诚(人物反面特征)
recluse•solitude=toady•favor
隐遁者争取孤单=献媚者争取好感(人物典型行为)
recluse•withdrawn=bigot•biased=roisterer•carouse
隐遁者•隐退=顽固者• 偏见的=闹饮者•痛饮(人物典型行为)
recluse ◆ social  隐遁的 ◆ 群居的

recoil  (to fall back under pressure);报应
recoil ◆ advance  退缩 ◆ 前进

reconcile  (to make consistent or congruous)
rift ◆ reconciliation  矛盾 ◆ 和解

recondite  adj. 深奥的,难解的□
recondite•fathom = tenacious•eradicate
深奥的•理解=顽强的•根除(难以)
recondite ◆ widely understood/ patent/ self explain/ self-evident/ easy comprehension
深奥的 ◆ 广泛的被理解的/ 显着的/ 不言自明的/ 不言自明的/ 容易理解的

reconnaissance  vt. 重新组成,重新设立;加水使恢复
reconstitute ◆ dehydrate  加水使恢复 ◆ 脱水

reconvene  vt 重新集合,重新召集
disperse•reconvene=dismiss•reinstate  驱散•重新集合=解雇•复职(反义)

rectify v. 订正,校正
rectify•treaty=confirm•hypothesis  订正•条约=确定•假设 (动宾关系)

rectitude  (moral integrity)
rectitude•transgress=keen•obtuse  正直•违法=锋利的•钝的(反义)
rectitude ◆ inequity  公正 ◆ 不公正

recumbent  adj. 靠着的,斜躺着的,不活动的,休息的
recumbent  ◆  standing up  斜躺着的 ◆ 站直的

recuperate  (to regain a former state or condition)
recuperative ◆ debilitating  有回复力的 ◆ 疲惫不堪的

redistribution  n. 重新分配,再区分
inequity•redistribution=illiteracy•education  不公正•重新分配=文盲•教育(消除关系)

redolent  (exuding fragrance)
redolent•smell=piquant•taste  芳香的•气味=开胃的•味道
redolent ◆ unscented  芳香的 ◆ 没有香味的

list 28  redoubtable -------retrench

redoubtable  (worthy of respect)
redoubtable•regard/respect=creditable•belief/trust  值得敬畏的•尊敬=可信的•信任
redoubtable ◆ not formidable/ unimpressive  可怕的 ◆ 不可怕的/无印象的

redundant  adj. 多余的,过多的,冗长的
redundant•indispensability=indigent•wealth
多余的•不可缺少=穷困的•富裕(名形反义)
redundant ◆ economical 过多的 ◆ 节约的

reel  n. 卷轴;一卷;蹒跚;旋转;纺车
reel•winding=die•shaping  卷轴•绕圈=模子•定型 (工具及其功能)

referee n. 仲裁人,调解人;裁判员
referee•field=judge•courtroom 裁判•竞技场=法官•法庭(工作场所)
referee•whistle=judge•gavel  裁判•哨子=法官•裁定小铁锤

refinery  n.精炼厂,提炼厂
refinery•petroleum=mill•grain 精炼厂加工石油 = 磨坊加工谷物
refine•purification=attenuate•rarefaction  精炼•净化=削弱•变稀
crass ◆ refined  粗糙的 ◆ 精细的
refine ◆ reduce purity 净化 ◆ 降低纯度

reflective  adj. 反射的;反映的;熟虑的
reflection•light=echo•sound反射•光=回声•声音
reflect ◆ absorb  反射 ◆ 吸收
unreflective ◆ ruminative  不思考的 ◆ 沉思的

refractory  (病)难治的
refractory•control=adamant•flexibility
难驾驭的•控制=坚硬的•弹性(名形反义)
pertinacity•refractory=inexperience•green
顽固•难控制的=无经验•无经验的(形名同义)
refractory ◆ responsive  难驾驭的 ◆ 易感应的

refulgent  (a radiant or resplendent quality)
refulgent ◆ lackluster 灿烂的 ◆ 无光泽

refute  vt. 驳倒,反驳
refute ◆ prove 反驳 ◆ 证明
refutation ◆ verification  驳倒 ◆ 确认
refutable ◆ indisputable  可驳倒的 ◆ 无争论之余地的

regenerate  (restored to a better, higher, or more worthy state)
unregenerate•remorse=truculent•gentleness
不悔改的•良心不安=粗野的•柔和(名形反义)

regimen (to tend to approach or revert to a mean)
regressive ◆ forward  后退的 ◆ 向前的

rehabilitate  v.使康复,使复职,使恢复名誉
rehabilitate•demolition=recycle•disposal  复原•破坏=再利用•处理(反义)
person•rehabilitate=building•restoration  人•复原=建筑物•重修(动宾关系)

rehearsal  n.排演, 演习, 预演, 试演
impromptu•rehearsal=caprice•deliberate  即席演出•排练=反复无常•深思熟虑的(反义)

reign  (royal authority)
coronation•reign=wedding•marriage  加冕礼•统治=婚礼•结婚(事物代表含义)

rein  n.缰绳 vi.驾驭,控制
rein ◆ prod  控制 ◆ 刺激

reiterate  v. 重申,反复地说
reiterate•redundant=digress•excursive
反复地说•多余的=扯到枝节上•离题的(行为典型特征)

rejoice (to feel joy or great delight)
rejoice ◆ grouse/moroseness  高兴 ◆ 生气,抱怨/忧郁
rejoiced ◆ sulky  高兴的 ◆ 生气的

relapse (to slip or fall back into a former worse
state)
relapse•convalescence=recidivism•rehabilitation  复发•恢复=重犯•复职

release ( to set free from restraint)
release ◆ constrain/immure/restrain  放松 ◆ 强迫/监禁/禁止

relentless  adj. 无情的,冷酷的,残酷的
inexorable ◆ relenting 无情的 ◆ 动怜悯之心的

relevant  adj. 有关联的,中肯的,有关系的,适当的
relevant•crucial=perceptible•obvious
有关联的•极其重要的=可感知的•显而易见的(程度)
immaterial•relevance=circuitous•directness =peripheral•center
无关紧要的•相关=迂回的•直接=边缘的•中心(形名反义)
germane ◆ irrelevant  有密切关系的 ◆ 无关系的
relevant ◆ immaterial  有关联的 ◆ 无关紧要的

religion  n. 宗教,信仰
religion•devoutness=canon•orthodoxy
宗教,信仰•虔诚的,献身于宗教的=教规,真经•正统的(正面特征)

relinquish  (to give over possession)
relinquish ◆ cling to /procure/ cooperate/reward  放弃 ◆ 坚持

relish  n. 滋味,风味,美味,爱好,食欲
relish ◆ despise  爱好 ◆ 轻视

reluctant  adj.不顾的,勉强的,难得到的,难处理的
hesitation•reluctance=hubris•pride  犹豫•不愿意=狂妄自大•骄傲 (褒贬程度类比)
reluctant ◆ alacrity  犹豫和不情愿 ◆ 乐意(敏捷,欣然)
loquacity ◆ reluctance to speak  多话 ◆ 不愿说话

remiss  (showing neglect or inattention•lax)
remiss ◆ scrupulous/wary/assiduous/punctilious/conscientious/painstaking
不留心玩忽职守的 ◆ 小心谨慎的/机警的/勤勉的/小心谨慎的/负责的/下苦功的

remodel (to alter the structure of)
construct•remodel=compose•edit  建造•改造=写作•编辑(种属)

remonstrance  (an earnest presentation of reasons for
opposition or grievance;  especially •a document formally stating such points)
remonstrance•offend=syllogism•disprove
抗议•冒犯=三段论•反驳(前者实现后者)
remonstrance•dissuade=apprehend•censure
抗议•劝阻=逮捕•责难(行为及其目的)
remonstrator•dissuade=applicant•appeal
抗议者•劝阻=申请者•诉请(人的典型特征)

remorse (a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt)
remorse•rue=longing•pine
悔恨•后悔=渴望•渴望,消瘦(同义)
unregenerate•remorse=truculent•gentleness
不悔改的•悔恨=好战凶猛的•温顺(反面特征)

remunerate  vt. 给与报酬,赔偿,酬劳
(to pay an equivalent to for a service, loss, or expense•recompense)
remuneration•service=retaliation•injury  酬劳•服务=报复•伤害,侮辱(因果关系)
remunerative ◆ unrequited  有报酬的 ◆ 未得回报的
gainful ◆ unremunerative  有利益的 ◆ 无利可获的

rend  (to split or tear apart or in pieces by violence)
rend•tear=rush•hurry  撕裂•撕=匆忙的做•仓卒 (程度)
rend ◆ unite/mend/repair/ made whole  撕裂 ◆ 联合/修理/使完整

renounce  (to give up, refuse or resign usually by formal
declaration)
renounce•pledge=rescind•order 拒绝•保证=废除•命令
renounce ◆ embrace  断绝关系 ◆ 信奉
claim ◆ renounce  (根据权利)要求 ◆ 放弃权利

renovate  (to restore to a former better state)
renovate ◆ cause to decay  修复,刷新 ◆ 使腐烂

repartee  (a succession or interchange of clever retorts:amusing
and usually light sparring with words)
repartee•retort=debate•issue  灵巧的反驳•反驳=正式辩论•辩论(种属)

repatriate  (to restore or return to the country of origin or citizenship)
repatriate•emigration=repeal•ratification  遣返•移民=废止•批准  (反义)

repeal  (to rescind or annul by authoritative act; to revoke or
abrogate by legislative enactment)
repatriate•emigration=repeal•ratification  废除遣返回国•移民出境=废止•批准(反义)
repeal ◆ authorization 废除 ◆ 授权

repel  (repulse;resist)(to cause aversion in • disgust)
repellent•attract=ephemeral•endure  令人厌恶的无有吸引力=短暂的无耐久力(反义)
【注:repellent :arousing aversion or disgust:repulsive 令人厌恶的】
court ◆ repel intentionally  向…献殷勤 ◆ 有意排斥
entrancing ◆ repelling 使人入神的 ◆ 使厌恶
winsome ◆ repelling  迷人的 ◆ 使人讨厌的

repertoire  (a list or supply of dramas, operas, pieces, or parts
prepared to perform)
palette•color=repertoire•play 调色板上的众多颜色:颜色=剧目:剧本(组成)
repertoire•performance=manifest•cargo=agenda•meeting
剧目列表•表演=运货单•货物=议程•会议(前者安排后者)

repine  (to feel or express discontent or dejection)
repine  ◆  express joy  抱怨 ◆ 表示喜悦

replete (fully provided ;full)
repletion ◆ want/ privation  充满 ◆ 短缺/缺乏
repletion ◆ emptiness  塞满 ◆ 清空
reportage•journalist=ridicule•satirist
新闻报道•新闻记者=讽刺的话•讽刺作家(人物及其工作产物)
reportorial  ◆  imaginative  新闻报道的 ◆ 虚构想象的(注:西方新闻报道以真实为本质)

repose  (to lie at rest ;to take a rest)
guilt•expiation=fatigue•repose  罪行•赎罪=疲劳•休息  (后者消除前者)
dehydrate•water=fatigue•repose  脱水•加水=使疲劳•使休息 (反义)
breach•continuity=disturb•repose  打破•连续性 =打乱•休息 (动宾关系)
lamentable•pity=reprehensible•censure=despicable•contempt
可悲的应该怜悯=应该谴责的应该责难=可鄙的应该鄙视
censure•blameless=approbation•reprehensible
责难•无可责难的=嘉许•应该谴责的
参考:prehension 抓住,理解;comprehend vt. 领会, 理解, 包括;apprehend 理解,忧虑

repress (to put down by force)(to hold in by self-control)
unrepressed ◆ restrained  未受抑制的 ◆ 受限制的
repress ◆  foster  压制 ◆ 鼓励

reprieve  (to delay the punishment of a condemned prisoner)
reprieve•punishment=moratorium•activity缓刑是暂缓惩罚=延迟是暂停活动
【注:moratorium :a suspension of activity 延迟,延期】

reproach  (an expression of rebuke or disapproval)
above reproach ◆ nefarious/scurvy/culpable  不应受责备的 ◆ 极恶的/下流的/该责备的
irreproachable  ◆  opprobrious  无可指责的 ◆ 应受责备的

reprobate  v. 谴责,指责 n. 堕落者,道德败坏的人
reprobate•misbehave=sycophant•fawn
堕落的人•行为不端=拍马者•谄媚 (人物典型特征)
objectivity•partisan=temperance•reprobate
客观性•党派性团伙=节制•堕落者(后者缺乏前者)
reprobate ◆ righteous individual  堕落的人 ◆ 正直的个人
castigation•reproof=denunciation•denial=loathing•dislike=soaking•damp
严厉谴责•谴责=公开驳斥•否定=讨厌•不喜欢=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)
accolade ◆ reproof  赞扬 ◆ 斥责

reprove (to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent;to
express disapproval of:censure)
pretense•deceive=admonition•reprove  虚假,伪装•欺骗=警告•责备(目的)
reprove•reprimand=blame•censure  责备:严厉训斥=责备:严厉批评(程度)

reptile n.爬虫动物, 卑鄙的人
lizard•reptile=orange•fruit=finch•bird=aspen•tree=eagle•bird
蜥蜴•爬行动物=橘子•水果=雀类•鸟=白杨•树=鹰•鸟 (种属)

repudiate  vt. 否认,拒绝承认,拒绝接受,拒付
repudiate ◆ espouse/uphold  否认 ◆ 赞成/支持

repugnant  (exciting aversion)(incompatible)
odious•repugnance=menacing•fear
可憎的•厌恶=恐吓的•害怕(人物典型特征)
cogent•convince=repugnant•repel
使人信服的•使信服=令人厌恶的•使厌恶(人物典型特征)
unpleasant•repugnant=scanty•meager
令人不快的•令人厌恶的=不足的•缺乏的(同义)
repugnance ◆ affinity  厌恶 ◆ 吸引人

repulse v. n. 厌恶,令人厌恶;驱逐,击退
captivate ◆ repulse  迷住 ◆ 厌恶
court ◆ repulse intentionally  讨好 ◆ 厌恶
entrance ◆  repulse 吸引人 ◆ 令人厌恶
repulsion  ◆  attraction  排斥 ◆ 吸引

repute  (the character or status commonly ascribed to one)
repute  ◆  lack of distinction  声望 ◆ 没有名望

requite (to make return for • repay)
requite ◆  leave unpaid  酬谢 ◆ 未付款的

requisite  (essential, necessary)
requisite ◆ unnecessary  必不可少的 ◆ 不必要的

rescind (abrogate;cancel)
rescind • law = withdraw • candidacy  废除•法律=取消•候选人资格
rescind ◆ institute/ levy  废除,取消 ◆ 创立/征用
rescission ◆ enactment 废除,取消 ◆ 设定,制定

reserved  (restrained in words and actions)
gregarious•reserved=furtive•open=flamboyant•reserved
爱社交的:收敛的=秘密的:公开的=炫耀多话的:收敛的 (反义)
【注:flamboyant•marked by striking elaborate 说话非常冗长罗嗦
reserved •restrained in words and actions 在语言和行动方面有所收敛;性格内敛】
expansive ◆ reserved  健谈的 ◆ 说话不多的
qualified ◆ unreserved 受限制的 ◆ 无受限制的

residue (something that remains after a part is taken, separated, or designated)
remainder•subtraction=residue•evaporation  剩余由减去得到=剩余物由蒸发得到

resign  (give up one's office:quit)(to accept something as
inevitable:submit)
abdicate•throne=resign•office 放弃(权力)•王权=辞职•职位(动词及其作用对象)
(派)resigned  adj.逆来顺受的,顺从的

resilience  (an ability to recover from or adjust easily to
change)
resilience ◆ unable to adjust/ unable to recover
在逆境中调整的能力 ◆ 不能调整/不能复原
resilience  ◆  inelasticity  弹力 ◆ 无弹性

resin  n.树脂
resin•tree=gum•rubber plant  树脂:树=橡胶:橡胶树 (产品及其来源)

resolute  (marked by firm determination • resolved)
malleable•shape=irresolute•opinion
有延展性的•形状=犹豫不决的•主张(形容词修饰名词)
indubitable•question=resolute•sway
不容置疑的•怀疑=坚决的•动摇(难以关系)
resolute•dissuade=obstreperous•control
坚决的难以劝阻=任性的难以控制
resoluteness•will = zeal•conviction
坚定的意志•意志=强烈的兴趣•信念(程度)
daunt ◆ make resolute  使气馁 ◆ 使坚定
jittery ◆ resolute  极度不稳定的 ◆ 坚决的

resonant  (echoing; resounding; deep and full in sound)
full-bodied•flavor=resonant•sound  浓郁的味道=洪亮的声音
resonant ◆ muffled  声音洪亮的 ◆ 声音压抑的
resourceful•inventiveness=philanthropic•geniality
机智的•创造性=博爱的•友好,亲切(人物典型特征)

respite n. 间歇,休息,暂缓 a period of temporary delay;an interval of rest or relief
fast•eat=respite•labor  绝食•吃=休息•劳动(反义)
plateau•change=respite•activity  稳定时期或状态•变化=休息•活动(反义)
moratorium•activity =respite•labor  中止活动•活动=暂缓•劳动(反义)
respite•labor=interim•concert 间歇•劳动=间歇•音乐会 (事物及其特殊部分)

respire (breathe; specifically:to inhale and exhale air successively)
lung•respire=tooth•masticate  肺•呼吸=牙齿•咀嚼(器官作用)

resplendent  (shining brilliantly)
bootless•futility=effulgent•resplendence
无用的•无用=光彩照人的•辉煌 (正特)
bravura•performance=resplendent•appearance
辉煌的•表演=华丽的•外表(修饰)
resplendence ◆ lackluster  辉煌 ◆ 暗淡
resplendent ◆ dull  辉煌的 ◆ 没有光泽的,暗淡的

responsive  (giving response)(quick to respond
appropriately or sympathetically)
responsive  ◆  dispassionate  做出响应的 ◆ 无动于衷的
responsive  ◆  feelingless  敏感的 ◆ 无感觉的

restive (marked by impatience)(stubbornly resisting control)
incogitant•thoughtful=restive•calm=piddling•considerable=keen•obtuse
无思虑的•深思的=急躁的•冷静的=不重要的•重要的=敏锐的•钝的 (反义)
restive•calmness=impeccable•flaw=impetuous •patience
急躁的•冷静=没有缺点的•缺点=冲动的•耐心(缺乏关系)
restive ◆ calm/imperturbable  急躁的 ◆ 冷静的/沉着的
restiveness ◆ contentment  倔强 ◆ 满足
【注:前者是顽固拒绝被控制,后者知足安于现状。】

restless  adj.得不到休息的, 不平静的
restless•serenity=deferential•insolent  不平静的•平静=恭谨的•无礼 (反义)

restrain  vt. 阻止,限制,使受控制
temperate•restrain=tenacious•persist  有节制的•限制=顽强的•坚持(形动同义)
rakish• restraint=slothful•assiduity  放荡的•抑制=偷懒的•刻苦(反面特征)
restrain ◆ release  阻止 ◆ 释放
fervid ◆ restrained  热心的 ◆ 受阻的
unrepressed ◆ restrained  未受抑制的 ◆ 受限制的
theatrical ◆ restraint 放纵的展示的 ◆ 抑制,克制
注:restraint :n. the state of being restrained 抑制,克制

resurgence  n. 复活,重新活跃,复兴
resurgence ◆ waning vitally  复兴 ◆ 衰退
resurgent ◆ in decline 复兴 ◆ 衰退

resuscitate  v.使复活,使苏醒
extinct ◆ resuscitated 灭绝的 ◆ 复活的
resuscitation ◆ enervation  复兴 ◆ 虚弱

retainer  (a person attached or owing service to a household ; especially:servant)
retainer•retinue=witch•coven
家仆•一群家仆=女巫•女巫团(由几个女巫组成的聚合)
【注:retinue •a group of retainers or attendants】
retain  ◆  discard 保留 ◆ 抛弃

retaliate  (to repay(as an injury)in kind)
remuneration•service=retaliation•injury  酬劳:服务=报复:伤害  (因果关系)

retard  vt. 妨碍,延迟,迟缓
divert•shunt=retard•brake
转移•转轨=妨碍•刹车(动作及其目的)
retard  ◆ catalyze/ expedite/ precipitate  妨碍 ◆ 促进/加速/促进
retard  ◆  speed up  使减速 ◆ 加速

reticent  (inclined to be silent or uncommunicative in speech• reserved)
reticent•talk=abstemious•gorge
沉默不语的•谈话=有节制地•狼吞虎咽(反面特征)
reticent ◆ loquacious/ vociferous/effusive/talktive
沉默不语的 ◆ 多话的/叫喊的,吵闹的/溢于言表的/多话的

retort  (a quick, witty, or cutting reply; especially:one that turns
back or counters the first speaker's words)
repartee•retort=debate•issue
巧妙的回答•机智的应答=论点•论点(在这里debate是名词)
【注:repartee•:a quick and witty reply】

retouch (to rework in order to improve)
revise•manuscript=retouch•picture  修订•手稿=润饰•画  (动宾关系)

retract vt.vi. 缩回,收回,否认
misunderstood•clarify=erroneous•retract  误解•澄清=错误的•收回(动宾关系)
retract•statement = repeal•legislation  收回•声明=撤销•法律(动宾)
tender ◆ retract  提交 ◆ 收回 【注: tender:offer formally】

retrench  (cut down, reduce)
retrench•expense=decelerate•speed  节省•开支=减速•速度 (动宾关系)
attenuate•force=retrenchment•money  减轻•压力=削减•开支 (动宾关系)
retrench ◆ enlarge/expand  削减 ◆ 放大/扩大

list 29  retribution ------ scan

retribution  (recompense, reward;punishment)
kidnap•detainment=extortion•retribution 绑架•拘留=勒索•报偿(非法与正常)

retrograde  (go backwards; recede; degenerate; deteriorate)
retrograde ◆ progressive  倒退的 ◆ 前进的
retrospective ◆ anticipatory  回顾的 ◆ 预想的
revelry ◆ mournfulness 狂欢 ◆ 悲哀

revenge n. v. 报仇,复仇,报复
mercenary•money=vindictive•revenge
惟利是图的•钱=报复性的•报复(人物追求对象)
reverence•respect=avidity•enthusiasm  尊敬•敬重=热望•热心  (同义)
reverent•idolater=trusting•dupe
尊敬的•偶像崇拜者=信任的•易上当的人(后者是前者的过分者)
elegiac•sorrow=devotional•reverence
哀歌体的•悲哀=虔诚的•尊敬(人物典型特征)
exemplary•imitation=reverent•deference
可仿效的•模仿=值得尊敬的•尊重 (因果关系)
【注:reverent:expressing or characterized by reverence • worshipful 尊贵的,可敬的】
revere ◆ jape at  尊敬 ◆ 嘲弄
revere ◆ disparage/disgrace  尊敬 ◆ 贬损/玷污
impudent ◆ reverent  无礼的 ◆ 尊敬的
reverence ◆ despise  尊敬 ◆ 轻视
irreverent ◆ respectful  不尊敬的 ◆ 尊敬的

revise  (to make a new, amended, improved, or up-to-date version of)
revise•manuscript=retouch•picture  修订•手稿=润饰•画(动宾关系)

revive  vi. 复活,恢复意识
revert•prior=revive•conscious回复:原先的=苏醒:有意识的 (行为及其结果)
wither ◆ revive  枯萎 ◆ 复苏
lull ◆ revive  使平静 ◆ 恢复精神, 复兴
empower ◆ revoke the authority 授权与 ◆ 废除权威
ribald•seemly=labyrinthine•direct  举止粗鲁:得体的=曲折的:直接的 (反义)
ribald ◆ seemly / proper  举止粗鲁 ◆ 得体的/恰当的
cloth•ragged=furniture•rickety
布•破旧的=家具•摇晃的(形容词修饰名词)

rider  n. 附件a clause appended to a legislative bill to secure a usually distinct object
rider•bill=endorsement•policy 附件•议案=签名•保险合同书  (整体与部分)
【注:policy :a writing whereby a contract of insurance is made】

ridicule  n .v. 嘲笑,笑柄
satire•ridicule=elegy•sorrow
讽刺文学•嘲笑=哀歌•悲伤(作品表达情感)
reportage•journalist=ridicule•satirist
新闻报道•记者=讽刺的话•讽刺作家(人物及其工作对象)
sublime ◆ ridiculous  崇高的 ◆ 荒谬的
(派)ridiculous adj.可笑的,荒谬的

rife  (prevalent)(copiously supplied)
sparse ◆ rife  稀少的 ◆ 丰富的

rift  (a clear space or interval)
faultfinding•criticize=rift•breach  挑剔:批评=裂缝:破裂 (同义)
rift ◆ reconciliation  离间 ◆ 调和

rile  (to make agitated and angry:upset)
rile ◆ appease/conciliate/make calm/ placate  激怒 ◆ 平息/安慰/使平静/安抚

ripen  v. 使成熟
ripen • maturity = harden • solidity  使成熟:成熟=使变硬:坚固
ripen•mature=drain•empty  使成熟•成熟=耗尽•清空 (行为及其结果)

riot  (public violence, tumult, or disorder)
sedate ◆ riot  使镇静 ◆ 打破宁静
(派)riotous 暴动的,蛮横的

rite  (a ceremonial act or action)
rite ◆ improvised act  仪式 ◆ 即兴活动

rive  (to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces ;rend)
rive  ◆  unite  撕开 ◆ 联合
riven  ◆  intact  撕开的 ◆ 完整无缺的

riveting  (to attract and hold(as the attention)completely)
vapid ◆ riveting  索然无味的 ◆ 吸引人的
pittance•allowance=rivulet•stream  少量供应•定量供应=小溪•溪流 (小与正常)
robust ◆ sickness  健康 ◆ 疾病
decrepit ◆ robust  衰老的 ◆ 强壮的

rodent  (如鼠等)
kangaroo•marsupial=squirrel•rodent  袋鼠•有袋动物=松鼠•啮齿类动物 (种属)

roil  (to make turbid by stirring up the sediment or dregs of)
roil ◆ clarify/appease/settle  搅浑,激怒,煽动 ◆ 澄清/安抚/使平静,澄清

roister (to engage in noisy revelry:carous)
roisterer•carouse=recluse•withdraw  喧闹作乐的人狂欢作乐=隐居者隐居(撤退)

rookie  (recruit;  also:novice)
professional•rookie=soldier•recruit  专家:新手=士兵:新兵(正常:新)

roster  (a roll or list of personnel)
roster•staff=obituary•death  花名册•职员=讣告•死亡(事物及其记录内容)

rostrum (a stage for public speaking)
rostrum•orator=bench•judge 讲坛•演讲者=法官席•法官(人及其行为场所)

rouse  (to stir up:excite),唤起,唤醒
mollify ◆ rouse  平息 ◆ 激起
quell ◆ rouse  镇压 ◆ 煽动

royalty (royal status or power)(a payment to an author or composer for each copy of a work sold or to an inventor for each item sold under a patent)
royalty • payment = subpoena • writ  版税•付款=传票•书面命令 (种属)

rubicund  (ruddy)
rubicund ◆ pale/ pallid/wan  红润的 ◆ 苍白的

rudimentary  (fundamental)(of a primitive kine) (very imperfectly developed or represented only by a vestige)
rudimentary ◆ full developed/fully realized  未发展的 ◆ 完全发展的/完全实现的

rue  (to feel penitence, remorse, or regret for)
longing•pine=remorse•rue  渴望•渴望=懊悔•后悔  (同义)
rue ◆ satisfaction  遗憾 ◆ 满足
rueful ◆ impenitent  后悔的 ◆ 不悔悟的

ruffle  n.. 皱褶, 生气  v.使皱,使生气
hem•garment=ruffle•shirt=molding•cabinet
摺边•衣服=皱褶•衬衣=装饰线条•橱柜(事物及其特殊部分)
preen ◆ ruffle 抚平 ◆ 弄皱

ruminate  (to chew repeatedly for an extended period)(to go over
in the mind repeatedly and often casually or slowly)
museful •ruminative = lamentable •plaintive  沉思的•沉思的=哀伤的•悲哀的(同义)
ruminative ◆ unreflective  沉思的 ◆ 不思考的

rumple  (fold,wrinkle) v.使皱,弄皱
glaze ◆ rumple 使表面光滑 ◆ 弄皱
rumple ◆ preen 弄皱 ◆ 打扮
journal•entries=run•performance
日志•记载条目=连续演出•表演(组成关系)
journal•entry=run•performance
期刊是一系列记载=一系列表演(是一系列)•表演(个体组成团体关系)

rupture (to part by violence)
rupture ◆ remain unbreakable  打破 ◆ 保持不碎
paroxysm•sudden=ruse•deceived
突发•突然的=诡计•欺骗的 (事物及其人物典型特征)

rustic  (lacking in social graces or polish)
rustic ◆ polished/urbane  粗俗的 ◆ 文雅的

rustle  v. (美口语)偷牛(马)
plagiarism•ideas=rustling•cattle  剽窃•想法,思想=偷牛马•牛 (动作及其行为对象)

sabbatical  adj. 安息日的,周期性休息的
sabbatical•leave=flattering•infatuation
间歇性休息的•休息=奉承的•迷恋(人物典型特征)

sabotage  vt. 妨害,破坏
saboteur •disrupt=apologist•defend  破坏者•分裂=辩解者•防护(人物特征行为)
sabotage•subvertness=bull•intimidation  阴谋破坏•颠覆=暴力强迫•胁迫(行为目标)
sugar•saccharine=butter•margarin  糖•糖精=黄油•人造奶油(人工加工关系)
acerbity ◆ saccharin  酸 ◆ 糖精

sacrilege  n. 亵渎圣物,冒渎,悖理逆天的行为
sacrilege ◆ respect/reverent  亵渎 ◆ 尊敬
saddle ◆ unload  是负担 ◆ 卸下

safeguard  n. 保护措施,护照
hedge•loss=quarantine•contamination=safeguard•accident
阻碍物•损失=隔离•传染=保护•事件(防止关系)

sagacious  (of keen and farsighted penetration and judgment)
prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton=turncoat•constancy
谨慎•大胆=聪明•傻子=变化•不变(缺乏关系)
miser•stingy=sage•judicious  吝啬鬼•小气=贤人•明智的 (人物典型行为)
sage•judgement=knave•deceive  贤哲•判断=骗子•行骗 (人物典型行为)
sage•wisdom=philanthropist•benevolence  贤哲•英明=慈善家•善行(人物典型行为)
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton  敏感的•粗野的人=聪明•笨蛋 (人物反面特征)
constant•stalwart=judiciousness•sage  不变•坚定的=明智•贤明的(名形同义)
sagacious ◆ without wisdom/puerile/folly/fatuous
睿智 ◆ 没有机智/幼稚的/愚蠢/笨拙的

salient (standing out conspicuously:prominent)
salient•ignore=incomprehensible•understand  显着的不能忽略=不可理解的不能理解
subtle•ignore=salient•observe 微妙的东西容易被忽略=明显的东西容易被观察
salient ◆ unconspicuous  显着的 ◆ 不明显的

salmon  n. 大马哈鱼
salmon•ichthyologist=chameleon•herpetologist
大马哈鱼•鱼类学者=变色龙•爬虫学者

salubrious  adj . 有益健康的(favorable to or promoting health or well-being)
instructive•comprehension=salubrious•health
教育性的有利于理解=有益健康的有利于健康
【注:instructive:carrying a lesson • enlightening】
virulent/deleterious ◆ salubrious  有毒的/ 有害的 ◆ 有益健康的
insalubrious ◆ wholesome  不健康的 ◆ 健康的
salubrious ◆ baneful/deleterious/noxious/unhealthy/ squalor/morbid
有益健康的 ◆ 有害的/有害的/有毒的/不健康的/肮脏的/病态的
insalubrity ◆ healthfulness  有碍健康 ◆ 有益健康
salutary ◆ unhealthy/deleterious  有益健康的 ◆ 不健康的/有害的

salutation  (表示欢迎和礼貌)
salutation ◆ deportation  欢迎 ◆ 放逐

salvage (从灾难中)抢救,海上救助
salvage ◆ abandon  救助 ◆ 放弃

salve  (quiet, assuage)
placebo•innocuous=salve•unctuous  镇定剂•无害的=药膏•滑的(事物典型特征)
salve ◆ irritant  抚慰剂 ◆ 刺激物

sanctify  vt. 使神圣,敬神,使成为神圣之物
desecrate ◆ sanctify  亵渎 ◆ 敬神

sanctuary  (a place of refuge and protection)
sanctuary•protetion=utopia•perfection 避难所求保护=乌托邦求完美

sanction  (to give effective or authoritative approval or consent to)
dismiss ◆ sanction  开除 ◆ 批准

sanctimonious  (hypocritically pious)
sanctimonious•devoted=unctuous•earnest  假装虔诚的•虔诚的=假殷勤•热心(褒贬)

sand  v. 磨光 n. 沙
varnish•glossy =sand•smooth  涂清漆•有光泽=磨光•光滑(行为及其结果)
sand•dune=word•sentence  沙•沙丘=词语•句子(组成关系)

sanguine  (red)(hopeful)(cheerful)
sanguine ◆ despondent/hopeless 充满希望的 ◆ 失望的/无希望的
sanguine ◆ morose  愉快的 ◆ 郁闷的
腥的

sanitation  n.卫生,卫生设施
censorship•information=sanitation•disease  审查制度•消息=卫生•疾病(防止关系)
noxious ◆ sanitary  有毒的 ◆ 卫生的
【注:sanitary adj.有关卫生和清洁的 sanitary napkin 卫生巾sanitary ware 卫生瓷】

sap  (weaken)(bodily health and vigor)
sap ◆ bolster/fortify/invigorate  削弱 ◆ 支持/ 增强/ 鼓舞

sapient (possessing or expressing great sagacity)
sapient ◆ foolish  聪明 ◆ 愚蠢

sarcasm (cutting ironic remark; scornful remarks)
sarcasm ◆ praise  讽刺 ◆ 表扬

sartorial  adj. 裁缝匠的,缝工的,裁缝的
tonsorial•hair=sartorial•apparel  理发的•头发=裁缝的•衣服(工作对象)

sate  (satisfy to the full; satisfy to excess; cloy)
sate ◆ starve  饮食过度 ◆ 饿

satiate (to satisfy fully or to excess)
satiated•food=saturated•moisture  饱满的•食物=饱和的•湿度(过分关系)
satiate ◆ tantalize  满足 ◆ 挑逗

satire  (a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or
scorn)(trenchant wit, irony, or sarcasm used to expose and discredit vice or folly)
panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize  赞美诗•颂扬=讽刺文•讽刺(事物功用)
satire•ridicule=elegy•sorrow  讽剌作品•嘲笑=挽歌•悲哀(事物表达情感)
satire•lampoon=diligence•effort  讽刺•讽刺=勤奋•努力 (同义)
limerick•poem=lampoon•satire  打油诗•诗=讽刺文•讽刺作品 (种属)
【注:lampoon=satire(讽刺作品)specifically • a harsh satire usually directed against
an individual 嘲讽某个个人的强烈的讽刺作品】

saturate  (full of moisture•made thoroughly wet)
satiated•food=saturated•moisture  饱满的•食物=饱和的•湿度(程度)
small•minuscule=moist•saturated  小•微小=湿的•饱和的(程度)
obliterate•remove=saturated•wet  删除•除去=湿透的•湿 (同义)
saturated•wet=peeved•annoy  湿透的•弄湿=恼怒的•骚挠 (后者引起前者)

saturnine  adj. 忧郁的,阴沉的 of a gloomy or surly disposition
despondent•depressed=saturnine•gloomy 意气消沉•沮丧的=忧郁的•忧伤的(同义)
saturnine ◆ ovial/genial  郁闷的 ◆ 欢乐的
prate•speak=saunter•walk  闲谈•说=漫步•走(闲散与正常)

savanna (a treeless plain especially in Florida)(a tropical or
subtropical grassland containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth)
savanna ◆ slope  平原 ◆ 斜坡

savant  博学之士,学者(a person of learning)
savant ◆ unlearned person  博学之士 ◆ 没有学问的人

savory  (appetizing to the taste or smell)
mellifluous•sound=savory•taste  悦耳的•声音=美味的•味道(前者修饰后者)
savory ◆ noisome  味好的 ◆ 难闻的

savvy  (practical know-how)
savvy ◆ simplicity  老练,机智 ◆ 幼稚
savvy ◆ tactlessness  老练,机智 ◆ 不老练
soot•combustion=sawdust•woodcutting  烟灰•燃烧=锯屑•木雕
wood•sawdust=metal•filings  木头•锯屑=金属•锉屑

scabbard  (a sheath for a sword, dagger, or bayonet)
dagger•scabbard=pistol•holster  匕首•鞘=手枪•手枪皮套

scads  (a large number or quantity)
scads ◆ paucity  大量 ◆ 极小量

scale  n. 天平,秤盘;音阶
gauge•pressure=scale•weight=yardstick•length
量规•压力=天平•重量=码尺•长度•(测量工具及其对象)
color•spectrum=tone•scale  颜色•光谱=音调•音阶 (连续的前者构成后者)
【注:scale  音阶 a graduated series of musical tones ;spectrum 光谱a continuum of color】

scalpel (a small straight thin-bladed knife used especially in surgery)
tackiness•adhesive=sharpness•scalpel
粘•粘合剂=锋利•手术刀 (事物典型特征)
scalpel•surgeon=telescope•astronomer
手术刀•外科医生=望远镜•天文学家(工具与其使用者)
scan•metrical=parse•grammatical  分析韵律•(诗的)韵律的=分析语法•语法的

list 30  scant ------- sincere

scant  adj. 不足的,缺乏的
scant ◆ considerable  缺乏的 ◆ 相当多的
scanty ◆ voluminous/profuse/ myriad  缺乏的 ◆ 丰满的/极其丰富的/无数的
【注:scanty与scant都是形容词且同义。】

scathing  (bitterly severe)
scathing ◆ politely/ calmly complimentary  严厉的 ◆ 礼貌的(合作)/平静地称赞的

schism  (division, separation)(discord, disharmony)
schism•consensus=interruption•continuity  不一致•一致=中断•连续性 (反义)
schism ◆ accord  不一致 ◆ 一致
(派)schismatic n.分裂者adj.分裂的

school  n. 学派,鱼群
school•fish=flock•birds  鱼群:鱼=鸟群:鸟

scintillate  (to throw off as a spark or as sparkling flashes)
scintillating ◆ dull/foolly  才气横溢的 ◆ 迟钝的/愚蠢的

scion  (descendant, child)
scion ◆ ancestor  子孙 ◆ 前辈

scission  (a division or split in a group or union:schism)
scission ◆ unification 分裂 ◆ 统一

scissor n. 剪刀
pestle•grinding=scissor•cutting  乳钵,•磨=剪刀•剪(工具及其功用)
【注:干扰选项spoon: stirring 汤匙:搅动;说明:汤匙可以搅动,但这并非其最本质的功用。】
saw : carpenter = scissors : tailor  锯:木匠=剪刀:裁缝

scoff  (to treat or address with derision:mock)v.狼吞虎咽
scoff•derisive=bluster•loud=pontificate•pompous
嘲笑•嘲笑的=怒号•大声的=武断•高傲的(动作典型特征)
scoff•contempt=thank•gratitude  嘲笑•轻蔑=感谢•感谢(同义)

scooter n. 滑行车,踏板车
oscillation•swing=momentum•scooter  振动•秋千=动力•滑行车(后者运动需要前者)

scorch  (sear)
dampen ◆ scorch  使潮湿 ◆ 烧焦

score  n. 乐谱,分数
director•script=conductor•score  导演•剧本=指挥•乐谱(前者根据后者展开工作)
script•drama=score•music  剧本•戏剧=乐谱•音乐(组成)
notes•score=symbols•rebus  音符•乐谱=符号•画谜(组成)

scorn  (reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy)
venerable•reverence=despicable•scorn  可敬的•尊敬=可鄙的•鄙视(因果关系)
scorn•reject= adulate •flatter  鄙斥•拒斥=谄媚•奉承(同义,词义有交叉,前者内涵稍宽)
【注:scorn:reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy
adulate:to flater or admire excessively or slavishly
干扰选项:disparage•ignore 这是程度关系,两者词义无任何交叉】
scorn ◆ adulate/venerate  鄙视 ◆ 谄媚/尊敬
scorned to reply to the charge 不屑答复这一指控

scotch  (hinder, thwart)
scotch ◆ encourage  阻碍 ◆ 鼓励

scour  (to go through or range over in or as if in a search)
scour•wash  擦洗•洗

scowl  (to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure)
scowl•displeasure=kiss•affection  皱眉头•不悦=亲吻•感情(动作表达情感)

scrappy (quarrelsome;having an aggressive and determined spirit)
scrappy ◆ timorous  好斗的 ◆ 胆小的

scrap  (discard;to abandon as no longer of enough worth to retain)
scrap ◆ retrieve  抛弃 ◆ 找回

scrawl  (to write or draw awkwardly, hastily, or carelessly)
scrawl ◆ write carefully  潦草地写 ◆ 仔细的写
tinker•adjust=scribble•write=mumble•talk
笨拙的修补•调试=乱写•写=喃喃而语•说(非正常与正常关系)
script•drama=score•music  剧本•戏剧=乐谱•音乐(组成关系)
script • play = score • symphony  剧本•戏剧=乐谱•交响乐(前者是后者进行的基础)

scrupulous  (having moral integrity;painstaking)
probity ◆ unscrupulousness  正直的 ◆ 不正直的
mysterious ◆ scrutable 神秘而不可知的 ◆ 可了解的

scrutinize  (to examine closely and minutely)
observe•scrutinize=question•grill  观察•细查=询问•拷问(程度)
scrutinize•gloss=delve•skim  细查•掠过=深入研究•浏览(程度)
scrutinize ◆ gloss over  细查 ◆ 马虎
scrutiny ◆ casual glance  精读 ◆ 随意一瞥
scuff•abrasion=heat•vaporization  拖着脚走•磨损=加热•蒸发(动作及其结果)

sculpt  (carve, sculpture)
canvas•painter=marble•sculptor  画布•画家=大理石•雕刻家(人物及其工作对象)
statue•sculpture=ode•poem  雕像•雕刻品=颂诗•诗(种属)
author•novel=sculptor•marble  作家•小说=雕塑家•大理石(人物及其创作工作对象)
【注:chef•banquet(厨师:宴会) 是干扰选项。厨师的直接工作对象当然是食物,宴
会与厨师有关但并非厨师是主角。】

scurrilous  (using or given to coarse language containing
obscenities, abuse, or slander)
scurrilous•propriety=mercurial•constancy  下流的•得体=易变的•一致(反面特征)
a campaign filled with scurrilous charges and countercharges

scurvy  (disgustingly mean or contemptible:despicable)
scurvy ◆ above reproach  可鄙的 ◆ 不受指责的

scythe  n. 长柄的大镰刀,战车镰
scythe•reaper=axe•woodcutter  镰刀•收割者=斧子•伐木者(人及其工具关系)

seascape  (a view of the sea)(a picture representing a scene at sea)
portrait•person =seascape•ocean  肖像•人=海景画•海 (前者描述后者)

seamy  (degraded, sordid)
seamy ◆ decent and respectable 堕落污秽的 ◆ 正派值得尊敬的

secluded  (screened or hidden from view; sequestered;solitary)
hermitage•secluded=landmark•conspicuous
隐居处•隐蔽的=路标•明显的(事物典型特征)
frank•secretiveness=honest•theft坦白的•秘密=诚实的•偷(名词及其反面特征关系)
secrete ◆ absorb  分泌 ◆ 吸收
secrete ◆ divulge  隐秘 ◆ 泄密

sedate  (keeping a quiet steady attitude) vt. 给...服镇静剂
sedative•pacify=antiseptic•sterlize  镇定剂•使平静=消毒剂•使无菌(作用关系)
sedative•drowsiness=anesthetic•numbness  镇定剂•睡意=麻醉剂•麻木(因果关系)
【注:sedative  (药物)镇静的】
sedate ◆ roil  沉着 ◆ 激怒
sedate ◆ flighty  稳定的 ◆ 反复无常的

sedentary  (not migratory:settled)
migratory ◆ sedentary  流动的 ◆ 静止的
peripatetic ◆ sedentary  巡游的 ◆ 不迁徙的
seduce ◆ discourage  怂恿 ◆ 使气馁
sedulous ◆ careless/lack of industriousness  勤勉的 ◆ 粗心的
sedulous ◆ lazy/ lack of industriousness  勤勉的 ◆ 怠惰的/不刻苦
ribald•seemly=labyrinthine•direct  下流的•适宜的=迷宫似的•直接的(反义)
seemly ◆ uncouth/ribald/indecorous  合适的 ◆ 粗俗的/不和礼节的

segment (to separate into segments:give off as segments)
segment ◆ make whole  分割 ◆ 使成整体

seminal (containing or contributing the seeds of
later development:creative, original)
seminal ◆ hampering further development  萌芽的 ◆ 阻碍进一步发展
seminal ◆ derivative  有创意的 ◆ 派生的
conservatory•music=seminary•theology=observatory•astronomy
音乐学院:音乐=神学院:神学=气象台:天文学(培养场所)
seminary•theologian = conservatory•artist  神学院•神学者=音乐学校•艺术家
analgesic•pain=anesthetic•sensation  止痛剂•疼痛=麻醉剂•感觉(消除关系)
numb•sensation=stiff•suppleness  麻木•感觉=刚硬•柔软(缺乏关系)
numb•insensible•burnish•lustrous  麻木•无知觉的=光泽•有光泽的(人物典型特征)
bribe•incorruptible=affect/rouse•insensible  贿赂•清廉的=激起•麻木的(难以关系)
sensation ◆ anesthesia 知觉 ◆ 麻木
sensation ◆ unnoticed event  轰动事件 ◆ 不知名的小事
numbness ◆ sensation  麻木 ◆ 感觉
tactless/insensitive•offend=obstinate•preserve
不机智的/不敏感的•冒犯=顽固的•保守(人物典型行为)
insensitive•boor=mischievous•imp  感觉迟钝•粗人=调皮•小鬼(人物典型行为)
sensitization•allergic=habituation•inured  敏感•敏感的=习惯•习惯的(同义)
quixotic•idealistic=touchy•sensitive  纯想象的•想象的=敏感的•敏感的(同义)
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton  敏感的•粗野的人=聪明•笨蛋 (人物反面特征)
tactile•touch=sentient•emotion  触觉的•触觉=情感的•情感(形名同义)
sensitive ◆ numb  敏感 ◆ 麻木
insensitive ◆ tender  感觉迟钝的 ◆ 敏感的
sentimental/sentient ◆ unconscious  多愁善感的/有感觉的 ◆ 无意识的
insentient ◆ perceiving  无知觉的 ◆ 有知觉的

sentinel  n. 哨兵,看守
sentinel•watchful=epicure•discriminating  哨兵•警觉的=美食家•辨别(人物典型行为)
sepulchral ◆ merry  忧郁的 ◆ 欢快的

septic  (of, relating to, or causing putrefaction)
septic ◆ free of infection  腐败的 ◆ 未被感染的

sequela n. 后继者, 后遗症
precursor ◆ sequela  先驱 ◆ 后继者
sequester•seclusion=endanger•jeopardy 分离•隔离=危及• 危险(前者造成后者)
sequester ◆ permit to mingle  分离 ◆ 混合

seraph  (being dried and withered)
sere ◆ lush/damp  干枯的 ◆ 葱绿的/湿润的

serrated  adj. 锯齿状的
serrated ◆ smooth/ without notches  锯齿状的 ◆ 平滑的/没有凹槽
serried ◆ widely separated  密集的 ◆ 广泛分开的

serendipity  (the faculty or phenomenon of
finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for)
serendipitous•effort=ineluctable•chance
靠天赋或运气获得的•努力=不可避免的•机会(缺乏关系)
【注:serendipitous :obtained or characterized by serendipity 靠天赋或运气获得的】

serene  (marked by or suggestive of utter calm and unruffled
repose or quietude)
perturb•serenity=reassure•doubt  扰乱•平静=使安心•怀疑(前者消除后者)
disturb•serenity=intrude•privacy  扰乱•平静=侵入•隐私(消除关系)
restless•serenity=deferential•insolent  不平静的•平静=恭谨的•无礼 (反义)
serenity ◆ havoc/ pandemonium/ tumult/bedlam/riot  平静 ◆ 混乱/喧嚣/骚动/混乱/骚乱
furor ◆ serenity  激情 ◆ 平静
serene ◆ tumultuous/ vociferous  平静的 ◆ 骚动的/ 喧哗的

serfdom n. 农奴身份, 农奴境遇
serfdom ◆ lord 农奴 ◆ 地主

sermon  n. 说教,训诫,布道
nitpicker•criticize=preacher•sermon=quibbler•cavil
吹毛求疵者•批评=布道者•布道=吹毛求疵者•挑剔(人物典型行为)
sermon • homiletics = argument • logic  说教•说教术=辩论•逻辑学(学科研究内容)

serpentine  adj. 蜿蜒的在形状或移动上象蛇的,弯曲的
serpentine•directness  弯曲的•直接

serrate (notched or toothed on the edge)
serrated ◆ without notches/smooth  锯齿形的 ◆ 无凹口的/平滑的
serried ◆ widely separated  密集的 ◆ 稀疏的

servile (meanly or cravenly submissive:abject)
compliant•servile=trusting•gullible  顺从的•卑屈的=信任的•受骗的(褒贬程度)
gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 易受骗的容易被欺骗=卑屈的容易被控制
imperious•servile=bellicose•peaceable 高傲的•奴性的=好斗的•和平的(反特)
impetuous•hesitate=irrepressible•servile  冲动的:犹豫=无法镇压的:顺从的(反义)
obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive  谄媚的•卑屈的=好战的•断言(同义)
mitigate•severe=qualify•general  减轻•剧烈的=使具有资格•一般的(消除关系)
palmy•prosperity=draconian•severity  繁荣的•繁荣=严格的•严格(形容词及其名词)
a severe winter storm 一场严酷的冬季暴风雪

shackle (to deprive of freedom especially of action by means of
restrictions or handicaps)
shackle ◆ loose/emancipate  束缚 ◆ 放松/解放

shadow  (to follow especially secretly:trail)
follow•shadow=scheme•plot =hear•eavesdrop=leave•abscond
跟随•偷偷尾随=计划•密谋=听•偷听=离开•潜逃(正常与秘密)
shadowy ◆ overt  遮蔽 ◆ 公开

shallow 浅的,浅薄的(lacking in depth of knowledge, thought, or feeling)
shallow ◆ profound  浅薄的 ◆ 深刻的
a shallow demagogue 一个浅薄的煽动者

shale  n. 页岩,泥板岩
shale•lode=well•aquifer  页岩•矿脉=井•蓄水层 (事物及其发源)

sham  (not genuine:false, feigned)
debunk ◆ perpetuate to sham  揭穿真相 ◆ 永远伪装
sham ◆ genuine 虚假的 ◆ 真正的

shard  (陶瓷器、瓦等的)破片,碎片
shard•pottery=fragment•bone=crumb• bread=morsel•food
破片•陶瓷=碎骨•骨头=面包屑•面包=(食物)一口•食物(碎片与整体)

shiftless  (lacking in ambition or incentive:lazy)
shiftless•ambition=ingenuous•guile  懒惰的•雄心=坦白的•诡计(缺乏关系)

shipshape  (trim, tidy)
shipshape•disarray = squalid•cleanliness  井然有序的•混乱=肮脏的•清洁(反义)

shirk  (responsibility, work, etc.); malinger
shirk•duty= parry•question=recluse•crowd
逃避•责任=躲避•问题=隐遁•人群(逃避关系)
parsimonious•skimp=malingering•shirk
吝啬的•小气=装病逃避•逃避(动词及其正面形容词)
hoard•miser=shirk•malinger
秘藏•守财奴=逃避•装病逃避的人 (人物典型行为)

shoal  (shallow)
shoal  ◆  deep  浅的 ◆ 深的

shopworn  (尤指在商店中陈列久的货物)
shopworm ◆ new 陈旧的 ◆ 新的

shrewd  (marked by clever discerning awareness and hardheaded
acumen)
shrewd ◆ foolish/ na?ve  精明的 ◆ 愚蠢的/幼稚的

shrine  n. 神殿,圣地
shrine•pilgrim=peak•climber  圣地•圣地朝圣者=山顶:登山者(前者是后者的目标)

shrug  to lift or contract(the shoulders)especially
to express aloofness, indifference, or uncertainty
shrug•indifference=blush•embarrassment=nod•agreement=bow•respect
耸肩•不关心=脸红•困窘=点头•同意=鞠躬•尊敬(动作及其表达态度)

shun  (to avoid deliberately and especially habitually)
haunt ◆ shun  常到 ◆ 避开(常去之地)
frequent ◆ shun  时常出入 ◆ 避开(常去之地)
【注:争议选项avoid 避免;说明:shun侧重强调避开一个习惯性长去的地方,avoid 较普通】
shun ◆ seek actively  躲避 ◆ 积极的寻找

sidereal  (in relation to stars or constellations:astral)
arboreal•trees=sidereal•stars 树的•树=恒星的•恒星(形容及其名词)
fluvial•river=sidereal•star  河流的•河流=恒星的•恒星 (名词及其形容词)
star•sidereal=emotion•affective  恒星•恒星的=感情•感情的(名词及其形容词)

sidestep  (avoid;bypass, evade)
sidestep ◆ confront directly  回避 ◆ 正对

signal  (distinguished from the ordinary)
signal ◆ unremarkable  显着的 ◆ 不明显的
simper•smile=babble•talk  傻笑•笑=胡言乱语•说

simpleton  (缺乏常识)
prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton 谨慎•大胆=聪明•傻子(反义关系)
turncoat•constancy=simpleton•sagacity 背叛者不会不屈不挠=傻子不会聪明
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton  敏感的•粗野的人=聪明•笨蛋 (人物反面特征)
with the intent to deceive)
simulation ◆ authentic article 模仿品 ◆ 真品
peccadillo•sin=admonishment•castigation  小错•犯罪=警告•惩罚(程度关系)

sincere (honest;pure; true)
authenticity•fraudulent=sincerity•hypocritical  真实性•欺诈的=真实•伪善的(反特)  poseur•sincerity=recluse•gregariousness  装模作样的人•真实=隐居者•群居(缺乏)
poseur ◆ sincere person  装模作样的人 ◆ 真诚的人
badinage ◆ sincere conversation  打趣 ◆ 真诚的对话

list 31  sinecure-------spleen

sinecure  (well-paid position with little responsibility)
sinecure ◆ arduous employment  美差 ◆ 艰苦的工作
tendinous•sinewy  腱的•腱(形名同义)
sinew ◆ weakness  强健 ◆ 虚弱
singe•incinerate=erode•destruction  烧焦•烧成灰烬=腐蚀•毁灭(程度)

sinuous (winding; intricate, complex)
sinuous ◆ direct  蜿蜒的 ◆ 直接的

sip (to drink in small quantities)
sip•drink=mince•walk  啜饮•喝酒=碎步走•行走(动作小与正常)
swill/quaff•sip=gobble•nibble=stride•mince
痛饮•啜饮=狼吞虎咽•一点一点地咬=迈大步走•碎步走(动作小与大)
ruthless•mercy = insipid•flavor  无情•仁慈=没有味道的•滋味
swill ◆ sip  痛饮 ◆ 啜饮

siren  n. 塞壬;海妖之一,用歌声诱惑海员,使船只在岛屿周围触礁沉没
siren•unresist=juggernaut•unstop
海妖•无法抗拒的=压倒性力量•无法阻止的(事物典型特征)
siren•sound=beacon•light  汽笛发出声音=灯塔发出光亮
siren•heard=light•seen  警报•被听见=光•被看见(事物及其感知方式)

skeleton  (a usually rigid supportive or protective structure or
framework of an organism)
skeleton•animal= framing•building  骨架•动物=框架•房屋

skeptic (a doubting or incredulous person)
penitent•obdurate=skeptic•credulous  悔过者•顽固的=怀疑者•轻信的(反特)
votary ◆ skeptic  信徒 ◆ 怀疑者
credence ◆ skeptic 信任 ◆ 怀疑
skepticism ◆ conviction  怀疑论 ◆ 确信

skimp  (provide scantily;live very economically)
parsimonious•skimp=malingering•shirk  吝啬的•吝啬=装病逃避•逃避(形动同义)

skirmish  (a minor fight in war usually incidental to larger movements)
skirmish•insignificance= duel•formality  小冲突•微不足道=决斗•正式的

skirt  (to avoid especially because of difficulty or fear of controversy)
skirt ◆ seek/face  回避 ◆ 寻求/面对
skirt ◆ pass the center directly  绕走 ◆ 穿过中央

skit  (a satirical or humorous story or sketch)
skit•play=anecdote•narrative  滑稽短剧•戏剧=小故事•记叙文(名词短与正常)
vignette•scene=skit•drama  小场景•场景=滑稽短剧•戏剧(名词短与正常)

slack  (not tight or taut)
slacken•tension= blunt•sharpness  松弛•紧张=钝的•锐利
slack ◆ taut  松弛的 ◆ 拉紧的

slab  (a broad, flat, thick piece)
slab ◆ sliver  厚片 ◆ 细片

slake  (quench)(satisfy as thirst)
gratify•desire=slake•thirst= satiate•hunger
使满足•欲望=解渴•口渴=饱足•饥饿(行为及其消除对象)
slant ◆ assert without bias  偏见 ◆ 没有偏见的断言

slate  (a tablet used for writing on)
roster•personnel=slate•candidate  花名册记录职员=候选人名单记录候选人
slew ◆ paucity/ limited quantity  大量 ◆ 缺乏/ 限量

slight  (TRIVIAL)(SCANTY)
grievous ◆ slight  严重的 ◆ 轻微的(lacking in strength or substance)
prodigious ◆ slight  巨大的 ◆ 微小的(small of its kind or in amount)
ponderous ◆ slight  笨重的 ◆ 纤细的(not stout or massive in body)
massive ◆ slight  大量的 ◆ 少量的(small of its kind or in amount)

slight  (to treat with disdain or indifference)
celebration•lament=slight•show respect  庆祝•悲叹=轻蔑•表示敬意(反义)
cosset ◆ slight  宠爱 ◆ 冷漠
slight ◆ show respect to  轻蔑 ◆ 表示敬意

sling  (支撑伤臂或伤手的)吊带,三角巾
splint•immobilize=sling•support(干扰sieve•flow)夹板用来固定=吊带用来支撑

slink  (to go or move stealthily or furtively)

slippery  (causing or tending to slide or fall;unstable)(tricky)
dingy•glisten=slippery•adhere 暗黑的•闪亮=滑的•粘着(形动反义)
splint•mobility=ballast•instability =purchase•slippery
夹板•可动性=压载物•不稳定=紧握•光滑(动作与消除对象)
duct•convey=splint•immobilize 管道•运输=夹板•使固定(物品及其功能)
slippery•elude=alluring•entice  (容易关系)狡猾的•逃脱=迷人的•诱惑

slipshod  (careless, slovenly)
assiduous ◆ slipshod  勤勉的 ◆ 草率的
slipshod ◆ painstaking 漫不经心的 ◆ 艰苦的

sloppy  (slovenly, careless)
natty ◆ sloppy 整洁的 ◆ 不整洁的
rakish• restraint=slothful• assiduity
放荡的•抑制=偷懒的•刻苦 (名词与形容词的(反义)关系)
sloth ◆ industry  懒惰 ◆ 勤奋

slouch  n. 懒惰无能的人 v. 懒散
slouch ◆ stand erect  没精打采地站着 ◆ 笔直地站着

slovenly  (untidy; careless in work habits; slipshod)
indulged•adherent=slovenly•dapper  放纵的•关联的=邋遢的•衣冠楚楚的(反义)
【注:adherent:adj.connected or associated with especially by contract 靠契约联系在一起的n. a follower of a leader, party, or profession 信徒,追随者】
slovenly ◆ tidy/ natty/ dapper 邋遢的 ◆ 整洁的

sluggard  (an habitually lazy person)
slow in movement, flow, or growth)
alacrity ◆ sluggish  敏捷 ◆ 迟缓的

slumber (sleep;a light sleep)
slumber ◆ awake  睡眠 ◆ 醒

slur  (obscure;to pronounce indistinctly)
slur•speech= smudge•writing  模糊•说话=弄脏•字迹
slur ◆ pronounce clearly  含糊的发音 ◆ 清晰的发音

sly  (lacking in straightforwardness and candor•dissembling)
sly ◆ artless/ ingenuous  不坦率 ◆ 朴实的/ 诚实的

smarmy  (revealing by a smug, ingratiating, or false earnestness)
smarmy ◆ earnest  虚情假意的 ◆ 真挚的

smart  (to cause or be the cause or seat of a sharp poignant pain)
smart•pain=grieve•sorrow  刺痛•痛苦=伤心•悲伤(动名同义)
smart ◆ soothe 刺痛 ◆ 抚慰

smart  (neat,trim)(stylish or elegant in dress or appearance)
tatty ◆ smart  衣衫褴褛的 ◆ 整洁的

smattering  (superficial piecemeal knowledge)
erudite ◆ smattering of knowledge  博学的 ◆ 一知半解

smirk  (to smile in an affected or smug manner • simper)
smirk•smugness=sneer•derision 得意地笑•自满=冷笑•嘲笑(动作与表达的心理)

smother vt. 窒息,压抑
smother•choke  使窒息•窒息(动名同义)

smug  (highly self-satisfied)
smirk•smugness=sneer•derision 得意地笑•自满=冷笑•嘲笑(动作与表达的心理)
primp•vain=gloat•smug 打扮•虚荣的=心满意足•自满的(动作与表达的心理)

smuggle (to import or export secretly and in violation of the law)
collude•cooperate=smuggle•convey  勾结•合作=走私•运输(动作秘密与正常)
smuggler•import= embezzler•appropriate  走私者•运输=盗用公款者•挪用
smuggler•tariff=stowaway•fare 走私犯•关税=偷渡者•费用
smuggle ◆ transport openly  走私 ◆ 公开运输

snare  v. 诱捕 n. 陷井
snare ◆ boo  诱捕 ◆ 轰赶

snarl  vi. n. 缠结,咆哮
exoneration•blame=disentangle•snarl  免除责任•责备=松开•纠缠(反义)
disentangle ◆ snarl  解开纠结 ◆ 纠缠
snarler ◆ coo  狂吠 ◆ 咕咕声  snarler n. 咆哮的人, 狂吠的动物

sneer  (to laugh with facial contortions that express scorn or contempt)
smirk•smugness=sneer•derision 得意地笑•自满=嘲笑•嘲笑(动作与表达的心理)
wince•pain=pout•displeasure  畏缩•痛苦=撅嘴•不愉快( 动作与反映的心理)

snobbish  (snobby)
attentive•officious=refined•snobbish  留意的•多管闲事的=优雅的•过于讲究的 (程度)

snub  (to treat with contempt or neglect)
dissemble•honesty=snub•politeness  掩饰•诚实=冷落•礼貌(动名反义)
raffish•preen=polite•snub  艳俗的•打扮漂亮=礼貌的•冷落(形动反义)
snub•disdain=double-cross•disloyalty  冷落•蔑视=欺骗出卖•不忠实(动名同义)
court ◆ snub  向…献殷勤 ◆ 冷落

soak  (to permeate so as to wet, soften, or fill thoroughly)
soaking•wet/damp=exuberant•happy=frigid•cool
湿透的•潮湿的=非常高兴的•高兴的=严寒的•凉爽的(程度)
castigation•reproof=soaking•damp  强烈责背•谴责=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)

sober  (abstemious; unhurried, calm; serious)
sober ◆ frivolous/puckish  严肃的 ◆ 轻佻的/淘气的
sumptuousness ◆ sobriety  奢华的 ◆ 朴素的
flippancy ◆ sobriety  轻率 ◆ 严肃

sodden  (heavy with or as if with moisture or water)
marsh•sodden=desert•arid  沼泽•湿透的=沙漠•干燥的(事物典型特征)
moist•sodden=surprised•astonished  潮湿的:湿透的=吃惊的:吃惊的(同义)
sodden ◆ desiccated  湿透的 ◆ 干燥的

solace  (alleviation of grief or anxiety)
solace•grief=pacification•anger  安慰•忧愁=平息•忿怒(行为及其消除对象)

solder  (to unite or make whole by solder)
breach ◆ solder  弄出裂口 ◆ 焊合

solemnity  (seriousness;gravity)
jest ◆ solemnity  玩笑 ◆ 严肃

solicitous  (worried,concerned)
solicitous ◆ unconcerned  挂念的 ◆ 不关心的
solicitude ◆ indifference  关怀 ◆ 冷漠
pulverize ◆ solidify  粉碎 ◆ 巩固

soliloquy  (talking to oneself ;a dramatic monologue)
soliloquy•play= aria•opera  独白•戏剧=咏叹调•歌剧(种属)

solitude  (state of being alone or remote from society)
recluse•solitude=toady•favor  隐遁者•孤单=献媚者•好感 (人物典型特征)
solvent•dissolve=coagulant•clot/thicken  溶剂•溶解=凝结剂•凝结/变浓(物品作用)
caustic•burn=solvent•dissolve 腐蚀性的•灼烧=可溶解的•溶解 (事物典型特征)
regimen•health=budget•solvency  养生法保证健康=预算保证偿付能力
solvent ◆ precipitant  溶解的 ◆ 沉淀的
bankruptcy ◆ solvency  破产 ◆ 偿付能力
insolvency ◆ ability to pay one’s debts  无偿付能力 ◆ 有偿付能力

somatic (relating to the the body; physical)
somatic ◆ nonphysical  肉体的 ◆ 非身体的

somber  adj. 昏暗的,阴森的,忧郁的 gloomy; dismal or depressing
cherubic ◆ somber  天真可爱的 ◆ 阴沉忧郁的
droll ◆ somber 好笑的 ◆ 忧郁的
adulation ◆ somber affection  热烈的赞扬 ◆ 低沉的感情

somnolence  n. 想睡,瞌睡,嗜睡
ennui•enthusiastic=somnolence•alert  倦怠•热心的=困倦的状态•警惕的 (名形反义)
insomnia•sleep=dyslexia•read  失眠•睡觉=诵读困难•阅读(难以)
dessert•meal=epilogue•play=coda•sonata
餐后甜点•一餐=尾声•表演=终结句•奏鸣曲(前者是后者结束部分)
sonnet•poet=symphony•composer 十四行诗•诗人=交响乐•作曲家(作者与作品)
sonnet•verse monger=painting•daubster 十四行诗•拙劣诗人=油画•笨画匠
sonnet•poem=denim•fabric  十四行诗•诗=粗斜纹棉布•织品(种属)

soothe  vt. 缓和,使安静,安慰,奉承
vex ◆ soothe  使烦恼 ◆ 安慰
smart ◆ soothe 刺痛 ◆ 抚慰

sop  (a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture)(to
wet thoroughly:soak)
sop•conciliatory=subsidy•supportive
有安慰作用的东西•安抚的=津贴•有支持作用的(事物典型特征)
sopping•dampen=frigid•cool  浑身湿透的•使潮湿=寒冷的•使冷 (程度)

sophism (看似有道理实际上无效)
sophism•reasoning=counterfeit•money  诡辩•推理=赝品假钱•钱(名词假与正常)
ingenue•sophistication=cynic•trustfulness
天真无邪的少女•世故=愤世嫉俗者•信赖(人物与反面属性)
politic ◆ unsophisticated  圆滑的 ◆ 不世故的
bucolic ◆ sophisticated  质朴的 ◆ 精明的

soporific  adj. 催眠的,懒惰的,昏昏沉沉的 n. 安眠药
soporific•sleep=vaccinating•immunity  安眠药•睡眠=预防接种•免疫性(前者导致后者)
soporific•alertment=analgesic•pain  催眠的•警醒=止痛药•疼痛(药物及其消除对象)
soporific ◆ stimulant  安眠药 ◆ 兴奋剂
soporific ◆  /exhilarating  催眠的 ◆  令人兴奋的
vitality ◆ soporific  活力 ◆ 安眠药
soporific ◆ exhilarating/invigorating/ provocative
昏昏欲睡的 ◆ 令人兴奋的/精神充沛的/刺激的

sordid  (base,vile; dirty, filthy)
sordid ◆ wholesome  肮脏的 ◆ 卫生的
sordid ◆ noble 卑鄙的 ◆ 高尚的

sound  adj.  健康的,强壮的,有效的,合理的
ramshackle•soundness=garbled•clarity  摇摇欲坠的•坚固=混淆•清楚(形动反义)
decrepit ◆ sound  衰老的 ◆ 强壮的
tenable ◆ unsound  (主张)站的住脚的 ◆ 不合理的

sparse  (not thickly grown or settled)
sparse ◆  copious/rife  稀疏的 ◆ 丰富的/非常多的

spartan (lacking luxury and comfort;sternly disciplined)
imperial•significant=spartan•austere  至尊的•重要的=简朴的•简朴的(程度)
spartan ◆ sybaritic/indulgent/luxuriant/luxurious/sumptuous/voluptuous
简朴的 ◆ 奢侈逸乐的/放纵的/奢华的/奢华的/奢华的/奢侈逸乐的
spartan ◆ opulent  简朴的、节约的 ◆ 丰富的,富裕的

spat  (a brief petty quarrel or angry outburst)
cabal•association=spat•quarrel  阴谋小集团:协会=小争吵:吵架(种属,强调小)

spate  (sudden flood; a large number or amount)
spate ◆ dearth 大量 ◆ 缺乏
spate ◆ trickling flow 洪水 ◆ 滴流

specific  (special, distinctive, or unique)
generic ◆ specific 一般的,普遍的 ◆ 特有的,独特的

specious  (having a false look of truth or genuineness)
specious•genuineness=illusory•reality 似是而非•真实=幻觉的•真实(前者缺乏后者)
specious ◆ valid  似是而非的 ◆ 真实有效的

speck  (a very small amount • bit)
mite•creature=speck•amount  □虫类小动物•动物=少量•数量(物体小或少与正常)

spectator  (one who looks on or watches)
epicure•discriminating=spectator•watching美食家•有识别力的=观众•观看的(正特)
prism)
color•spectrum=tone•scale  颜色•光谱=音调•音阶(事物及其组合体)
conjecture ◆ restrain from the speculation  猜测 ◆ 不采取猜测

spendthrift  (a person who spends improvidently or wastefully)
craven•hero=parsimonious•spendthrift  懦夫•英雄=吝啬的=挥霍无度的(反义)
miser•parsimonious=spendthrift•prodigal  吝啬鬼•吝啬的=浪费的人•挥霍的(正特)
spendthrift ◆ miser  浪费的人 ◆ 吝啬鬼

spent  (drained of energy or effectiveness:exhausted)
precarious•stability=spent•efficacy  不稳定的•稳定性=失去效用的•功效 (缺乏)

spindly (frail or flimsy in appearance or structure)
limber•flexibility=spindly•frailty  柔软的•弹性=纤弱的•脆弱

spiny  (abounding with difficulties or annoyances•thorny)
spiny ◆ smooth 多刺的 ◆ 光滑的

spire  (the upper tapering part of something; pinnacle)
spire•church=minaret•mosque  尖顶•教堂=尖塔•清真寺(前者是后者顶部的建筑)

spleen  (material or a device used to protect and immobilize
a body part)(a thin piece split or broken off lengthwise;sliver)
splint•mobility=ballast•instability=purchase•slippery=lubricant•friction
夹板•灵活性=压舱物•不稳定=紧握•光滑(前者消除后者)
splint•immobilize=duct•convey 夹板•使不能移动=输送管•输送(事物及其功用)
buttress•edifice=splint•limb  扶壁•大厦=夹板•四肢(事物及其作用对象)
crumb•bread=splint•wood  面包屑•面包=木片:木头(事物及其特殊状态)

spoke  (any of the small radiating bars inserted in the hub
of a wheel to support the rim)
spoke•hub=radius•center  幅条•毂,中心=半径•中心(前者从后者辐射出去)

spontaneous  (acting or activated without apparent thought or eliberation)
juggernaut•unstoppable=extemporization•spontaneous
摧毁一切的强大力量•无法阻止的=即席演说•自发的(人物典型特征)
【注:boast•dishonest 自夸•不诚实的 自夸是一种态度,诚实是一种品质,两者无必然因
果联系】
spontaneous ◆ premeditated  一时冲动的 ◆ 预先考虑的

spoof  (a light humorous parody)
ode•poetry=spoof•parody  颂诗•诗=轻松幽默的模仿•滑稽模仿(种属)
【注:parody :a feeble or ridiculous imitation 拙劣或滑稽的模仿】
nicety•distinction=spoof•parody  细微差别:差别=轻松幽默的模仿:滑稽模仿(种属)

sporadic  (occurring occasionally)
chronic ◆ sporadic  习惯性的 ◆ 零星发生的
sporadic ◆ regular  偶发性的 ◆ 有规则的
sporadic  ◆ frequent  零星的 ◆ 频繁的

sprain  (to injure by a sudden or severe twist)
sprain•injure=cold•contagion  扭伤•伤害=感冒•传染病(种属)

sprightly  vt. 刺激,激励,用马刺刺
deter ◆ spur  制止 ◆ 激励

spurious  (false; forged)
spurious ◆ genuine  假的 ◆ 真实的

spurn  (to reject with disdain or contempt•scorn)
spurn ◆ welcome willingly  摈弃 ◆ 欣然欢迎
spurn ◆ court/crave/embrace  摈弃 ◆ 追求, 渴望, 拥抱
spurned ◆ beloved  摈弃的 ◆ 心爱的

squabble  (a noisy altercation or minor quarrel)
squabble•dispute/quarrel =foible•failing  小争吵•争论=小缺点•缺点 (小和正常)
tiff•squabble=foible•failing  小争吵•争吵=小缺点•缺点 (小和正常)
【注:foible:a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior|| tiff:a petty quarrel
squabble除了表示小争吵外还可表示正常的争吵a noisy altercation】

squalid (marked by filthiness and degradation from neglect or poverty)
squalid ◆ pristine  污秽的 ◆ 未遭毁坏的
squalid ◆ salubrious  肮脏的 ◆ 有益健康的
squalid ◆ immaculate  肮脏的 ◆ 纯净的
splendor ◆ squalor  壮丽 ◆ 肮脏

squall  (a short-lived commotion)
squall•commotion=flash•illumination  短时骚乱•骚动=闪现,一瞬间•照明(短与正常)

squander  (to spend extravagantly or foolishly•dissipate)
proctor•supervise=prodigal•squander 学监•监督=浪费者•浪费
【注:proctor :supervisor, monitor; specifically• one appointed to supervise students
(as at an examination)  监督者,尤其是被任命监督学生的人,如考试中的监考者。】
squander ◆  conserve/husband  浪费 ◆ 保存/节俭

squat  (marked by disproportionate shortness or thickness)
squat ◆ tall and thin  矮状结实的 ◆ 又高又瘦的

squint  (to look or peer with eyes partly closed)
squint•eye=pucker•mouth  斜视•眼=噘嘴•嘴巴 (人物器官及其特殊形态)

squelch (to completely suppress:quell)
squelch ◆ foment/ kindle  压制 ◆ 煽动/激发

stabilize  (to make stable, steadfast, or firm)
stability ◆ inconstancy  稳定性 ◆ 反复无常
stabilize ◆ fluctuate  稳定 ◆ 波动

stagnant  (not flowing in a current or stream)
stagnant ◆ flowing  停滞的 ◆ 流动的
staid ◆ jaunty 沉重的 ◆ 轻快的
puckish ◆ staid  淘气的 ◆ 严肃的

stalemate  (a drawn contest•deadlock)
clog•drainage=stalemate•negotiations  阻塞防碍排水=僵局阻碍谈判

stalk  (to pursue quarry or prey stealthily)
collude•cooperate=stalk•follow=infiltrate•enter
串通•合作=暗中追踪•跟随=秘密潜入•进入
grazing•foragers=stalking•hunter  放牧•放牧者= 暗中追踪•追踪捕猎者

stalwart  (marked by outstanding strength and vigor)
constant•stalwart=judiciousness•sage  坚决的•坚定的=明智的•贤明的 (同义)
lank ◆ stalwart  瘦弱的 ◆ 健壮的
timorous ◆ stalwart  胆怯的 ◆ 意志坚定的

stamina (staying power, endurance)
stamina ◆ frailty  耐力 ◆ 脆弱

stammer (to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking•halt)
falter•act=stammer•speak  踌躇•行动=口吃•说(行为及其特征方式)
stammer•halting=drone•monotonous
结巴的说•犹豫=单调地说•单调的(行为典型特征)

stanza  (a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines)
ballad•stanza=novel•chapter  歌谣•诗节=小说•章节  (部分与整体关系)
stanza•line=volume•issue=concert•program  诗节•诗句=合订本•期=音乐会•节目
【注• volume • a series of issues of a periodical】
stanza•poem/poetry=act•opera=movement•symphony=paragraph• prose
诗节•诗=幕•歌剧 =乐章•交响乐=段落•散文(部分与整体关系)

startle (to frighten or surprise suddenly and usually not seriously)
startle ◆ lull 使大吃一惊 ◆ 使平静

static  (a lack of movement, animation, or progression)
static•move=pliable•inflexible  静态的•移动=顺从的•固执的
motility ◆ stasis  运动性 ◆ 停滞
stasis ◆ period of change  稳定 ◆ 改变期间

stature (as of a person) in an upright position
stature•tall=sound•loud  身材高大=声音宏亮(事物及其修饰)
辨别:status 地位,身份 statute 法令,条例

steadfast  (firm in belief, determination, or adherence•loyal)
capricious ◆ steadfast 善变的 ◆ 坚定的

stealth (the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly)
caprice•whimsical=stealth•furtive=discontent•unsatisfied
反复无常•反复无常的=秘密行动•偷偷摸摸的=不满•不满足的(名形同义)

steep  (to cover with or plunge into a liquid)
steep ◆ parch  浸湿 ◆ 烤干

stench  (to emit a strong offensive odor:stink)
stench•nose=din•ear  臭气•鼻子=喧闹•耳朵(感观及其感知的对象)

stencil (用以刻写文字、图案的)模版  v.用模版刻写
stencil•lettering=pattern•sewing  模版•刻出的字母=纸样•缝纫物

stentorian  (extremely loud)
audible•stentorian=discernable•obvious/ manifest
听得见的• 声音宏亮的=可辨别的•明显的  (程度)
stentorian ◆ faint  哄亮的 ◆ 微弱的

sterile (unproductive of vegetation)(free from living organisms and
especially microorganisms)
impeccable•flaw=sterile•germ/ bacteria
没有缺点的•错误,缺点=无菌的•细菌(缺乏关系)
plain•austere=clean•sterile  朴素的•简朴的=洁净的•无菌的(同义)
verdant ◆ sterile  青翠的 ◆ 不毛的
sterilize ◆ contaminate  杀菌 ◆ 污染
sterilization•microorganisms=deforestation•trees
杀菌•微生物=采伐森林•树木(前者去除后者)

stickler  (one who insists on exactness or
completeness in the observance of something)
stickler•exacting =pedagogue•indoctrinate
一丝不苟者•苛求的=教师•灌输(人物典型行为)
stickler•exacting=defeatist•resigned
坚持细节之人• 苛求的=悲观主义者•听天由命的
stickler•derelict=poseur•unaffected
一丝不苟的人不会玩忽职守=装模做样的人不自然

stiff  (lacking in suppleness or responsiveness)
numb•sensation=stiff•suppleness  麻木的•感觉=僵硬的•柔软性(缺乏关系)
suppleness ◆ stiffness/rigidness  柔软 ◆ 坚硬

stifle  (to withhold from circulation or expression:repress; to kill by
depriving of oxygen :suffocate)
stifle ◆ foment/foster ◆ stifle  抑制 ◆ 煽动/鼓励

stigma  (a mark of shame or discredit:stain)
stigma ◆ mark of esteem  耻辱 ◆ 尊敬的标志

stilted (pompous, lofty ;formal, stiff)

stint  (to be sparing or frugal)
lavish ◆ stint 浪费 ◆ 节省

stingy  (not generous or liberal)stingy
miser•stingy= loner•solitary=sage•judicious
吝啬鬼•吝啬的=孤独地人•孤独的=贤人•明智的 (人物典型行为)
generosity ◆ stinginess  慷慨 ◆ 小气
generously ◆  stingily  慷慨地 ◆ 吝啬地

stipple (to engrave by means of dots and flicks)
stipple•dot=striate•band  点描•点=加条纹•条带(动作及其对象关系)

stipulate  (a single complete movement of a threaded needle in sewing or surgical
suturing)
tile•mosaic=stitch•sampler  瓷砖•马赛克=针脚•刺绣样品(前者组成后者)

stock  (commonly used or brought forward)
census•population=inventory•stock  人口普查(调查)人口=存货清单(清点)库存
stock ◆ unique 普通的 ◆ 独特的

stockade  (an enclosure or pen made with posts and stakes)
stockade•enclosure=pillar•support  栅栏用来围绕=柱子用来支撑

stodgy  (boring, dull)(extremely old-fashioned:
hideboucd)
stodgy•conservative=mad•exited=mawkish•sentimental
非常守旧的•保守的=疯狂的•激动的=令人作呕的•感性的(程度)
stodgy ◆ exciting  乏味的 ◆ 令人兴奋的

stoke  (to poke or stir up (as a fire):supply with fuel)
stoke•fuel=irrigate•water  拨旺火炉• 燃料= 灌溉•水 (利用)

stoic  (not showing passion)n.坚忍克己的人
stoic•perturb=avaricious•satisfy  冷静的•扰乱=贪婪的•满足 (不容易被)
stoic ◆ flinch 坚忍 ◆ 畏缩
stolid ◆ excitable  感情麻木的 ◆ 易兴奋的

stomach (to bear without overt reaction or resentment)
stomach ◆ refuse to tolerate  容忍 ◆ 不能容忍

stonewall  (to refuse to comply or cooperate with)
stonewall ◆ cooperate fully

stouthearted  (having a stout heart or spirit:stubborn)
pusillanimous ◆ stouthearted  胆小的 ◆ 大胆的

stratagem  (a cleverly contrived trick or scheme for gaining an end)
stratagem•deceive=concession•placate  计谋•欺骗=让步•安抚  (手段目的)

strait  (a comparatively narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water)
isthmus•land=strait•water  地峡•陆地=海峡•海水 (连接关系)

stratify  (to divide into classes, castes, or social strata)
stratify ◆ homogenize  区分等级 ◆ 使等同

stray  (separated from the group or the
main body;to wander from company, restraint, or proper limits)
digressive•(topic/subject)=stray•group
离题的•(话题/主题)=离群的•团体(动作及其相关对象)

strength  (degree of potency of effect or of concentration)
slacken•tautness=dilute•strength
放松(减轻)紧张度=稀释(减轻)浓度 (动作及其减少结果)

striate (to mark with striations or striae)
stipple•dot=striate•band  点画•点=加条纹•条带  (动作及其对象关系)
striated•groove=dappled•spot  有条痕的•凹槽=有斑点的•斑点(形名同义)

stricture  (an adverse criticism•censure;restriction)
eulogy ◆ stricture  颂词 ◆ 责难

stride  (to move with or as if with long steps)
quaff•sip=stride•mince  大口地喝•啜饮=迈大步走•碎步走(动词的程度)

strident  (sound harsh, insistent, and discordant)
stridency•sound=acridity•odor=garishness•appearance
刺耳•声音=辛辣•气味=艳丽•外表(抽象名词及其修饰对象)

strike  (to form by stamping, printing, or punching)
strike•medal=mint•coin  冲制•奖牌=铸造•硬币(动作及其加工对象)

stringent  (tight, constricted)
stringent ◆ lax  绷紧的 ◆ 松弛的

strip  (to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from)
bedeck ◆ strip 穿衣打扮 ◆ 脱衣
(区别)stripe  n. 条纹,斑纹;类型

strut  (to walk with a pompous and affected air)(a structural
piece designed to resist pressure in the direction of its length)
strut•walk=pontificate•speak
趾高气扬地走•走=傲慢自大地说•说 (行为及其特征方式)
strut•wing=buttress•wall= guy•pylon
支柱•机翼=扶壁•墙壁=支索• 铁塔(前者支持后者)

studio  (the working place of a sculptor or photographer)
studio•artist=laboratory•scientist
画室•艺术家=实验室•科学家(人及其活动场所)

stultify  (to have a dulling or inhibiting effect on)
stultify ◆ stir/excite 抑制 ◆ 激起/刺激
stultifying ◆ exciting/stirring  抑制的 ◆ 使人激动的/激动人心的

stupor  (a condition of greatly dulled or completely suspended
sense or sensibility)
stupor•alert=despair•hopeful  麻痹•警惕的=绝望•有希望的

stun  (to make senseless or dizzy by :daze)
(派)stunning  adj. 极富魅力的

stunt  (to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of)
obstruct•progress=stunt•growth  延缓进步=阻碍成长
nurture ◆ stunt  抚育 ◆ 阻碍生长

sturdy  (marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor)
decrepit ◆ sturdy  衰老的 ◆ 强健的

stygian (extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding)
stygian•dark=abysmal•low  漆黑的•黑=极深的•低的(程度)

stylus  (an instrument for writing, marking, or incising)
stylus•mark=lamp•illumination 铁笔•标记=灯•照明  (工具及其用途)
stylus•engraving=shield•protecting  铁笔•雕刻=防护物,盾•保护(工具及其作用)

stymie  (to present an obstacle to•stand in the way of)
stymie ◆ abet/foster/promote  阻碍 ◆ 协助/促进

subdue  (to conquer and bring into subjection•vanquish;
to bring under control especially by an exertion of the will • curb;to reduce the intensity or degree of)
impervious•damaged=indomitable•subdued
无法伤害的•被损坏的=无法征服的•被征服的(反义)
subdue ◆ burgeon/inflame  压制、抑制 ◆ 快速发展/激起
subdued ◆ unruly  屈服的 ◆ 不服管教的
flamboyant ◆ subdued  艳丽的 ◆ 柔和的
indomitable ◆ easily subdued  不屈的 ◆ 容易屈服的

subject n. 臣民,受支配的人 vt.使屈从于…,使隶属
potentate ◆ subject  统治者 ◆ 臣民

subjugate  (to bring under control and governance as a subject)
blur•definition=subjugate•independence  使模糊•清晰度=使屈服•独立(反义)
subjugation ◆ liberation  征服 ◆ 解放
enfranchise ◆ subjugate  解放 ◆ 镇压
sublime ◆ base/despicable  崇高的 ◆ 卑鄙的/可鄙的
sublime ◆ ridiculous/furtive  庄严的 ◆ 可笑的/鬼鬼祟祟的
sublime ◆ worthless  崇高的 ◆ 无益的

subliminal  (below the threshold of conscious perception)
subliminal ◆ at a perceptible level  下意识的 ◆ 直觉的,可觉察到的

submerge  (to cover or overflow with water)
bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant=dissolve•insoluble
弯曲•刚硬的=淹没•上浮的=溶解•不溶的
submerge•water=inter•earth  潜入水中=埋藏在泥土里

list 33  submissive -------- taut

submissive  (submitting to others)
insubordinate•submissive=capricious•deliberate
不顺从的•顺从的=多变•深思熟虑的(反面特征)

subordinate  (inferior)(secondary)顺从的
(submissive to or controlled by authority) n. 下属
principal ◆ subordinate  首要的 ◆ 次要的
court under a penalty for failure)v. 传讯
lien•claim=subpoena•command  留置权是一种法律权力=传票是一种法律命令
subpoena•witness=conscript•soldier  传讯证人=招募士兵(招集)
willfulness•headstrong=subservience•fawning  任性•任性的=奉承•奉承的

subside (to let oneself settle down :sink;to sink or fall to the bottom)
subside ◆ promote  (地位)下降 ◆ 提升
subside ◆ withhold pressure  下沉 ◆ 抗压
preponderant ◆ subsidiary  重要的 ◆ 次要的
subsidy•support=debt•obligation  同义还是种属
sop•conciliatory=subsidy•supportive  安抚物•安抚的=补助金•支助的(人物典型行为)
【注: sop :a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture】
substantiate ◆ controvert/disapprove  证实 ◆ 反驳(to pass unfavorable judgment on)
unsubstantiated ◆ verified  未经证实的 ◆ 已证实的
inane ◆ substantiated  空洞的 ◆ 实体化的
substantiation ◆ disproof  证实 ◆ 反驳
subterfuge•deceive=decanter•pour  狡计•欺骗=倒酒容器•倾倒(名词及其用途)
candor•subterfuge=brash•deliberate  直率•托词=仓促•深思熟虑 (反义)
sabotage•subvertness=bull•intimidation  阴谋破坏•颠覆=暴力强迫•胁迫 (目的关系)
subvert ◆ reinforce  推翻 ◆ 加强
loquacious•succinct=adroit•ungainly  罗嗦的•简洁的=敏捷的•笨拙的(反义)
succinctness ◆ prolixity/ verbosity  简洁 ◆ 冗长,罗嗦
succinct ◆ prolix/ verbose/voluble  简洁的 ◆ 冗长的/罗嗦的/多话的
circumlocution ◆  succinct expression  累赘的话 ◆ 简练的表达

succor  (to go to the aid of:relieve)
succor•relief=caution•warning 救援•救济=警告•警告(同义)
succor ◆ aggravate  援助 ◆ 使恶化(make worse, more serious, or more severe)
succor ◆ deny aid  援助 ◆ 拒绝帮助

suffocate  (to stop the respiration of)
suffocate•oxygen=starve•nutrients  使窒息•氧=使饿死•营养(缺乏关系)
参考:focus  焦点  来源:咽喉是我们生命的焦点部位→焦点

suffuse (to spread over in the manner of fluid or light)
tint•suffuse=damp•quench  染色• 染遍=打湿•浸透(程度)

sulk  (to be sullen or morose in mood usually because of a grievance)
sulk ◆ rejoice 生气 ◆ 高兴

summary (an abstract)(done without delay or formality)
compendium•summary=anthology•collection  纲要•摘要=文选•文集(同义)
aside•digression=summary•excerpt  离题•离题=摘要•摘录(同义)
【注:aside:a straying from the theme:digression】
summarily ◆ after long deliberation  草率地 ◆ 深思熟虑地
summary ◆ protracted  即刻的 ◆ 拖延的

summit  (top, apex; especially •the highest point:peak)
crest•wave=summit/peak•mountain  波峰•波浪=山顶•山(顶部与整体的关系)
cache•hidden=summit•inaccessible  隐藏处是隐藏的=顶点是难到达的
nadir ◆ summit 最低点 ◆ 顶点

summon  (to command by service of a summons to appear in court)
command•request=summon•invite 命令•请求=召集•邀请(程度)
summon ◆ dismiss  召集 ◆ 解散

sumptuous  (extremely costly, rich, luxurious, or magnificent)
sumptuous ◆ sobriety  奢侈的 ◆ 节制的(the quality or state of being sober清醒)
sumptuous ◆ ascetic/frugal/spartan  奢侈的 ◆ 苦行的/节俭的/简朴的

sunder  (to break apart or in two ;separate)
collapse•implode=divide•sunder  坍塌•内爆=分开•分裂(后者造成前者)
【注•implode •to collapse inward as if from external pressure】
sunder ◆ connect/link  分裂 ◆ 连接
sunder ◆ bond/combine/conjoin/merge/yoke  分裂 ◆ 结合
asunder ◆ yoke 分离 ◆ 连接
【注•yoke •(用车辕连接)】

supercilious  (coolly and patronizingly haughty)
supercilious ◆ obsequious/groveling/humble  傲慢的 ◆ 奉承的/卑躬屈膝的/谦逊的
superciliousness ◆ humility  傲慢 ◆ 谦逊
参考:conciliate :con(共同)+cili(眼皮)→眼睛看一处→调和,安抚

superficial  (lying on the surface :external)
superficial ◆ central  表面的,外部的 ◆ 中央的

superfluous  (exceeding what is sufficient or necessary:extra)
pertinent•relevance=redundant•superfluity中肯的•中肯=多余的•多余(形名同义)
integral ◆ superfluous 不可缺少的 ◆ 多余的
superfluity ◆ scarcity 额外 ◆ 缺乏

superimpose  (to place or lay over or above something)
superimpose•above=insert•between 置于他物之上•在…上方=插入•在…之间

supine  (exhibiting indolent or apathetic inertia)(lying on back)
supine ◆ vigilant  懒散的 ◆ 警惕的

supple  (easy and fluent without awkwardness);逢迎的,顺从的
numb•sensation=stiff•suppleness  麻木的•感觉=坚硬的•柔软 (缺乏关系)
suppleness ◆ stiffness/rigidness  柔软 ◆ 坚硬

supplant  (to supersede especially by force or treachery)
supplant•replace=snatch•take  排挤•代替=攫取•获得(前者靠力量或阴谋达到后者)

supplement  (something that completes or makes an addition)
supplement•additional=placebo•innoxious 补充是附加的=安慰剂是无毒的

supplicate  (to make a humble entreaty; to ask for earnestly and humbly)
protest•dissuade=supplicate•entreat  抗议•劝阻=恳求•恳求 (同义)
supplicant•beseeching=coquette•flirtatious  恳求者是恳求的=风骚女子是轻浮的
supplicate ◆ demand  恳求 ◆ 强求
【注:demand:to call for urgently, peremptorily, or insistently】

supposition  (something that is supposed :hypothesis)
supposition ◆ certainty  推测 ◆ 确定

suppress  (to restrain from a usual course or action;subdue)
suppress ◆ unrestrain/stimulate  抑制 ◆ 放纵/ 激励

surcharge  (an excessive load or burden)
surcharge ◆ shortfall  超载 ◆ 不足

surfeit (an overabundant supply:excess)
surfeit ◆ deficiency/deprivation  过剩 ◆ 短缺/匮乏
surfeit ◆ famish/ starve  过饱 ◆ 饥饿
surfeit ◆ insufficient supply  供应过量 ◆ 供应不足

surrender  (to yield to the power)
appropriate ◆ surrender  攫取 ◆ 交出

surreptitious  (doing something clandestinely) surreptitious ◆ barefaced/aboveboard  偷偷摸摸的 ◆ 公然的/光明正大的

suspend (to cause to stop temporarily)(hang)
suspend ◆ erect/let fall  悬挂 ◆ 竖立/落下
invoke ◆ suspend  实行 ◆ 中止

suture  (to unite, close, or secure with sutures)
suture ◆ incision  缝合 ◆ 切开
avulse ◆ suture  撕脱 ◆ 缝合

svelte  (slender, lithe;urbane, suave)
svelte ◆ plump 苗条的 ◆ 丰满的
svelte ◆ paunchy and awkward  苗条而优雅的 ◆ 大腹便便而笨拙的

swagger (to walk with an air of overbearing)
blustering•speak=swaggering•walk  大吵大闹的•讲=大摇大摆的•走(前者夸张)
fawn•hauteur=self-depreciate•swagger  奉承者不会傲慢=自贬者不会虚夸
pontificate•speak=swagger•walk  装模作样地说•说=大摇大摆地走•走(前者夸张)
imperious•fawn=self-depreciatory•swagger  傲慢的者不会奉承=自贬者不会虚夸
swagger•bravado=caress•affection  大摇大摆•虚张声势=爱抚•爱(前者表达后者)

swear  (to use profane or obscene language:curse)
accolade ◆ swearword  赞美 ◆ 咒骂

sweltering  (oppressively hot)
sweltering ◆ frigid  酷热的 ◆ 严寒的

swerve  (to turn aside abruptly from a straight line or course:deviate)  swerve ◆ maintain direction  转向 ◆ 保持方向

swill  (to drink great drafts of:guzzle)
swill•sip=gobble•nibble  痛饮•啜饮=狼吞虎咽•细嚼慢咽(动作程度)
swill ◆ sip  痛饮 ◆ 啜饮

swindle (to obtain money or property by fraud or deceit)
implacable•compromise=honest•swindle  难和解的•妥协=诚实的•诈骗(形动反义)
swindler•cheat=proselyter•convert  骗子•欺骗=改信仰者•改变信仰 (人物典型行为)

swing  (something that swings freely from or on a support)
oscillation•swing=momentum•scooter  振荡•秋千=动力•踏板车(推动力•推动对象)

sybarite  (voluptuary, sensualist)
spartan ◆ sybaritic  简朴的,刻苦的 ◆ 奢侈逸乐的
sybarite ◆ ascetic  纵情逸乐之徒 ◆ 禁欲者,苦行修道者

sycophant  (a servile self-seeking flatterer)
sycophant•fawn=pundit•opine  马屁精•拍马=权威批评家•发表意见(人与其嗜好)
【注:pundit: one who gives opinions in an authoritative manner :critic】
narcissist•self-absorbed=sycophant•obsequious 自恋者•自恋的=马屁精•奉承的
sycophantic•obsequious=pontifical•dogmatic  拍马的•奉承的=武断的•独断的(同义)
rival•competition=extortionist•intimidation=malcontent•complaint
对手•竞争=勒索者•胁迫=不满者•抱怨(人物典型行为)

syllabus  (a summary outline of a discourse, treatise, or course of study)
syllabus•course=agenda•meeting  教学大纲•课程=议程•会议(编排或安排关系)

syllogism  n. 三段论法,演绎;诡辩
remonstrance•offend=syllogism•disprove  用抗议来冒犯=用三段论法来反驳

symbiosis  (balanced proportions)
symmetry ◆ disproportion  对称 ◆ 不均衡

symphony  (consonance of sounds;symphony orchestra)
instrumentalist•symphony=dancer•ballet
乐器演奏家•交响乐=舞蹈家•芭蕾舞(表演者与节目)
stanza•poem=movement•symphony 重复出现诗节•诗=乐章•交响乐(部分与整体)
symphony•conductor=film•director  交响乐•指挥=电影•导演(指挥前者)
exhibition•painting=concert•symphony  展览会•油画=音乐会•交响乐(展示后者)

synchronous  (happening or arising at precisely the same time)
synchronous ◆ noncontemporaneous  同时的 ◆ 非同时的
synchronous ◆ occurring at different times  同时代的 ◆ 发生在不同时代的
synchronous ◆ out-of-phase  同步的 ◆ 不同阶段的

synergic  (working together:cooperating)
synergic ◆ antagonistic  协作的 ◆ 敌对的

synonymous  a. 同义的(alike in meaning or significance)
synonymous•meaning=interchangeable•function
同义的•意义=可互换的•功能 (形容词及其相关对象)

synopsis  (a condensed statement or outline:abstract)
synopsis•conciseness=distillate•purity  摘要•简洁=蒸馏物•纯净(事物典型特征)
abbreviation•sentence=synopsis•narrative  缩写•句子=摘要•叙述
synopsis•condesnsed=appendix•supplementary  摘要•浓缩的=附录•补充
synoptic ◆ protracted  概要的 ◆ 详述的

synthesis  (the composition or combination of parts or elements so as to
form a whole)
synthesis ◆ analysis  合成 ◆ 分解
synthesis ◆ take apart 合成 ◆ 分解,拆开

tacit  (expressed or carried on without words or speech)
tacit•infer=encoded•decode  心照不宣的•推断=用密码写的•解码(前者需要后者)
tacit ◆ expressly stated  暗示的 ◆ 明确的表达
stipulation ◆ tacit requirement  约定 ◆ 默认的要求
tacit ◆ directly expressed/explicit  暗示的 ◆ 直接陈述的/直率的

taciturn  (temperamentally disinclined to talk)
taciturn•chatter=insufferable•tolerate=magnanimous•begrudge
沉默寡言的• 喋喋不休的谈=难以忍受的•容忍=宽宏大量的•嫉妒
loquacious ◆ taciturn  多话的 ◆ 寡言的
taciturn ◆  glib/expansive/prolix/voluble  沉默寡言的 ◆ 油腔滑调的/多嘴的/罗嗦的/饶舌的
volubility ◆ taciturnity  饶舌 ◆ 沉默
windbag ◆ taciturnity  饶舌的人 ◆ 沉默寡言

tackle  (an assemblage of ropes and pulleys arranged to
gain mechanical advantage for hoisting and pulling)
bolster•support=tackle•hoist  支撑结构•支撑=滑车•升高(物品及其功能)
【注•bolster• a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support or bearing】

tact  (a keen sense of what to do or say in order to maintain good relations
with others or avoid offense)
tact•offensive=money•poor  机敏•冒犯性的=金钱•贫穷的(避免)

tactile (perceptible by touch:tangible)
tactile•touch=affective•emotion  触觉的•触觉=情感的•情感(形名同义)

tactless  (marked by lack of a keen sense of what to
do or say in order to maintain good relations with others or avoid offense)
chicanery•clever=tactlessness•truthful  狡猾•精明的=不圆滑•老实的(褒贬对比)
savvy ◆ tactlessness  机智 ◆ 不老练

tadpole n. 蝌蚪
tadpole•frog=caterpillar•butterfly  蝌蚪•青蛙=毛虫•蝴蝶(幼年与成年)

talisman  (an object held to avert evil and bring good fortune)
talisman•object=incantation•utterance 护身符•物品=咒语•话(种属)

taint  (to contaminate morally•corrupt)(a moral defect
considered as a stain or spot)
taint ◆ integrity/wholesomeness  污点被视为道德上污点的一个缺陷 ◆ 正直/健全
tainted ◆  pristine/unspoiled/wholesome  被污染的 ◆ 纯洁的/未损坏的/健全的
tainted ◆ unadulterated  弄脏的 ◆ 没有搀杂的

talon  (the claw of an animal and especially of a bird of prey)
talon•eagle=claw•panther  猛禽的锐爪•鹰=(动物的)爪•豹

tamper  (to alter improperly)
tamper•adjust=misrepresent•communicate窜改•校准=误传•传达(错误与正常)

tangent (diverging from an original purpose of course:
irrelevant);相切的 n. 切线
tangent ◆ essential  不相关的 ◆ 基本的

tangible  (capable of being perceived;palpable);切实的,
明确的(substantially real :material)
incipient•realized=initial•realized=tangible•indefinite
}始的:完成的=最初的•实现的=切实的•模糊的(反义)
tangible ◆ unable to perceive  可感知的 ◆ 无法感知的

tangy  (having or suggestive of a tang)
tangy ◆ bland  强烈的 ◆(味道)平和的

tantalize  (to tease or torment by or as if by presenting something
desirable to the view but continually keeping it out of reach)
tantalize ◆ comfort/ console/ solace/ alleviate/ assuage/ relieve/ satiate
挑惹 ◆ 安慰,减轻,缓和,满足

tantamount  (equivalent in value, significance, or effect)
tantamount ◆ incommensurate  等价 ◆ 不相称的

tantrum (a fit of bad temper)
tantrum ◆ pacify  发脾气 ◆ 使平静

taper  (progressively narrowed toward one end)
abate•intensity=taper•width  减轻•强度=逐渐变细•宽

tapestry  (a heavy handwoven reversible textile used for hangings, curtains,
and upholstery and characterized by complicated pictorial designs)
chiaroscuro•contrast=filigree•delicacy 明暗配合•对比=工艺品•精致(事物典型特征)

tardy  (moving slowly :sluggish)
guile•naif=tardy•prompt  狡猾•天真=迟缓的•迅速 (反义)

tarnish (to dull or destroy the luster of by or as if by air, dust, or dirt)
silver•tarnish=iron•rust  银•失去光泽=铁•生锈 (物品及其化学性质)
tarnish•dull=vitrify•smooth  晦暗•阴暗的=玻璃化•光滑的 (动作及其结果)

tarpaulin  (a piece of material as durable plastic used
for protecting exposed  objects or areas)
lint•covering=tarpaulin•garment软麻布• 遮盖物=油布雨衣•衣服 (种属)
tarpaulin•covering=raincoat•garment 防水油布•遮盖物 = 雨衣•衣服 (种属)

tasty  (strikingly attractive or interesting)
tasty ◆ uninteresting  吸引人的 ◆ 无趣的

tatty  (rather worn, frayed, or dilapidated•shabby)
tatty ◆ smart  褴褛的 ◆ 漂亮的

taunt  (to reproach or challenge in a mocking or insulting manner•jeer at)
flout•disregard=taunt•challenge  轻视•忽视=嘲笑•怀疑(前者表达后者)
taunt•provoke=plot•outwit  嘲弄•挑拨=密谋•以智取胜(同义)

taut  (having no give or slack:tightly drawn)
slacken•tautness=dilute•strength  松弛•紧张度=稀释•浓度(消弱关系)
taut•commodious=extraordinary•purlieu
紧张的•便利的=不寻常的•常去的地方(反面特征)
tauten ◆ loosen/slacken  拉紧 ◆ 松弛
taut ◆ lax/loose or unfirm/slack  紧张的 ◆ 松弛的

list 34  tawdry -------truce

tawdry  (cheap and gaudy in appearance or quality; ignoble)
tawdry ◆ exquisite  俗丽的 ◆ 高雅的

taxing  (onerous, wearing)
taxing ◆ light 繁重的 ◆ 轻快的
taxing ◆ easy  费力的 ◆ 容易的

taxonomist  (one who study the general principles of scientific
classification)
taxonomist•classify=carpenter•build  分类学家•分类=木匠•建筑

tear  (to move or act with violence, haste, or force)
tear ◆ stabilize  猛冲 ◆ 稳定
【注:干扰选项是dawdle和insert 7月类反考题三个词同时出现;dawdle闲逛;强调发出动作者的
态度,即无目的性,而不是其动作本身的快慢以及稳与不稳;insert不能与tear 撕开的义项相对,tear
做撕开的意思时强调的是开,反义是unite 合,而insert做楔入的意思时强调使松的更紧,而不是合
二为一,因此只有stabilize是正确的,前者强调动作的猛,即不稳定性,后者强调其稳定性】

tedious (tiresome because of length or dullness:boring)
tedious•energy=disturbing•composure  乏味的•活力=烦扰的•沉着(名形反义)
discompose•pacific=engage•tedious  使不安•平静的=使忙碌•单调乏味的(消除)
tedious ◆ entertaining 沉闷的 ◆ 愉快的
tedious ◆ absorbing /stimulating  乏味的 ◆ 吸引人的/刺激的

teeter  (to move unsteadily:wobble)
teeter ◆ stabilize  摇摆不定 ◆ 使…稳固

teetotalism  (the principle or practice of complete abstinence from alcoholic drinks)
teetotalism ◆ intemperance  禁酒 ◆ 饮酒过度

telling (carrying great weight and producing a marked
effect• effective, expressive)
telling ◆ not effective  有效的 ◆ 无效的

temerity  (boldness; nerve)
temerity ◆ circumspection/cautious approach  鲁莽 ◆ 谨慎/谨慎处理
temerity ◆ pusillanimity  大胆 ◆ 胆怯

temporize  (to draw out discussions or negotiations so as to
gain time dominant opinion)
temporize ◆ unwilling to compromise  调停 ◆ 不愿意妥协

temperate  (marked by moderation)
temperate•restrain=tenacious•persist  节制的•节制=顽强的•坚持(形动同义)
harangue ◆ speak temperately  长篇大论 ◆ 适度的发言
temperate ◆ extreme  适度的 ◆ 极端地
temperate  ◆ frivolous  节制的 ◆ 轻佻的

tempestuous  (of, relating to, or resembling a tempest)
tempestuous ◆ serene  暴乱的 ◆ 平静的

tenable (capable of being held or defended;reasonable)
ineluctable/inevitable•avoid=untenable•defend
不可避免的•避免=无法防守的•防卫(形动反义)
tenable ◆ unjustified/unsound  无懈可击的 ◆ 不合理的
tenable ◆ specious/indefensible/fallacious
站得住脚的 ◆ 似是而非的/站不住脚的/谬误的

tenacious  (persistent in maintaining something valued or habitual)
beneficent•harm=tenacious•yield=insouciant•worry
有益的•伤害=顽强的•屈服=无忧无虑的•担忧(反面行为)
temperate•restrain=tenacious•persist  节制的•节制=顽强的•坚持(形动同义)
tenacious ◆ negotiable 固执的 ◆ 可商量的
tenacity ◆ vacillation 坚韧 ◆ 踌躇

tendentious  (marked by a tendency in favor of a
particular point of view:biased)
tendentious ◆ unbiased/unprejudiced  有偏见的 ◆ 公平的/没有偏见的

tender  (to offer formally)
tender ◆  withdraw 提出 ◆ 收回,撤回
【注:干扰选项是withhold。withhold:to refrain from granting, giving, or allowing 不批准,不给,
不允许。注意这里的不给容易给大家造成误解。认为不给与提交构成反义。实际上,这里的不给表示
一种态度,如:我不给他我的作业。而提交表示一种动作和行为。其反义应为撤回,收回:retract】

tepid  (moderately warm, lukewarm)
tepid ◆ ardent/ebullient/feverish  不太热心的 ◆ 热心的/热心的/狂热的

terminology  (the special terms used in a business, art, science, or special subject)
terminology•language=uniform•clothing 术语•语言=制服•服装(种属)

terminus  (The final point;the end)
inception•termination=matriculation•graduation  起初•结束=入学•毕业(时间前后)
terminus•trip=epilogue•story  终点•旅程=尾声•故事
outset ◆ termination  开端 ◆ 终止
sustain ◆ terminate  持续 ◆ 结束

terror  (a state of intense fear)
apprehension•terror=affection•adoration  忧虑•恐惧=喜爱•崇拜(程度)
terror•fear=craving•desire  恐惧•害怕=渴望• 希望(程度)

terse  (devoid of superfluity ; also• short, brusque)
terse ◆ lengthy  简短的 ◆ 冗长的

testator  (a person who dies leaving a will or testament in force)
heirloom•ancestor=bequest•testator  传家宝•祖先=遗赠•立遗嘱之人(物品及其来源)

testimony  (a solemn declaration usually made orally by a witness under
oath in response to interrogation by a lawyer or authorized public official)
calumny•assertion=perjury•testimony  诽谤•断言=伪证•证言(褒贬类比)贬与一般
calumny•representation=perjury•testimony  中伤•陈述 =伪证•证词(种属)
testimonial•appreciation=confession•culpability  推荐信表达欣赏=招供表达有罪

testy  (easily annoyed:irritable)
testy•annoy=tractable•control 易努的容易苦恼=易于管教的容易控制
testy•annoy=hesitate•balk  恼怒的•使苦恼=犹豫•犹豫不决(形动同义)
testy ◆ affable  暴躁的 ◆ 和蔼可亲的
testy ◆ good humor/humorous  易怒的 ◆ 思想开明的
testy ◆ unable to irritate  易怒的 ◆ 不能激怒的
【注:testy:marked by impatience or ill humor】
testiness ◆ imperturbability/patience  暴躁 ◆ 冷静/忍耐

tether  (to fasten or restrain by or as if by a tether)
tether ◆ detach/tear  拴拴系 ◆ 分开/撕裂
tether ◆ loose 束缚 ◆ 放任

theatrical  adj. 1. 矫揉造作的2. 夸张的
(Marked by exaggerated self-display and unnatural behavior; affectedly dramatic)
【注:从英文解释中看出theatrical的两层意思:一种是夸张的自我展示;一种是虚假做作的
所以反义为:natural  (自然不做作)对应“虚假做作的”
understated/ reserved/ restraint(克制的)对应“夸张的”
understated >restraint(克制)后者词性不符。
Professional:坚决不能选。从2001年11月以来多次印证为错误答案。】

theology  (the study of religious faith, practice, and experience)
conservatory•music=seminary•theology =observatory•astronomy
音乐学校•音乐=神学院•神学=天文台•天文学(学科及其研究场所)
diary•biographer=scripture•theologian日记•传记作家=经文•神学家(研究对象)

therapeutic  (of or relating to the treatment of disease or
disorders by  remedial agents or methods)
therapeutic•hospital=illuminating•school  治疗的•医院=启蒙的•学校(场所及其特征)

thorny  (full of thorns;full of difficulties or controversial points)
thorny ◆ smooth  多刺的,困难多的 ◆ 平滑的,安详的

threadbare  (exhausted of interest or freshness)
threadbare/timeworn•novelty=labyrinthine•directness
陈腐的/陈旧的•新奇=曲折的•直接 (形名反义)

throng  (to crowd together in great numbers)
protract•length=throng•number 延长•长度=群集•数目(动作及其作用对象)

thwart  (to oppose successfully:defeat the hopes or aspirations of)
oppose•thwart=treat•cure  反对•阻挠=治疗•治愈  (同义)
thwart ◆ support /aid/bolster  阻挠 ◆ 支持
thwart ◆ abet/foment/foster/facilitate 阻挠 ◆ 煽动/煽动/鼓励/帮助
thwart ◆ aid effectively  阻碍 ◆ 有效帮助

ticklish  (easily offended or upset;touchy, oversensitive)
pliant•influence=ticklish•offend  依从的•影响=易怒的•冒犯(容易)
ticklish ◆ imperturbable  不稳定的 ◆ 镇静的

tiff  (a petty quarrel)
tiff•squabble=foible•failing  小争吵•争吵=小缺点• 缺点(程度)
offense•peccadillo=quarrel•tiff  冒犯•小过失=吵架•小争吵

tightfisted  (reluctant to part with money)
tightfisted•parsimonious=brattish•mischievous
吝啬的•小气的=讨厌的(小孩)•淘气的(同义)

timeworn  (hackneyed, stale)
threadbare/timeworn•novelty=labyrinthine•directness
陈腐的/陈旧的•新奇=曲折的•直接(形名反义)
timeworn ◆ novel  陈旧的 ◆ 新奇的

timid  (lacking in courage or self-confidence)
self-confident•timid=open•shy 自信的•羞怯的=开朗的•害羞的 (反义)
timid ◆ stalwart  胆怯的;羞怯的 ◆ 健壮的,坚定的

timorous  (of a timid disposition•fearful)
timorous ◆  intrepid / scrappy/ stalwart  胆怯的 ◆ 无畏的/好斗的/勇敢的

tinge  (to color with a slight shade or stain•tint)
tinged ◆ colorless  淡色的 ◆ 无色的

tinker  (to repair, adjust, or work with something in an
unskilled or experimental manner:fiddle)
tinker•adjust=scribble•write  胡乱地调整•调整=潦草地写•写(非正常和正常)

tint  (to impart or apply a tint to • color)
tint•suffuse=damp•quench  染色•染遍=打湿:浸湿(程度)

tirade  (a protracted speech usually marked by intemperate,
vituperative or harshly censorious language)
anger•tirade=exaggeration•hyperbole
愤怒• 长篇攻击性的演说=夸张•夸张法(后者表达前者)
tirade• anger =burlesque• mockery
长篇攻击性演讲•气愤=讽刺滑稽的戏剧•嘲弄(前者表达后者)
tirade ◆ dispassionate speech  长篇攻击性的演说 ◆ 毫无激情的演讲

toady  (one who flatters in the hope of gaining favors•sycophant)
recluse•solitude=toady•favor  寂寞者•孤独=谄媚者•好感 (正面特征)

tonic  (increasing or restoring physical or
mental tone:refreshing)
conducive•foment=tonic•invigorate/stimulate=anagelsic•deaden
促进的•激励=激励的•鼓舞=麻痹的•消弱(感觉)(形动同义)
tonic ◆ enfeebling  滋补的 ◆ 衰弱的
tonic ◆ draining  增进健康之物 ◆ 气力耗尽

tong  n. 钳子;堂,帮会
tongs•grasping= reel• winding 钳子•抓取=卷轴•旋转(工具及其作用)
另外,谐音:烫 联想:用作刑具的钳子烧红了很烫

tonsorial  (of or relating to a barber or the work of a barber)
tonsorial•hair=sartorial•apparel  理发师的•头发=裁缝的•服装(人及其工作对象)

topsy-turvy  (being in utter confusion or disorder)
topsy-turvy ◆ tranquil 混乱的 ◆ 安静的

topsoil (surface soil usually including the organic layer)
topsoil•erode=paint•peel  表层土•侵蚀=油漆•剥落

tornado (a violent windstorm:whirlwind)
tornado•air=whirlpool•water  旋风•空气=漩涡•水

torque  (force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion)
torque•rotation=tension•elongation  转矩•旋转=拉力•延长(力的作用效果)

torpid  (lacking in energy or vigor • apathetic, dull)
torpid ◆ responsive  迟钝的 ◆ 易感应的
torpid ◆ ardent/ ebullient  缺乏兴趣的  ◆ 热情洋溢的/热情的

torpor  (lethargy; sluggishness; dormancy)
torpor ◆  alertness /ardor/zeal  麻木 ◆ 机敏/热心/热情
torpor ◆ animation/ebullience  不活泼 ◆ 活泼/热情洋溢
torpor ◆ extreme excitability  麻木不仁 ◆ 极端兴奋

torrid  (giving off intense heat•scorching)
torrid ◆ arctic  酷热的 ◆ 极寒的
torridness ◆ frigidity 酷热 ◆ 寒冷

torrential  (caused by or resulting from action of rapid streams)
torrential ◆ trickling 急流的 ◆ 缓流的

tortuous  (marked by devious or indirect tactics • crooked, tricky)
tortuous ◆ direct/straightforward  转弯抹角的 ◆ 直接的

tourniquet  (as a bandage twisted tight with a stick) to check
bleeding or blood flow
tourniquet•bleeding=brake•motion= dam•river
止血绷带•出血=刹车•移动=水坝•江河
tourniquet•bleeding=moratorium•activity  止血绷带•出血=暂停•行动
【注:moratorium:a suspension of activity】

tout  (to praise or publicize loudly or extravagantly)
tout ◆ cast aspersions on/ denounce  极力赞扬 ◆ 诽谤/公开谴责

toy  (to treat something casually or without seriousness:trifle)
toy ◆ think over seriously  草率不认真地对待 ◆ 深思熟虑地对待

tractable  (capable of being easily led, taught, or
controlled•docile)
complaisance•intractable=adeptness•maladroit  柔顺•倔强的=老练•笨拙的
subtle•overlook=tractable•lead  难以觉察的•忽视=易驾驭的•领导(容易发生的)
【注:subtle:difficult to understand or perceive】
testy•annoy=tractable•control 重复易怒的•使苦恼=温顺的•控制(容易发生的)
credulous•cozen=tractable•control  轻信的•欺骗 = 易驾驭的•控制 (容易)
tractable ◆ balky/pertinacious/ headstrong/incorrigible/ manageable
易管教的 ◆  倔强的/固执的/不听命令的/无可救药的/易管理的
tractable ◆ insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/ obstinate
易驾驭的 ◆ 不顺从的/不妥协的/无可救药的/倔强的
tractability ◆ incorrigibility 温驯 ◆ 难以矫正
pliant ◆ intransigence/intractable  顺从/柔顺的 ◆ 不妥协/倔强的

tranquility  (the quality or state free from disturbance or turmoil)
tranquility ◆ ferment/pandemonium  宁静 ◆ 动乱/喧嚣

transcend  (to rise above or go beyond the limits of  , to triumph over
the  negative or restrictive aspects of•overcome)
ossify ◆ transcend conventions 僵化 ◆ 超越传统

transfigure  (to give a new and typically exalted or spiritual appearance
to•transform outwardly and usually for the better)
transfigure•aspect=transfer•location  改观•外表=转移•位置

transgress  (to go beyond limits set or prescribed by•violate)
rectitude•transgress=keen•obtuse  正直•越规=锋利的•钝的(反义)
transgression•morality=presumption•propriety  犯罪•道德=专横•礼貌(违反)
trespass•boundary=betray•trust=astray•path=transgress•rules
侵入•边界=背叛•信任=迷路•道路=违反•规则(动宾关系)
transgress ◆ obey  违反 ◆ 遵守

transient  (passing especially quickly into and out of
existence• transitory)
opportune•convenience=impermanent•transience
适宜的•方便•暂时的•短暂(形名同义)
convoluted•complexity=ephemeral•transience=transient•evanescence
错综复杂的•复杂性=短暂的•短暂=短暂的:瞬息(形名同义)
transient•vanish=constant• perpetuate 短暂的容易消失=不变的容易永存
transience ◆ permanence  短暂 ◆ 持久
transient ◆  eternal / lasting/permanent/ persistent 短暂的 ◆ 永久的
transient ◆ protracted 短暂的 ◆ 拖延的
transient ◆ rooted  瞬时的 ◆ 根深蒂固的(观念、原则等)

transitory  (tending to pass away•not persistent)
transitory•endure=immutable•change  短暂的•耐久=不变的•变化 (反义)
achromatic•hue=transitory•permanence  非彩色的•色彩=短暂的•永久(形名反义)
transitory ◆ permanence/ perpetual  短暂的 ◆ 永久的
transitory ◆ enduring /persistent  短暂的 ◆ 持久的

translucent  (permitting the passage of light•clear,
transparent)
slack•tension=opaque•translucence  松弛•紧张=不透明•透明(反义)
translucent ◆ impervious of light  透明的 ◆ 不透光的
translucence ◆ opacity 半透明 ◆ 不透明

transparent  (obvious)(free from pretense or deceit)
conspicuous•see=transparent•understand  显眼的•看见=显而易见的•理解(容易)
opacity ◆ transparency 不透明 ◆ 透明
transparent ◆ deceitful/ delusive  坦率的 ◆ 欺骗
transparent ◆ opaque  透明的 ◆ 不透明的

travail (work especially of a painful or laborious nature • toil)
laze ◆ travail 懒散 ◆ 辛苦劳动

traverse  (to go or travel across or over)
diverge•apart=traverse•across 分叉•分开地=横越•横过(动副同义)

travesty  (a debased, distorted, or grossly inferior imitation)
travesty ◆ paragon  拙劣地,歪曲地模仿 ◆ 优秀的,完美的模范

treacherous  (characterized by or manifesting treachery:perfidious)
treacherousness ◆ faithfulness 背叛 ◆ 忠诚

treasurer  (an officer entrusted with the receipt and disbursement of
funds)
treasurer•funds=secretary•records  财务员•资金=秘书•记录 (职务及其管理对象)

treaty  (an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation)
rectify•treaty=confirm•hypothesis  矫正•条约=确认•假说(动宾关系)

trenchant  (keen, incisive; sharp)
trenchant ◆ vague/dull 一针见血的 ◆ 含糊的/钝的

trepidation  (timorous uncertain agitation:apprehension)
dauntless•trepidation=footloose•attachment  大胆的不恐惧=自由自在的不固定
dauntless ◆ trepid  大胆的 ◆ 惊恐的
trepidation ◆ sober  战栗 ◆ 镇定

trespass  (to enter unlawfully upon the land of
another;• err, sin;to make an unwarranted or uninvited incursion; violate)
usurp•take=trespass•enter  霸占•获得=侵入•进入(非法与正常)
trespass•boundary=transgress•rule  侵入:边界=违反:规则 (动宾关系)
trespass ◆ without to intrude  侵犯 ◆ 不侵犯
trespass ◆ obey  违反 ◆ 遵从

tribute (a gift, payment, declaration)
tribute ◆ denunciation/ reprobation  颂词 ◆ 谴责/ 斥责

trickle (to issue or fall in drops)
blast•whiff=gush•trickle  大风•小气流=喷涌•滴流(名词程度)
trickle•gush=warm•sear  滴流•喷涌=弄热•烧焦(程度)

trite  (hackneyed or boring from much use•not fresh or original)
trite ◆ fresh/original/unbanal/unhackneyed  陈腐的 ◆ 新鲜的/创新的/不陈腐的/未陈旧的

trivial (commonplace, ordinary)
trivial ◆ indispensable/substantive  微不足道的 ◆ 不可缺少的/有实质的
trivial ◆  grandiose/massive  平常的 ◆ 宏伟的

troupe  (a company or group, especially of touring actors, singers, or dancers)
troupe•perform=chorus•sing  剧团•表演=合唱团•演唱(团体及其特征行为)
orchestra•music=•troupe•drama  管弦乐队•音乐=剧团•戏剧

trophy  (something gained in victory)
trophy•contestant=honors•student  奖品•竞争者=荣誉•学生(后者追求前者)
athlete•trophy=soldier•medal  运动员•奖品=战士•奖章

truant  (shirking responsibility)n. 逃学者,逃避者
truant ◆ dutiful  玩忽职守的 ◆ 尽职尽责的

truce  (a suspension of or an agreement for suspending hostilities)
truce ◆ resumed fighting  休战 ◆ 重新发起战争

list 35  truculent --------verve

truculent  (cruel, savage)(aggressively self-assertive)
truculent•gentleness=unregenerate•remorse  残暴的不温顺=顽固的不自责
【注:unregenerate:making no attempt to change one's bad practices 不思改过】
【注:remorse :a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt for past wrongs 自责】
truculent ◆  genial/gentle/meek  凶狠的,好战的 ◆ 温和的
truculent ◆ pacific/ placid  好战的 ◆ 和平的/平和的
truculence ◆ benevolence/kindness  野蛮 ◆ 仁慈
truculence ◆ tranquility  好战 ◆ 宁静

trudge  (to walk or march steadily and usually laboriously)
lug•carry=trudge•walk 拖拉•运送=跋涉•走(前者吃力)

trumpet (a wind instrument consisting of a conical or cylindrical usually
metal tube, a cup-shaped mouthpiece, and a flared bell)
trumpet•horn=tambourine•drum  小号•喇叭=小手鼓•鼓(种属)

truncate  (to shorten by or as if by cutting off)
truncate•extent=simplify•complexity  截短•长度=简化•复杂性(行为对象)
prolong ◆ truncate  延长 ◆ 截短

twig  (a small shoot)v.理解
twig•limb=brook•river 小枝•大枝=小溪•江河(大小)

truss  (a rigid framework, as of wooden beams or metal bars, designed to
support a structure, such as a roof)
ballast•stability=truss•support  压舱物•稳定性=托架•支持(物品作用)

tugboat (a strongly built powerful boat used for towing and pushing)
locomotive•flatcar=tugboat•barge  火车头•平台车=拖船•驳船 (前者拖动后者)
【注:barge :a roomy usually flat-bottomed boat used chiefly for the transport of goods on
inland waterways and usually propelled by towing 靠拖动的驳船 tow:拖】

tumult  (commotion)(agitation of the mind or emotions)
tumultuous•bedlam=active•hive 骚动的•混乱场所=活跃的•闹市(正面特征)
tumult ◆ quietude/ quiescence/ serenity/ tranquility  骚动 ◆ 安静
tumultuous ◆ serene  喧嚣的 ◆ 平静的

turbulent  (causing unrest, violence, or disturbance)
maelstrom•turbulent=mirage•illusory  漩涡•狂暴的=海市蜃楼•幻影的(事物典型特征)

turgid  (excessively embellished in style or language)
turgid ◆ simple  浮夸的 ◆ 简朴的

turmoil (a state or condition of extreme confusion, agitation, or commotion)
turmoil ◆ tranquility  骚动 ◆ 安静
(同 commotion , agitation, confusion, flap, tumult, turbulence

turncoat  (one who switches to an opposing side or party;
specifically :traitor)
bigot•tolerance=turncoat•constancy=recluse•compassion simpleton•sagacity
顽固者•容忍=背叛者•坚定不移=遁世者•同情笨蛋•睿智(反面特征)
constancy ◆ turncoat  坚定不移 ◆ 背叛者

turpitude??? (inherent baseness:depravity; a base act)
turpitude ◆ probity  卑鄙 ◆ 正直
turpitude ◆ saintly behavior  卑鄙的行为 ◆ 圣洁的行为

turquoise  (a mineral that is a blue, bluish green, or greenish gray)
gem•turquoise=flower•violet  宝石• 绿宝石=花•紫罗兰(种属)

turret  (an ornamental structure at an angle of a larger structure)
castle•turret=sea•beacon  城堡•塔楼=海洋•灯塔 (建筑物及其所属)

typo  (an error in typed or typeset material)
typo•text=bug•software  打字错误•文本=程序错误•软件(错误及其发生对象)

tyro  (a beginner in learning:novice)
tyro ◆ expert  新手 ◆ 专家

ubiquitous  (being everywhere at the same time)
ubiquitous ◆ unique  普遍的 ◆ 唯一的

unassailable  (Impossible to dispute or disprove)
unassailable•refute=impervious•damage 无可辩驳不能驳斥=不会受损是不会受损伤
【注:非难以关系,而是不能关系,语气更加强硬】

uncanny (seeming to have a supernatural character or origin)
uncanny ◆ ordinary  离奇的 ◆ 普通的
uncanny的can 谐音为“看”→不能看出来的→离奇的

uncouth (awkward in appearance, manner, or behavior)
uncouth•churl=conspiratorial•conniver
粗俗的•粗野的人=阴谋的•阴谋家(人物典型行为)
seemly ◆ uncouth  得体的 ◆ 粗俗的
【注:seemly :conventionally proper :decorous】

unctuous  (fatty, oily)(revealing or marked by a
smug, ingratiating, and false earnestness or spirituality)
placebo•innocuous=salve•unctuous  安慰剂•无害的=药膏•油质的(事物典型特征)
sanctimonious•devoted=unctuous•earnest  假装虔诚的•虔诚的=假殷勤的•热心

undermine  (to weaken or ruin by degrees)
undermine ◆ aggrandize/reinforce/ undergird  消弱 ◆ 加强

underscore  (emphasize, stress)(line drawn
under a word or line especially for emphasis)
underscore•emphasis=brand•ownership下划线表示强调=烙印商标表明所有权
underscore ◆ de-emphasize/downplay  强调 ◆ 不予重视

underdog  (a victim of injustice or persecution)
underdog ◆ bully  受害者 ◆ 欺凌弱小者

understudy  (one who is prepared to act another's part)
understudy•star=deputy•sheriff  替身•演员=代理•州长(前者代替后者)

unexceptionable (not open to criticism•beyond reproach)
unexceptionable•oppose=unique•precedent  无懈可击无法反对=独一无二没有先

unflappable  (marked by assurance and self-control)  unflappable•upset=obstinate•persuade 镇定的不易被扰乱=倔强的不易被说服
unflappable ◆ disturbed  镇定的 ◆ 扰乱的

ungainly  (lacking in smoothness or dexterity•clumsy)
loquacious•succinct=adroit•ungainly  多话的•简洁的=灵巧的•笨拙的(反义)
ungainly ◆ adroit/dexterous/lissome  笨拙的 ◆ 灵巧的,机敏的/灵巧的/敏捷的

unimpeachable  (not to be called in question)
unimpeachable  ◆  open to question  无可置疑的 ◆ 有疑问的

unkempt (deficient in order or neatness)
unkempt ◆ dapper  不整洁的 ◆ 整洁的

unlettered  (lacking facility in reading and writing and
ignorant of the knowledge to be gained from books)
erudite ◆ ignorant/smattering of knowledge/ unlettered
博学的 ◆ 无知识的/知识浅薄的/无学问的

unpretentious  (free from ostentation, elegance, or affectation)
bombastic ◆ unpretentious  夸大的 ◆ 不炫耀的

unproductive  adj.  徒然的,无效的
effectual ◆ unproductive  有效的 ◆ 无效的

unrequited  (not reciprocated or returned in kind)
remunerative ◆ unrequited  有报酬的 ◆ 无报酬的

unruly  (not readily ruled or managed;presumptuous)
unruly•authority=refractory•change  蛮横的•威信=执拗的•改变(不会产生后者)
subdued ◆ unruly  屈服的 ◆ 难驾驭的
unruly ◆ disciplined  不守规矩的 ◆ 遵守纪律的

untenable  (not able to be defended)
untenable•defense=invulnerable•injury=inevitable•avoide=incontrovertible•disputed
防守不住的•防卫=不会受伤害的•伤害=不可避免的•避免=无可争议的•争议

untold  (incalculable, vast)
(countless/innumerable/myriad/untold)•number=(everlasting/ interminable)•duration
无数的•数目=无休止的•持续 (前者修饰后者)
untold ◆ able to quantify/quantifiable/calculable  数不清的 ◆ 可以计算的

untoward  (not favorable:adverse, unpropitious)
untoward ◆  auspicious/ propitious  不利的 ◆ 吉兆的/吉利的
untoward  ◆  favorable and anticipated  不利的 ◆ 顺利且可以被预见的
untoward ◆ fortunate  事与愿违的 ◆ 幸运的
toward ◆ obdurate  良好的 ◆ 冷酷的

unwitting  (not knowing•unaware)
conscious ◆ unwitting  有意识的 ◆ 未觉察的

unwonted  (not accustomed by experience)
habit ◆ unwonted behavior  习惯 ◆ 不习惯
unwonted ◆ usual  不寻常的 ◆ 平常的
穷人总是抱怨这是个冷酷的世界

upbraid (severely reproach;scold vehemently)
upbraid•disapproval=lament•grief 责骂•不赞成=哀悼•悲痛 (表达)
upbraid•reproach=dote•like  谴责•责备=溺爱•喜欢(程度)
upbraid ◆ laud/extol  谴责 ◆ 赞美/颂扬

uphold  (to support against an opponent)
uphold ◆  abrogate /impugnuphold  支持,赞成 ◆ 废除/指责

urbane  (notably polite or finished in manner•polished)
urbane•gaucherie=guileless•chicanery 文雅的不笨拙=坦率的不狡辩
urbane ◆ rude/rustic  文雅的 ◆ 粗鲁无礼的/不世故的
urbanity ◆ artlessness 文雅 ◆ 淳朴
urbanity ◆ oafishness  举止文雅 ◆ 痴呆

usurp  (to seize or exercise authority or possession wrongfully)
usurp•take=trespass•enter
篡夺•获得=侵入•进入(非法与正常)
impostor•identity=usurper•authorization
冒名顶替者•身份=篡位者•权利 (前者不正当得到后者)
usurp  ◆  assume rightfully  篡位 ◆ 正当的就职

usury  (lending money at illegal high rates of interest)
usury•interest=gouging•price  高利贷•利息=敲竹杠•价格(诈取后者)

utter  (pronounce, speak)(absolute, total)
flit•move=blurt•utter迅速飞过•移动•突然说出•出声(快•正常)
exclaim•utter=flare•shine  大声呼喊•出声=闪耀•发光(大•正常)
circumlocution ◆ pithy utters/utter concisely/straightforward utter 累赘的话 ◆ 简练的话
utter  ◆  partial 完全的 ◆ 部分的
jest ◆ solemn utterance  玩笑,俏皮话 ◆ 严肃的话

vaccinate  (to inoculate with cowpox virus to produce immunity)
soporific•sleep=vaccinating•immunity  催眠的•睡觉=接种的•免疫(促进)
vaccination•immune=overexposure•jaded 接种疫苗•免疫的=过度曝光•厌腻的(因果)
【注:jaded:词义是因为某件事情过度而感到厌腻的。Overexposure:可理解成演员在公众面
前曝光过度,对此感到厌腻】

vacillate  (waver in opinion;fluctuate;sway to and fro)
impetuous•vacillation/hesitation=bumptious•humbleness
冲动的•踌躇=傲慢的•谦逊(形名反义)
persistence•vacillate=inertia•react  坚持不会犹豫=惰性不会起反应
vacillate•uncertainty=apologize•contrite  犹豫表达不确定=道歉表达后悔
equipoise ◆ vacillate  平衡 ◆ 摇摆
resolute ◆ vacillate  决议 ◆ 犹豫不定
vacillate  ◆  resolve firmly/stand firm  犹豫不决 ◆ 坚决/立场坚定
adamant ◆  vacillating  坚定的 ◆ 犹豫不决的
vacillation ◆  impetuosity/ pertinacity/resolution  踌躇 ◆ 冲动/固执/决心
vacillation  ◆  motionless balance  摇摆不定 ◆ 静止平衡

vacuous (marked by lack of ideas or intelligence•stupid, inane)
vacuous ◆ intelligent  愚蠢的 ◆ 聪明的
vacuous ◆ omniscient  空洞的 ◆ 全知的, 无所不知的
vacuity ◆  plentitude  空虚 ◆ 充分

vagary  (capricious happening; caprice)
vagary•predict=impossibility•execute=indemonstrable•prove =diehard•budge
奇特行为•预知=不可能之事•实行=不能证明的•证明=顽固的人•使动摇(难以)
(同 caprice, conceit, fancy, freak, humor, whim

vague  (not thinking or expressing one's thoughts clearly or precisely)
vague ◆ well defined  不清楚的 ◆ 详细说明的
vague ◆ express/trenchant  含糊的 ◆ 明确的/清晰的

valediction  (an act of bidding farewell)
panegyric•praise=valediction•farewell 颂词•称赞=告别词•辞别(表达含义)
valediction ◆ greeting 告别 ◆ 欢迎

valiant (courageous;heroic)
valiant•entrapped=demanding•satisfied英勇的•被俘获的=苛求的•满意的 ( 反义)
valiant ◆  pusillanimous  勇敢的 ◆ 胆怯的

valid  (logically correct)(well-grounded)(effective)
specious ◆ valid  似是而非的 ◆ 有根据的
fallacy ◆ valid argument  谬误 ◆ 正确的论点

vanquish  (to defeat in a conflict or contest)
attack•vanquished=goad•provoked  攻击•被征服的=刺激•被激怒的(结果)

vapid  (lacking liveliness, tang, briskness, or force:flat, dull)
vapid ◆ inventive  乏味的 ◆ 有创造性的
vapid ◆ piquant  乏味的 ◆ 开胃的
vapid ◆ riveting  索然无味的 ◆ 非常动听的
vapid ◆ zesty  无趣的 ◆ 兴致高的
bracing ◆ vapid  令人振奋的 ◆ 索然无味的

vaporize  (to convert as by the application of heat or by spraying into vapor)
scuff•abrasion=heat•vaporization  使磨损•磨损=加热•汽化(结果)
abraded•friction=vaporized•heat  磨损•摩擦=蒸发•加热(作用及其结果)
vaporization/ gasification ◆ solidification  汽化 ◆ 固体化
vaporous ◆ substantial 无实质的 ◆ 实质上的

variance  (difference, variation)
immutable ◆ variable  不可变的 ◆ 可变的
variance ◆ congruity/uniformity  不一致分歧 ◆ 一致
variance  ◆  quantity with a fixed value  变量 ◆ 常量

variegation  (the diversity of colors)
variegation  ◆  uniform coloration  变化多样的颜色 ◆ 相同的颜色

varnish (to apply varnish to)
glaze•porcelain=varnish•wood=wax•linoleum
上釉•瓷器=上漆•木制品=上蜡•油布(行为作用对象)
varnish•glossy=sand•smooth  涂上清漆•有光泽的=磨砂•平滑的(行为及其作用)

vault  (a room or compartment for the safekeeping of valuables)
larder•provisions=vault•valuables  食品室•粮草=金库•贵重物品

vaunt  (to make a vain display of one's own worth or attainments:brag)
vaunt ◆ self-deprecate/downplay/humble/understate  自夸 ◆ 自贬/贬低/贬抑/保守的说
vaunting ◆ meek  傲慢的 ◆ 谦恭的

veer  (to change direction or course)
veer•direction=convert•belief 转向•方向=改变信仰•信仰(行为及其作用对象)
veer ◆ maintain constant  改变 ◆ 保持不变

vehement  (intensely emotional:impassioned, fervid)
vehement ◆ languid  热情洋溢的 ◆ 无精打采的
vehement ◆ apathetic  (情感)强烈的 ◆ 缺乏感情的
vehement ◆ lull  激烈的 ◆ 使平静
vehement ◆ tepid  激烈的 ◆ 微温的

venal  (capable of being bribed; corrupt)
venal ◆ unsusceptible of bribery  贪污受贿的 ◆ 不易受贿赂影响的
venal  ◆  incorruptible  贪污的 ◆ 清廉的

vendor  (one that sell especially as a hawker or peddler)自动售货机
vendor•purvey=censor•expurgate  小贩•供应=检查员•修订(人物典型行为).

veneer  (a layer of wood of superior value or excellent grain to be glued to
an inferior wood)
foil•metal=veneer•wood  金属薄片•金属=镶面板•木材
glaze•porcelain=veneer•furniture=baseboard•wall 釉•瓷器=饰面•家具=护壁板•墙壁

venerate  (regard with reverential respect)
veneration ◆ derision/disdain/despise/scorn  尊敬 ◆ 嘲笑/蔑视/轻视/轻蔑
venerate ◆ contempt/dishonor  尊敬 ◆ 蔑视/玷辱

venial  (forgivable, pardonable)
venial•excuse=pellucid•understand  可宽恕的•原谅=易懂的•明白(容易关系)

venom  (poison of an animal)(hatred)
venom•toxin=milk•nutrient  毒液含毒素=牛奶含营养

veracious  (truthful, honest)
veracious ◆  fallacious/ mendacious  诚实的 ◆ 虚假的
mendacity ◆ veracity  虚假,撒谎 ◆ 诚实,说实话

verbatim  (following the exact words)
paraphrase•verbatim=approximate•precise  意译•直译的=近似•精确的(反面特征)
【注:paraphrase:意译,用其他语句来阐释,改写。】
argot ◆ standard language/common verbalism  隐语,暗语 ◆ 标准语言/普通地言语

verbose (containing more words than necessary)
verbosity•words=floridness•embellishments  冗长•话=鲜艳•修饰(夸张的)
verbose ◆ concise/ succinct  冗长的 ◆ 简洁的
verbosity ◆  laconism/ succinctness  冗赘 ◆ 简洁

verdant (green with growing plants)
verdant ◆  barren/ sere/ sterile/ morbid  翠绿的 ◆ 贫瘠的/干枯的/贫瘠的/病态的

verify  (to establish the truth, accuracy, or reality of)
plumb•depth=verify•accuracy  用铅锤测量•深度=校验•精确性(动宾关系)
refutation ◆ verification  驳斥 ◆ 确认
unsubstantiated ◆ verified  未经证实的 ◆ 已证实的
verifiable ◆ fallacious  可证实的 ◆ 错误的

veritable  (not false, unreal, or imaginary)
veritable  ◆  specious  真正的 ◆ 似是而非的

verisimilar  (having the appearance of truth :probable)
verisimilar  ◆  implausible  好象真实的,可能的 ◆ 不象真实的,难以置信的

vernacular  (the standard native language of a country or locality)
vernacular•place=jargon•profession  方言•地方=行话•行业(事物及其相关对象)

versatile  (having many uses or applications)
versatile ◆ having limited application 多用的 ◆ 用途有限的
versatile  ◆  unchangeable  多用途的 ◆ 不变的

verse  (to familiarize by study or experience)
footloose•attachment=unversed•familiarity  自由自在的不附属=不精通的不熟悉

vertigo (a disordered state in which the individual or the individual's
surroundings seem to whirl dizzily)
hemorrhage•bleeding=vertigo•dizziness 出血•出血=眩晕•眩晕(同义)

verve  (vivacity;energy, vitality)
verve ◆ listlessness  活力 ◆ 倦怠
verve  ◆ lassitude  活力 ◆ 疲乏

list 36  vessel-------- zesty

vessel  n. 船只,容器,脉管
aqueduct•water=pipeline•gas=vessel•blood  水渠•水=导气管•气体=脉管•血

vestige (the smallest quantity or trace)
vestige•remainder=figurine•statue  小痕迹•残余=小雕像•雕像(小与正常)
vestige ◆ fully developed  退化 ◆ 充分发展
without a vestige of clothing 一丝不挂

vestigial  (small and degenerate or imperfectly developed)
vestigial ◆ fully developed  发育不全的 ◆ 充分发展的

veteran (an old soldier of long service)adj. 经验丰富的
cadet•veteran=tadpole•frog  军官学校学生•老兵=蝌蚪•青蛙(年轻与成熟)

veto  (to refuse to admit or approve:prohibit)
veto•prohibitive=overture•introductory  禁止•禁止的=序曲•开端的 (名形同义)
veto ◆ consent 否决 ◆ 同意

vex  (to bring trouble, distress, or agitation to)
draconian•inclemency=fret•vexation严峻的•严酷=烦恼•烦恼 (同义)
vex ◆ pacify/ placate/ appease/ conciliate/ mollify/ soothe
使烦恼 ◆ 使平静/使平息/安抚/安慰/安抚/安慰
vex ◆ unable to incite 烦惹 ◆ 不会烦人
vexation ◆ conciliation/ placation  烦恼 ◆ 抚慰/安抚

viable  (capable of living)
elastic•expand=viable•live  弹性的•张开=能养活的•存活(因果关系)
viability ◆ inability to live  生存能力 ◆ 不能存活的

vicarious  (performed or suffered by one person as a substitute
for another or to the benefit or advantage of another:substitutionary)
vicarious ◆ firsthand  代理的 ◆ 直接的

vicious (having the nature or quality of vice or immorality:depraved)
benignant ◆ vicious  仁慈的 ◆ 邪恶的

vicissitude  (natural change or mutation visible in
nature or in human affairs)
vicissitudinous ◆  immutable/ unchanging  有变化的 ◆ 不变的

victimize  (to subject to deception or fraud:cheat)
victimize ◆ treat fairly  使受骗 ◆ 公平对待

vigilant  (alertly watchful especially to avoid danger)
vigilant•entrapped=wary•gulled  警惕的• 被骗的的=机警的•受骗的(反义)
vigilant•waylaid=wary•duped  警惕的•被埋伏的•机警的•被欺骗的(反义)
vigilant ◆  gullible/ negligible/ oblivious/ supine/ unalert
警醒的 ◆ 易受骗的/不予重视的/不知不觉的/懒散的/不警惕的

vignette  (a brief incident or scene as in a play or movie)
vignette•scene=skit•drama  小插曲•情景=小喜剧•戏剧 (小与正常)

vigorous  (full of physical or mental strength or active force)
decrepit ◆  vigorous  衰老的 ◆ 精力旺盛的

vilify  (to utter slanderous and abusive statements against:defame)
extol ◆ vilify 赞美 ◆ 辱骂
vilify ◆ honor 贬低 ◆ 尊敬
vilification ◆ beautification  污蔑 ◆ 美化

vim  (robust energy and enthusiasm)
lassitude ◆ vim/animation  疲乏 ◆ 活力/有生气

vindicate  (to free from allegation or blame)
vindicate ◆ confirm guilt/ calumniate/ impugn  辩护 ◆ 定罪/诽谤/责难

vindictive  (disposed to seek revenge:vengeful)
mercenary•money=vindictive•revenge  唯利是图的追求金钱=复仇心重的追求报仇

virtuoso  (an experimenter in the arts and sciences:savant)
virtuoso•skill=potentate•power  艺术名鉴赏家•技能=当权者•权力(前者具备后者)
virtuoso ◆ beginner/mediocrity 大师 ◆ 初学者/平庸之才

virtuous  (morally excellent:righteous)
doldrums•energy=depravity•virtue  消沉•精力=堕落•美德(缺乏)
virtuous ◆ base/nefarious  品德高尚的 ◆ 卑鄙的/穷凶极恶的

virulent  adj. 有毒的,有害的
virulent ◆ salubrious  有毒的 ◆ 有益健康的

viscous (having a glutinous consistency:viscid)
glutinous ◆ non viscous  粘性的 ◆ 没粘性的

viscid  (having a glutinous consistency:viscous)
viscid ◆ slick 粘滞的 ◆ 光滑的

visionary  (illusory)(utopian)
visionary•idealistic=officious•obliging
空想不切实际的•理想主义的=好管闲事的•热于助人的(褒贬)
【注:visionary :Not practicable or realizable; utopian: 不切实际的;乌托邦的】
miscreant•criminal=visionary•delusion 罪恶的•罪犯=幻影的•幻觉(事物典型特征)

vitality  (capacity to live and develop)
attenuate•thickness=enervate•vitality=debase•value
稀释•浓度=使虚弱•活力=贬低•价值(行为及其作用对象)
dehydrate•water=wither•vitality  脱水•水=使凋谢•生命力(行为及其作用对象)
arrest ◆ vitalize  阻止 ◆ 激发(生长)
vitality ◆ enervation  活力 ◆ 虚弱
vitality ◆ soporific  活力 ◆ 使人昏昏沉沉的东西

vitiate (to make faulty or defective:impair)
vitiate ◆ fortify/strengthen  消弱 ◆ 增强/加强

vitrify (to convert into a glassy substance by heat and fusion)
tarnish•dull=vitrify•smooth  使失去光泽•阴暗的=使变成玻璃•平滑的(结果)

vitriolic  (bitterly scathing; caustic)
vitriolic ◆ soothing  刻薄的 ◆ 抚慰的

vituperate  (to abuse or censure severely or abusively:berate)
lionize•admire=vituperate•despise  捧人•赞美=谩骂•轻视(情感表达)
vituperate ◆ admire/ praise  责骂 ◆ 赞赏
vituperative ◆ adulatory/complimentary 辱骂的 ◆ 奉承的/称赞的

vivacious  (lively in temper, conduct, or spirit:sprightly)
vivacious ◆ languid/ phlegmatic  活泼的 ◆ 疲倦的/无活力的

vociferous  (marked by vehement insistent outcry)
vociferous ◆ monotone/reticent/serenity  喧哗的 ◆ 单调的/沉默的/安静的

volatile  (inconstant; fickle)
craven•heroic=volatile•constant  怯懦的•英勇的=易变的•不变的(反义)
volatile•temper=ready•wit  反复无常的•脾气=自发的•妙语(形修饰名)
volatile•evaporate=soluble•dissolve  挥发性的•使蒸发=可溶解的•溶解(容易)
volatile ◆ constant/stable  反复无常的 ◆ 不变的/稳定的
imperturbability ◆ volatility  冷静 ◆ 易变

volition  (an act of making a choice or decision)
volition ◆ inability to choose/ inability to select  决择 ◆ 无法抉择

voluble (having or marked by great volume or bulk)
voluminous ◆ scanty/ scarce  大量的 ◆ 缺乏的/缺乏的

voluptuous  (given to or spent in enjoyments
of luxury, pleasure, or sensual gratifications)
voluptuary ◆ ascetic  酒色之徒 ◆ 苦行者
voluptuous ◆  spartan/ self constrained/ self denying
沉溺酒色的 ◆ 节俭的/自我约束的/克己的

voracious  (insatiable;having a huge appetite)
impassive•perturb=voracious•satisfy  冷漠的•扰乱=贪婪的•满足(不容易被)
voracity ◆ lack of appetite  狼吞虎咽的 ◆ 没有食欲的

votary  (enthusiast, devotee;a devout or zealous worshiper)
votary ◆ skeptic  崇拜者 ◆ 怀疑者
votary ◆ reactionary  信徒 ◆ 反动分子

vouch  (to summon into court to warrant or defend a title)
vouch ◆ refuse to guarantee  担保 ◆ 拒绝担保

vulgar  (lacking in cultivation, perception, or taste:coarse)
genteel/ gentle•vulgarity=intrepid•fear  优雅的•粗俗=无畏的•害怕(形名反义)

vulnerable  (open to attack or damage:assailable)
vulnerable  ◆  safe  易受攻击的 ◆ 安全的

waddle  vi. 摇摇摆摆地走,蹒跚
slither•snake=waddle•duck  滑动•蛇=摇摇摆摆•鸭子(动物特征动作)

waffle  (to talk or write foolishly:blather)
waffle•enunciate=embed•disinter  胡扯•阐明=嵌入•掘出(反义)
waffle ◆  insist harshly/speak unequivocally  胡扯 ◆ 严厉地强调/清晰地表述

waft  (to move or go lightly on or as if on a buoyant medium)
waft•plummet=meander•dash  飘荡•垂直下落=蜿蜒而流•猛冲(程度)

wag  (wit, joker)
humorous•wag=ludicrous•buffoon=dissolute•libertine= stupid•dolt
滑稽的•小丑=可笑的•小丑=放荡的•放荡不羁者=愚蠢的•笨蛋(人物性格特征)

wan  (suggestive of poor health•sickly, pallid)
wan ◆ hale  病态的 ◆ 健壮的
wan ◆ rubicund 苍白的 ◆ 面色红润的

wanderlust  (strong longing for or impulse toward wandering)
curiosity•know=wanderlust•travel  好奇就想知道=旅行癖就想旅行

wane  (dwindle;to fall gradually from power, prosperity, or influence)
verve ◆ listlessness  活力 ◆ 倦怠
resurgence ◆ waning vitally  苏醒 ◆ 衰退
burgeoning ◆ waning  迅速生长的 ◆ 慢慢衰落
escalate ◆ wane  逐步增强 ◆ 逐渐衰退
wane ◆ intensify  减弱 ◆ 增强

want  (extreme poverty that deprives one of the necessities of life)
repletion ◆ want  充满 ◆ 短缺

wardrobe  (a room or closet where clothes are kept:clothespress)
wardrobe•clothes=bookcase•books=larder•food
衣柜•衣服=书柜•书=食物柜•食物(事物及其存储场所)

warmonger  (one who urges or attempts to stir up war)  warmonger/ jingoist ◆ dove/pacifist
好战者/侵略主义者 ◆ 鸽派人物(主张和平调解或谈判)/和平者

warp  (to twist or bend out of a plane)
aligned ◆ warped  排成直线的 ◆ 弯曲的

warrant (to guarantee to a person good title to and
undisturbed possession of as an estate)
gratuitous ◆ warranted/merited 免费的,无理由的 ◆ 有正当理由的/应得的

wary  (very cautious; watchful)
vigilant•waylaid=wary•duped  警惕的•被埋伏•机警的•被欺骗(反面特征)
wary•gulled=vigilant•ambushed  小心的•受骗的=警惕的•被埋伏的
remiss ◆ scrupulous/ wary  不留心的,玩忽职守的 ◆ 小心谨慎的/ 机警的

wastrel (one who dissipates resources self-indulgently)
inexperience•neophyte=irresponsibility•wastrel
无经验•新手=无责任•败家子(人物典型行为)

watershed  (a crucial dividing point:turning point)
watershed ◆ routine  重要关头 ◆ 日常事务

wax  (to increase in phase or intensity ,used chiefly of the
moon, other satellites, and inferior planets)
wax ◆ decrease/waste away  增大 ◆ 减少
flag ◆ wax  衰退 ◆ 增强
wax ◆ waning  月亮渐满 ◆ 月亮渐亏

waylay  (to lie in wait for or attack from ambush)
vigilant•waylaid=wary•duped警惕的不容易被伏击=机警的不容易被欺骗
watchful•waylaid=cunning•gulled警惕的•被埋伏=狡猾的•被骗 (人物反特)

welter  (a chaotic mass or jumble)
welter  ◆  orderly arrangement  乱七八糟 ◆ 井然有序

wheedle (to influence or entice by soft words or flattery)
wheedle•cajolery=extort•coercion  哄骗•诱骗=敲诈•强迫 (同义)

whet  (to make keen or more acute:excite, stimulate)
blunt ◆ whet  变钝 ◆ 磨快
whet ◆ dull  使更敏锐 ◆ 使迟钝

whiff  (a quick puff or slight gust especially of air, odor, gas, smoke, or spray)
blast•whiff=gush•trickle  一阵风•微风=涌出•滴流 (程度)

whimsical  (resulting from or characterized by
whim or caprice;  especially:lightly fanciful)
caprice•whimsical=stealth•furtive=insight•discerning
反复无常•反复无常的=偷偷行动•偷偷地=洞察力•有辨别能力的(名形同义)
mercurial•mood=whimsical•behavior  善变的•情绪=易变的•行为(前者修饰后者)

wholesome  (promoting health or well-being of spirit,body or morals)
wholesomeness ◆ decadence/taint  健康 ◆ 颓废/污点
wholesome ◆ deleterious/insalubrious/noxious  有益健康的 ◆ 有害的
wholesome ◆ morbid/tainted  健康的 ◆ 病态的/有污点的
sordid ◆ wholesome  肮脏的 ◆ 卫生的

wickedness  (the quality or state of being morally very bad)
nefarious•wickedness=generous•liberality  极恶的•邪恶=宽大的•宽大

wince  (to shrink back involuntarily as from pain)
wince•pain=smile•pleasure=pout•displeasure=sneer•contempt
畏缩•疼痛=微笑•高兴=撅嘴•不高兴=嘲笑•轻视(前者表达后者)

windbag (an exhaustively talkative person)
windbag ◆ taciturnity  好说话的人 ◆ 沉默寡言

windy  (verbose, bombastic)
windy•concise=hackneyed•original  冗长的•简洁的•陈腐的•有创意的(反义)

winnow  (to remove (as chaff) by a current of air)
winnow•chaff =filter•impurities  扬谷•谷壳=过滤•杂质(消除关系)
winnow•grain =purify•water=refine•oil  扬谷•谷物=净化•水=精炼•油(提纯)

winsome (generally pleasing and engaging often because of a
childlike charm and innocence)
winsome ◆ unprepossessing/repelling  迷人的 ◆ 不吸引人的/使人讨厌的

wit  (mental capability and resourcefulness•ingenuity)机智的人,妙语
volatile•temper=ready•wit  反复无常的•脾气=自发的•妙语 (形修饰名)
【注:a ready wit 脱口而出的妙语】
wit ◆ dullard  机智的人 ◆ 愚人

withdraw  (to take back or away)
roisterer•carouse=recluse•withdraw  闹饮者•痛饮=隐遁者•隐遁 (人物典型动作)
press ◆ withdrawal  推进 ◆ 撤退
issue  ◆  withdraw  发行 ◆ 撤销

wither  (to become dry and sapless;  especially •to shrivel from or as if from
loss of bodily moisture)
dehydrate•water=wither•vitality  脱水•水=使凋谢•生命力(行为及其作用对象)
wither ◆ burgeon/revive  枯萎 ◆ 萌芽/复活

withhold  (to refrain from granting, giving, or allowing)
withhold ◆ grant  拒给 ◆ 授予
proffer ◆ withhold  提供 ◆ 拒给

wizen  (to become dry, shrunken, and wrinkled often as a result
of aging or of failing vitality) adj. 凋谢的, 枯萎的
wizen/wizened ◆  blooming  枯萎的 ◆ 盛开的
wizen ◆ thrive 枯萎 ◆ 繁荣

wobble  (to move or proceed with an irregular rocking or
staggering motion or unsteadily and clumsily from side to side  tremble, quaver)
wobble ◆ stabilize  不稳定 ◆ 稳定

woo  (to sue for the affection of and usually marriage with•court)
woo•adorn=adulate•fawn  爱•崇拜=阿谀•奉承(同义)

worldly (of this world rather than religion or spiritual affairs)老练的
worldly ◆ na?ve  老练的 ◆ 天真的
worldly ◆spiritual  世俗的 ◆ 精神的(干扰:singular)
【注意区别 worldly  和mundane; worldly并无“普通的”的义项;而mundane有所以mundane◆singular正确;而worldly◆singular错误】

worship (extravagant respect to an object of esteem)
worship•sacrifice=prediction•augury  崇拜•供奉=预言•占卜(后者表达前者)

wrangler  (a ranch hand who takes care of the saddle horses)
lariat•wrangler=crook•shepherd  套索•牧马人=牧杖•牧羊人 (工具)

wretched  (deeply afflicted, dejected, or distressed in body or mind)
elation ◆ wretchedness 兴高采烈 ◆ 沮丧

wry  (having a bent or twisted shape or condition)(cleverly and often
ironically or grimly humorous)
even扭曲的  straight直的  true正确的  directly  直接地  undeviating不离正道的

yoke  (to join as if by a yoke)
yoke ◆ asunder/sunder  连接 ◆ 分离

yokel  (a naive or gullible inhabitant of a rural area or small town)
yokel•sophistication=coward•courage  乡下人•诡辩=胆小鬼•勇气(缺乏)

zeal  (eagerness and ardent interest in pursuit of something•fervor)
zealous•enthusiastic=idolatrous•devoted  热心的•热情的=偶像崇拜的•投入的(同义)
【注:不要把zealous和zealot混为一谈,前者指热情的,热心的,无狂热的意思;后者指狂热者】
fervor•zealot=improvidence•spendthrift  热情•狂热者=浪费•挥霍者(人物典型行为)
zeal•dedication=mesmerism•interest  热衷•致力=着迷•兴趣 (程度)
devoted•zealous=careful•fastidious  投入的•热情的=仔细的•挑剔的(程度)
zeal ◆ torpor/ vapid  热情 ◆ 麻木/无生气的
zealotry ◆ lack of fervor  热狂行为 ◆ 缺乏热情
zealot ◆ indifference  狂热者 ◆ 冷漠
【注:zealot:a zealous person;especially: a fanatical partisan】

zenith  (the highest point reached in the heavens by a celestial body)
zenith  ◆  lawest point/ nadir  最高点 ◆ 最低点

zesty  (having or characterized by keen enjoyment)
zesty ◆ vapid  热望的 ◆ 索然乏味的
zesty ◆ bland  热望的 ◆ 温和的


GRE机考词汇突破 (c)寄托天下2000-2002

最新更新和更多下载请到寄托蓝宝书在线::::::: http://www.gter.net/bible
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