黑宝书
黑宝书

资料来源是从99年机考至今的所有机经,在机经词汇的真题中记忆单词,请大家用心体会

合成于2001年4月3日星期二  2:41:37 AM

abandon  vt. 放弃,沉溺
to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly
abandon:inhibition=despair:hope

abash   a. 害羞的      
to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of    
unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement  
embolden←→abash/faze/cow

abate   v. 减轻,降低
to reduce in degree or intensity  
abate:tax=alleviate:distress    
abate←→intensify/promote

abbreviate    vt. 缩写,使...简略,缩短    
to make briefer;  especially :to reduce to a shorter form intended to stand for the whole  
abbreviate:sentence=abridgment:essay
abbreviate←→extend

abdicate      v. 让位,辞职,放弃
to renounce a throne, high office, dignity, or function
abdicate:throne=resign:office
abdicate←→constitute    
abdicate←→assume

aberrant      a.脱离常轨的
deviating from the usual or natural type:ATYPICAL
aberrant←→typical/normal

abet     vt. 教唆,帮助
to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose
abet:assistance=counsel:guidance
abet←→thwart/impede
stymie←→abet
frustrate←→abet

abeyance      n. 中止,暂搁,停止
temporary inactivity:SUSPENSION
abeyance←→continuance

abhor   vt.憎恶  
(n. abhorrence) to regard with extreme repugnance
abhorrence:dislike=adoration:fondness

abiding       a. 永久的,持久的,不变的
ENDURING, CONTINUING
abiding←→evanescent

abject        adj. ①凄惨的 ②怯懦的
cast down in spirit:SERVILE, SPIRITLESS
abject←→exultant

abjure        vt. 发誓放弃
to abstain from:AVOID
abjure←→embrace/espouse

abnegate      vt. 放弃,舍弃,禁忌
SURRENDER, RELINQUISH
abnegate←→reaffirm

abolitionism  n. 废除主义,废奴主义
principles or measures fostering abolition especially of slavery
anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery
abolitionist←→persiste in slavery

arboretum     n. 树园,植物园
a place where trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are cultivated for scientific and educational purposes
arboretum:trees=aviary:birds

aboveboard    a. 光明正大的,率直的
in a straightforward manner
surreptitious←→barefaced/aboveboard

abrasion      n. 表面磨损(v. abrade)
a wearing, grinding, or rubbing away by friction
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
scuff:abrasion=heat:vaporization
abrade←→augment

abridge       vt. 删节,缩短,剥夺
to shorten by omission of words without sacrifice of sense:CONDENSE
abbreviate:sentence=abridgment:essay

abrogate      v. 废止,废除
to abolish by authoritative action:ANNUL
abrogate←→embrace/institute/uphold

abscond       v. 潜逃,逃亡
to depart secretly and hide oneself
abscond:depart=pilfer:take
follow:shadow=leave:abscond
lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate/abscond:depart

absolve       vt.赦免;解除(责任等)
to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt
exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir
hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve
absolve←→inculpate

abstain       vi. 自制,戒绝,弃权,避免
to refrain deliberately and often with an effort of self-denial from an action or practice
mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain

abstemious    adj. 有节制的,节俭的
marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol
abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate   { intransigence:control}
reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge

abstract      a. 抽象的,不具体的;n. 摘要,提要
having only intrinsic form with little or no attempt at pictorial representation or narrative content
abstract←→elaborate

abstruse      adj.深奥的
difficult to comprehend:RECONDITE
abstruse←→accessible/patent

abuse   n./v. 辱骂,滥用
to attack in words:REVILE
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive

accede        v.同意
to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand

accelerate    vt.vi. 加速
to move faster:gain speed
expedite:process=accelerate:pace
accelerate←→retard

accessible    a. 易接近的,可进入的,易受影响的,可理解的
capable of being understood or appreciated
abstruse←→accessible/patent

accessory     n. 附件
a thing of secondary or subordinate importance:ADJUNCT
accessory←→of primarily importance

accidental    a. 意外的,偶然的
occurring unexpectedly or by chance
inventiveness:accidental=effect:casual
safeguard:accident=hedge:loss
intentional:accidental=arrogant:humble

acclimate     vt.使习惯于新环境
to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation
acclimate←→make unfamiliar with

accolade      n. 推崇备至,赞扬
an expression of praise
accolade←→cutting remark/speak ill/derogate/denounce
deplore←→accolade/extol

accomodate    v. 容纳,留宿,使...适应
to provide with something desired, needed, or suited (as a helpful service, a loan, or lodgings)
obliterate:remove=accomodate:supply (不是convey:conduct)

accomplice    n. 共犯,同谋
one associated with another especially in wrongdoing

accost        vt.向人搭话
to approach and speak to often in a challenging or aggressive way    accost:approach

accountability  n. 有责任,有义务
an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for one's actions

accrete       v. 共生,附着,增加
ACCUMULATE
accrete:growth=erode:destruction

accumulate    vt.vi. 积聚,堆积
to gather or pile up especially little by little:AMASS
accumulation←→dissipation

accuse        v. 责备,控告,谴责
to charge with a fault or offense:BLAME

acme     n.顶点,极点
the highest point or stage

acquiesce     v.勉强同意,默认
to accept, comply, or submit tacitly or passively
intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend      acquiesce:yield=capitulate:categorical
acquiesce←→defy  
resist←→acquiesce

acquisition   n. 获得,添加物品
the act of acquiring
divestiture←→acquisition

acquit        vt. 开释,释放,完成,表现
to discharge completely

acrid   a. 苦味的,辛辣的,尖刻的
sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor:IRRITATING
acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile
grating:sound=acrid:odor
stridency:sound=acridity:odor
acrid←→gentle

acrimonious   a. 严厉的,辛辣的,刻毒的
caustic, biting, or rancorous especially in feeling, language, or manner
acrimonious←→harmonious

adamant       a.强硬的,固执的
unshakable or immovable especially in opposition:UNYIELDING
adamant:flexibility=refractory:control
impossible:execute=adamant:moved
adamant:yield=cautious:gamble
adamant←→vacillatory
adamant←→moved

adapt   vt. 使适应,改编
to make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation) often by modification
adapt←→remain unchanged

addicted      adj. 痴迷
to devote or surrender (oneself) to something habitually or obsessively
inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency

ad-hoc        adv. 临时地,没有充分准备的
for the particular end or case at hand without consideration of wider application

adjacent      a. 毗连的,邻近的,接近的

adjourn       vi. 延期,休会,换地方
to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place
convoke←→adjourn

adjudicator   n. 评判员
one that  act as judge

adjunct       n. 附属物,附件,修饰语
something joined or added to another thing but not essentially a part of it      
adjunct:←→essential element

ad-lib        v. 即兴演唱,临时穿插,信口说出
without restraint or limit
ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent

admission     n. 许可,入会费,承认
the act or process of admitting
lottery:raffle=ticket:admission

admonish      v. 训诫,警告
to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner
admonish:denounce=punish:pillory  {persuade:convince}
peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation
pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove
alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory

adore   vt. 崇拜,爱慕,喜爱
to regard with loving admiration and devotion
abhorrence:dislike=adoration:fondness
adulate:fawn=woo:adore
apprehension:terror=affection:adoration
fascination:interest=adoration:fondness

adroit        adj. 熟练的,灵巧的
having or showing skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations
loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly
adroit←→ungainly

adulate       v. 谄媚,奉承
to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly
adulate:fawn=woo:adorn
aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
adulate←→scorn
adulation←→disdain

adulterate    vt. 掺杂
to corrupt, debase, or make impure by the addition of a foreign or inferior substance or element stickler
approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration

adversary     n. 敌手,对手
one that contends with, opposes, or resists:ENEMY
adversary←→ally

advertise     vt. 做广告,通知
to announce publicly especially by a printed notice or a broadcast
advertising:commercial=publishing:journal

advocate      vt. 主张,提倡
to plead in favor of
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass

aerate        v. 充气,让空气进入
to supply (the blood) with oxygen by respiration
aerate:oxygen=hydrate:water

aerial        a. 空中的,航空的,空想的,空气的
of, relating to, or occurring in the air or atmosphere
aerial:air=aquatic:water

aesthetics    n. 美学
a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty
aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge
philistine←→aesthete

affable       adj.易于交谈的,和蔼的
characterized by ease and friendliness
affable←→irascible

affected      a. 假装的
assumed artificially or falsely:PRETENDED
posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant
affected←→natural

affection     n. 爱,情感,影响,病
tender attachment:FONDNESS
apprehension:terror=affection:adoration
embrace:affection=shrug:indifference
scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust}
antipathy←→affection

affidavit     n. 宣誓书
a sworn statement in writing made especially under oath or on affirmation before an authorized magistrate or officer
affidavit=statement←→wedding:ceremony

affiliation   n.入会,加入
to bring or receive into close connection as a member or branch
affiliation←→dissociation

affinity      n.密切关系,吸引力
likeness based on relationship or causal connection
aloft←→affinity
affinity←→aversion/hideous

affliction    n. 痛苦,苦恼,苦难
great suffering

affluent      adj. 富裕的 n. 支流
having a generously sufficient and typically increasing supply of material possessions
affluent←→needy
impecunious←→wealthy/prosperous/affluent
penury←→affluence
indigent←→affluent

agenda        n.议程
a list or outline of things to be considered or done
program:concert=agenda:meeting
repertoire:performance=manifest:cargo=agenda:meeting

aggrandize    vt. 增加,夸大
to make appear great or greater:praise highly
aggrandize←→disparage

aggravate     vt. 使恶化,使更严重加重
to make worse, more serious, or more severe:intensify unpleasantly
succor←→aggravate
ameliorate←→aggravate

aggregate     vt.vi. 聚集,集合,合计
to collect or gather into a mass or whole
coalesce←→disaggregate
disaffected←→content

aggrieve      vt. 使委屈,使苦恼,侵害
to give pain or trouble to:DISTRESS
aggrieve←→gratify

agony    n. 极大的痛苦
intense pain of mind or body:ANGUISH, TORTURE
agonized:distress=obsessed:concern
painful:agonizing=important:paramount

airtight      a. 密闭的,不透气的,无懈可击的
airtight:loophole=

alacrity      n. 敏捷,轻快,乐意
promptness in response:cheerful readiness
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
alacrity←→dilatoriness/hesitance

albino        n. 白公,白化病者,白化变种  (or albinism)
an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation
albino:pigment=prairie:tree

alibi   n.托辞,借口,辩解
an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment
alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory

align   v.定位,对齐,排成一行,结盟
to bring into line or alignment
aligned←→askew
awry←→orderly/aligned

allay   v. ①平息(愤怒等) ②缩小
to subdue or reduce in intensity or severity:ALLEVIATE
allay←→increase the intensity of
adversary←→ally

allegiance    n.忠诚,拥护
devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause
authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans

allegory      n. 寓意;寓言
the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalizations about human existence  allegory:fiction

alleviate     v.缓和,减轻
RELIEVE, LESSEN
abate:tax=alleviate:distress
alleviate←→exacerbate

alliterate    v. 押头韵
the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables
alliterate:remove=blazon:efface

allude  vi. 暗示,提及
to make indirect reference;  broadly :REFER
allude←→mention explicitly

aloft   ad. 在高处,在上的
at or to a great height
aloft←→affinity
founder←→stay aloft
grounded←→aloft

aloof   a. 疏远的,冷淡的
removed or distant either physically or emotionally
politic:offend=aloof:associate
gregarious←→aloof

alphabetical  a.字母(表)的,ABC的
arranged in the order of the letters of the alphabet
dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological

altruism      n. 利他主义,不自私
unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others
altruism←→egocentric

amalgamate    v. 合并,混合
to merge into a single body
amalgamate←→separate/isolate

amass   v.积聚
to collect for oneself:ACCUMULATE

ambiguous     a.模棱两可的;分歧的
doubtful or uncertain especially from obscurity or indistinctness
ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth
ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore
equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal
watershed←→ambiguity

ambivalent    a. 矛盾的,好恶相克的
a:continual fluctuation (as between one thing and its opposite)
b:uncertainty as to which approach to follow
ambivalent←→commitment

amble   vi. 缓行,溜蹄
a leisurely walk
walk:amble=talk:chat

ambrosial     a. 特别美味的
something extremely pleasing to taste or smell
mellifluous:music=ambrosial:food

ameliorate    vt. 改善,改良,变好
to make better or more tolerable
ameliorate←→aggravate

amenity       n. 适意,温和,礼仪
something that conduces to comfort, convenience, or enjoyment
amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful
amenable←→inimical

amiable       a. 亲切的,和蔼可亲的
being friendly, sociable, and congenial
inimical←→friendly/amiable/amicable

amicable      a. 友善的,和平的  characterized by friendly goodwill:PEACEABLE
inimical←→friendly/amiable/amicable

amiss   a. 有毛病的,出差错的
in a faulty way:IMPERFECTLY

amorphous     adj. 无定形的,散漫的
having no definite form:SHAPELESS
amorphous:shape=errant:course

amphibian     n. 两栖动物,水陆两用飞机,水陆两用车
any of a class (Amphibian) of cold-blooded vertebrates (as frogs, toads, or salamanders) intermediate in many characters between fishes and reptiles and having gilled aquatic larvae and air-breathing adults
eaglet:bird=frog:amphibian

amplify       vt. 扩大,详述,使增幅
to make larger or greater (as in amount, importance, or intensity):INCREASE
mute←→amplify

amplitude     n.广大;充足;振幅
the quality or state of being ample:FULLNESS
amplitude←→meagerness

anaerobic     a.厌氧的. anaerobe n.厌氧微生物
living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen
anaerobic←→living in oxygen
anaerobic←→respiration

analgesic     n.镇痛剂, a.止痛的
insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness
analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation
aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs
pain:analgesic:sensation:anesthetic
pain:analgesic=symptom:palliative
analgesia:pain=simplify:complexity
tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden

analogy       n. 类似,相似,类比,类推
a:resemblance in some particulars between things otherwise unlike:SIMILARITY
b:comparison based on such resemblance

analysis      n. 分析
separation of a whole into its component parts
synthesis←→analysis

anarchist     n. 无政府主义者
one who rebels against any authority, established order, or ruling power  
anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery
anarchist:rebel=apologist:defend
anarchy←→order

anathema      n. 诅咒
the denunciation of something as accursed
panegyric←→anathema

ancestor      n. 祖先,祖宗
one from whom a person is descended and who is usually more remote in the line of descent than a grandparent
heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator

anecdote      n. 短故事,轶事
a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident    
anecdote:amusement=lecture:instruction=caption:illustration

anesthetic    a.麻醉的 ,麻醉剂的
lacking awareness or sensitivity
analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation  
aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs
pain:analgesic:sensation:anesthetic
sensation←→anesthesia

anew     ad. 重新,再
in a new or different form

angle   n. 角,角落 ;夺取、追逐
to turn, move, or direct at an angle

anhydrous     a. 无水的
free from water and especially water of crystallization
anhydrous←→wet

animation     n. 活泼,生气,卡通制作
possessing or characterized by life:ALIVE
lassitude←→vim/animation

annals        n. 纪年表,年鉴,年报
a record of events arranged in yearly sequence
dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological

annoy   vt. 使苦恼,骚扰
to disturb or irritate especially by repeated acts
mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy
testy:annoy=tractable:control

annul   v. 宣告无效,取消
to declare or make legally invalid or void
annul←→make legal

anodyne       n. 止痛药
something that soothes, calms, or comforts

anomalous     a. 不规则的,反常的
inconsistent with or deviating from what is usual, normal, or expected:IRREGULAR, UNUSUAL
anomaly:paradigmatic=blemish:flawless
anomalous←→typical/conformity to norms

anonymous     a.匿名的
not named or identified
anonymous:identify=nonchalant:excite

antagonize    vt. 使成敌人,敌对,反对
to incur or provoke the hostility of
placate←→antagonize
synergic←→antagonistic
propitiate←→antagonize
mollify←→antagonize/ire

antennae      n. 天线,触须,触角
one of a pair of slender movable segmented sensory organs on the head of insects, myriapods, and crustaceans
{antennae:butterfly}

anterior      a. 前面的,在前的
coming before in time or development
anterior←→ensuing

anthology     n.诗集,文选
a collection of selected literary pieces or passages or works of art or music
compendium:summary=anthology:collection

antic   adj 古怪的,笨拙的
characterized by clownish extravagance or absurdity
facetious:speech=antic:behavior

anticipatory  adj. 1 预想,预期的   2 占先的,先发制人的
to give advance thought, discussion, or treatment to
retrospective←→anticipatory

antidote      n. 解毒剂,解药
a remedy to counteract the effects of poison
antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation
remedy:disease=antidote:poisoning

antipathy     n. 憎恶,反感
settled aversion or dislike:DISTASTE
antipathy←→affection

antique       a. 旧式的,过时的
existing since or belonging to earlier times:ANCIENT

antiseptic    n. 杀菌剂,防腐剂
opposing sepsis, putrefaction, or decay;
oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect

antonym       n. 反义字,反义语,对语
a word of opposite meaning

anvil   n. 铁砧
a heavy usually steel-faced iron block on which metal is shaped
hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar

apathy        n. 漠然,冷淡
lack of feeling or emotion:IMPASSIVENESS
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic

apex     n. 顶点,最高点
the highest or culminating point

aphorism      n. 格言
a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment:ADAGE
brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature
euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature

apocalyptic   adj  预示灾祸的,启示的
forecasting the ultimate destiny of the world:PROPHETIC
apocalyptic←→inconsequential

apocrypha     n. 伪经,伪书
writings or statements of dubious authenticity

apologist     n.辩护士(尤指卫护基督教教义的辩护者)
one who speaks or writes in defense of someone or something
saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend
apologist←→critic/detractor

apophasis     n. 『修』故抑其词,以求婉达
apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox
apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate

apoplectic    adj.中风的,易怒的
greatly agitated
apoplectic←→calm

apostasy      n. 背教,脱党
renunciation of a religious faith
apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy
apostasy←→fidelity

apostrophe     n书写中撇号(')(表示省略或所有格)
a mark ' used to indicate the omission of letters or figures, the possessive case, or the plural of letters or figures
apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence

appall        vt. 使胆寒,使惊骇
to overcome with consternation, shock, or dismay
appall←→embolden/nerve
encourage←→appall

apparel       vt. 使穿衣,装饰
to put clothes on:DRESS
gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak
tonsorial:hair=sartorial:apparel

appeal        vi. 求助,诉请,要求
to make an earnest request
remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal

appealing     a. 引起兴趣的,动人的
having  appeal:PLEASING
noisome←→appealing

appease       vt. 安抚,缓和,平息,满足
to bring to a state of peace or quiet:CALM
roil←→clarify/appease
vex←→pacify/appease/soothe
appease←→rile

appetite       n. 食欲,欲望,爱好
an inherent craving
voracity←→lack of appetite

applause      n. 鼓掌,喝彩,赞许
approval publicly expressed
mirth:laughter=approval:applause
approve:applause=??

applicant     n. 申请者,请求者
one who applies  remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal

appoint       vt. 任命,指定,命令
to name officially
appoint:official=cast:actor

apposite      adj. 适当的,恰切的
highly pertinent or appropriate:APT
apposite←→extraneous

appreciable   a. 可感知的,可评估的
capable of being perceived or measured      
appreciable←→imperceptible

apprehension  n. 理解,忧惧,逮捕
suspicion or fear especially of future evil:FOREBODING
apprehension:terror=affection:adoration

apprentice    n. 学徒,生手
an inexperienced person:NOVICE

approbation   n. 认可,嘉许
COMMENDATION, PRAISE
praise:approbation=demur:objection
censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible

appropriate   a. 适当的
especially suitable or compatible:FITTING
meet←→inappropriate/unsuitable
apt←→extremely inappropriate

appropriate   v. 盗用
to take or make use of without authority or right
lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate/abscond:depart

approve       vt. 赞同,核准,证实
to have or express a favorable opinion of
mirth:laughter=approval:applause
approve:applause=??
substantiate←→disapprove

approximate   a. 大约的,近似的  
nearly correct or exact
paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise
stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration

apt       a.易于...
unusually fitted or qualified:READY
apt←→extremely inappropriate
apt←→unlikely

aquatic       a. 水生的,水中的,水上的
growing or living in or frequenting water
aerial:air=aquatic:water

aqueduct      n. 高架渠,渡槽
a conduit for water
aqueduct:water=pipeline:gas=vessel:blood

aquifer       n. 含水土层((含水量足以成为井水或泉水))
a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel
shaft:lode=well:aquifer

arboreal      adj. 树木的
of, relating to, or resembling a tree
arboreal:trees=sidereal:stars

archaic       a.古老的
of, relating to, or characteristic of an earlier or more primitive time:ANTIQUATED
evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency
archaic←→current

archipelago   n. 群岛,多岛海
an expanse of water with many scattered islands
range:mountain=chain:link={archipelago:island }

archetype     n. 原型
the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies:PROTOTYPE;  also :a perfect example
harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify

archive       n. 档案文件
a place in which public records or historical documents are preserved
archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon
archive:records=museum=artifacts

arctic        a. 北极的,极寒的
bitter cold:FRIGID
torrid←→arctic

ardor   n. 热心,热情
extreme vigor or energy:INTENSITY
assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor

argot   n. 隐语,暗语,暗号
an often more or less secret vocabulary and idiom peculiar to a particular group
argot←→standard language/common verbalism

arid     a.干旱的
excessively dry
marsh:sodden=desert:arid
arid←→damp

armory        n. 纹章,纹章学,军械库,兵工厂
a place where arms and military equipment are stored
pantry:food=armory:weapons

arrest        vt. 拘捕,妨碍,吸引,阻止
to make inactive
arrest←→vitalize

arresting     adj. 引人注意的; 醒目的; 有趣的
catching the attention:STRIKING, IMPRESSIVE
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
arresting←→banal

arrhythmic    a. 无节奏的
lacking rhythm or regularity
arrhythmic←→regular

arrogance     n.傲慢,自大
a feeling or an impression of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or presumptuous claims
mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory
intentional:accidental:arrogant:humble

arsenal       n. 兵工厂,军械库
a:an establishment for the manufacture or storage of arms and military equipment
b:a collection of weapons
archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon

articulate    vt. 以关节连接,接合,明白地说
to give clear and effective utterance to:put into words
ratiocination:thinking:articulation:talking

artifacts     n. 史前古器物
something created by humans usually for a practical purpose;  especially :an object remaining from a particular period
archive:records=museum=artifacts

artifice      n. 巧办法,诡计
false or insincere behavior
artifice←→candor

artless       adj. 朴质; 率直; 拙劣
free from guile or craft:sincerely simple
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless
artless←→cunning/guile
artlessness←→urbanity
sly←→artless
artless←→disingenuous

ascendant     n. 运星,运道,支配力,优势
governing or controlling influence:DOMINATION
ascendant←→having no influence

ascent        n. 上升,上坡路
an upward slope or rising grade:ACCLIVITY

ascetic       adj. 禁欲的n. 苦行者
austere in appearance, manner, or attitude
glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self denial
sybarite←→ascetic
voluptuary←→ascetic
indulgent←→ascetic

aseptic       adj. 无菌的,洁净的
preventing infection
aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs

askew   adj. 歪斜的v. 歪斜,弯曲    
out of line:AWRY
aligned←→askew{curve}

asperity      n.粗鲁,艰苦
roughness of manner or of temper:HARSHNESS
asperity:optimistic=??
asperity←→mildness of temper

aspiration     n.渴望,热望
a strong desire to achieve something high or great
audacious:trepidation=laconic:aspiration

assert        vt. 主张,声明,断言
to state or declare positively and often forcefully or aggressively
calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony

assess        v.估价,评价
to determine the importance, size, or value of
assess:value=plumb:depth

asset   n. 资产,有用的东西
the entire property of a person, association, corporation, or estate applicable or subject to the payment of debts
asset←→liability

assiduous     adj.勤勉的,专心的
marked by careful unremitting attention or persistent application
assiduous←→remiss

assuage       vt. 缓和,减轻,镇定
to lessen the intensity of (something that pains or distresses):EASE
assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor
assuage←→intensify/inflame
gall←→calm/assuage

assume        vt. 假定,承担,摆架子
to take to or upon oneself:UNDERTAKE
abdicate←→assume
assume←→refuse
unassuming←→overbearing

astounding    a. 令人惊骇的
causing astonishment or amazement  indelible:forget=astounding:expect

astute        a. 机敏的,狡猾的
having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity

asunder       ad.分开,化为碎片
into parts

asymmetrical  adj. 不匀称的,不对称的,不均匀的
not symmetrical
circular:asymmetrical:protean:rigid

asylum        n. 庇护,收容所
an inviolable place of refuge and protection giving shelter to criminals and debtors:SANCTUARY
refugee:asylum

atone   v. 赎罪,补偿
to supply satisfaction for:EXPIATE

atrocious     adj.残忍的,凶恶的  (n. atrocity)
extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel:BARBARIC
atrocious:bad=momentous:important

attenuate     v.变薄,变弱
to lessen the amount, force, magnitude, or value of:WEAKEN
attenuate:force=decelerate:speed
attenuate:thickness=cool:temperature/enervate=vitality/debilitate:strength
collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness
debase:value=attenuate:force

auction       n.拍卖
a sale of property to the highest bidder

audacious     adj. 大胆的,愚勇的
intrepidly daring:ADVENTUROUS
audacious:trepidation=laconic:aspiration
audacious:cautious=??
circumspect←→audacious/reckless/direct encounter

audible       a. 听得见的
heard or capable of being heard
audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious

augur   n. 占兆官,占卜师,相命者
to foretell especially from omens
augur:predict=pundit:opine
intercessor:mediate=augur:prediction
pundit:opinion=augur:prediction
worship:sacrifice=prediction:augury
augury:appearance=??

auspicious    adj.吉兆的;幸运的
affording a favorable auspice:PROPITIOUS
auspicious←→boding ill

austere       a.朴素的,(人)正经的;(经济)紧缩的
markedly simple or unadorned
abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate
baroque←→austere

authenticity  n. 确实性,真实性
not false or imitation:REAL, ACTUAL
authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical
genuine:authenticity=honest:trust
discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic

authority     n. 权威,专家,威信
power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior
authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention
authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty

avarice       n.贪婪
excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain:GREEDINESS, CUPIDITY
avarice:money=gluttony:food
stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy

aversion      n.嫌恶,憎恨
a feeling of repugnance toward something with a desire to avoid or turn from
aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration
aversion:inclination=??
affinity←→aversion
aversion←→court
penchant←→aversion
propensity←→aversion

avid     adj.热切的,贪婪的
characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit
reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm
avid←→indifferent

awash    a. 与水面齐平的,被浪冲打的
covered with water:FLOODED
awash←→dry

awe       n. 敬畏
an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder that is inspired by authority or by the sacred or sublime
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
awe←→irreverence

awkward       a. 笨拙的
lacking dexterity or skill
craven:admirable=deft:awkward
dexterous:awkward=??
lithe←→awkward
svelte←→paunchy and awkward

awl       n. 锥子,尖钻
a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes (as in leather or wood)
awl:pierce=pestle:hash

awning        n.雨篷,遮阳篷
a rooflike cover extending over or in front of a place (as over the deck or in front of a door or window) as a shelter
awning:sun=umbrella:rain

awry     adj. 扭曲的,走样的
in a turned or twisted position or direction:ASKEW
awry←→orderly/aligned

babble        vt.唠叨;说话不清
to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds
babble:sense=parrot=originality
babble←→express succinctly

backdrop      n. 背景幕,背景
a painted cloth hung across the rear of a stage
placebo:painkiller=backdrop:vista

backset       n. 倒退,逆流,涡流
SETBACK
backset←→hike

badge   n. 半自动防空警戒管制组织,徽章,标记
a device or token especially of membership in a society or group
chevron:badge=caisson:cart

badger        vt. 纠缠
to harass or annoy persistently
badger:bother=belabor:mention

badinage      n. 打趣,嘲弄
playful repartee:BANTER
badinage←→serious conversation

bait     n.饵;引诱物
ENTICE, LURE
bait←→disarm

baleful       adj. 邪恶的,恶意的
deadly or pernicious in influence

balk     n. 障碍,错误,失败vt. 阻止,突然停止,退缩
to check or stop by or as if by an obstacle:BLOCK
balk←→move ahead willingly

balky   a. 停蹄不前的
refusing or likely to refuse to proceed, act, or function as directed or expected
balky←→tractable

ballad        n. 民谣
a narrative composition in rhythmic verse suitable for singing
ballad:stanza=novel:chapter

ballet        n. 芭蕾舞
a theatrical art form using dancing, music, and scenery to convey a story, theme, or atmosphere
instrumentalist:symphony=dancer:ballet

balm     n. 香油,药膏; 安慰; 慰藉
a soothing restorative agency
antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation
balm←→irritant
inclement←→balmy
balmy←→piquant

bamboozle     v. 欺骗,隐瞒
to deceive by underhanded methods:DUPE, HOODWINK

ban       n. 禁令
to prohibit especially by legal means  ban:protect

banal   a.陈腐的
lacking originality, freshness, or novelty:TRITE
equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal
arresting←→banal
banal←→novel
banality←→freshness
trite←→unbanal

baneful       adj.有害的,致祸的
productive of destruction or woe:seriously harmful

banish        vt. 驱逐,消除
to drive out or remove from a home or place of usual resort or continuance
evict:residence=banish:country

banister      n. 栏杆的支柱,楼梯的扶栏
a handrail with its supporting posts
staircase:banister=garden:fence

barb     n. 尖锐而严厉的批评
a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment
barb:caustic=pan:harsh

barefaced      a. 公然的,无耻的,无面具的
a:OPEN, UNCONCEALED
b:lacking scruples
barefaced←→surreptitious

bargain       n. 交易,买卖,物美价廉的东西
to negotiate over the terms of a purchase, agreement, or contract:HAGGLE
debate:issue=bargain:price

baroque       n./adj. (艺术、建筑等)高度装饰的,过份雕琢的
characterized by grotesqueness, extravagance, complexity, or flamboyance
baroque←→austere

barter        n. 物物交换,实物交易
to trade by exchanging one commodity for another
correspond:letters=barter:commodities
jog:exercise=barter:trade

base     a. 卑鄙的,低级的
being of comparatively low value and having relatively inferior properties
debase:value=attenuate:force
base←→virtuous
base←→noble
sublime←→base/common

baseboard     n. 护壁板,脚板
a molding covering the joint of a wall and the adjoining floor
veneer:furniture=baseboard:wall

bathetic      adj. 平凡的,陈腐的,顿降的
exceptional commonplaceness:TRITENESS

bedeck        vt. 装饰,修饰
to clothe with finery:DECK
bedeck←→strip

bedlam        n. 混乱,骚乱,疯人院
a place, scene, or state of uproar and confusion
tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive

belabor       vt. 冗长的解释,痛打
to explain or insist on excessively
badger:bother=belabor:mention

beleaguer     vt. 使困扰,使烦恼,围攻
TROUBLE, HARASS
beleaguer←→delight

belie   v. ①掩饰,②证明为假
to show (something) to be false or wrong
belie←→affirm

belittle      vt. 轻视,使渺小
to speak slightingly of:DISPARAGE

belletristic  a. 文学研究的,纯文学的

bellicose     adj. 好战的,好斗的
favoring or inclined to start quarrels or wars
imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable
bellicose←→appeasing

belligerence  n. 交战,好战性,斗争性
an aggressive or truculent attitude, atmosphere, or disposition

bemoan        vt. 惋惜,认为遗憾,哀叹
to express deep grief or distress over

bend     vi. 弯曲,屈服
to make submissive:SUBDUE,COMPROMISE
bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble

benediction   n. 祝福
the invocation of a blessing
curse←→benediction

beneficent    a. 仁慈的,慈善的,善行的
doing or producing good;  especially :performing acts of kindness and charity
beneficent:harm=tenacious:yield
philanthropist:beneficence=comedian:humor
noxious←→beneficial
toxic←→beneficial

bequest       n. 遗赠物,遗产,遗赠
something bequeathed:LEGACY
heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator

beseech       v. 祈求,恳求
to request earnestly:IMPLORE
supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious

besmirch      v. 诽谤,玷污
SULLY, SOIL
besmirch←→honor

betray        vt.背叛;辜负;泄漏
to deliver to an enemy by treachery

bibliophile   n. 爱书者,藏书家
a lover of books especially for qualities of format;  also :a book collector
bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting}

bigot   n. (宗教,政治等的)盲信者,顽固者
a  person obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his or her own opinions and prejudices
bigot:tolerance=turncoat:constancy
bigot=dedication=rage:anger
bigoted:advice=conservative:change
posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant
bigot:tolerant:provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination}

bit       n. 钻头
the jaws of tongs or pincers
bit:drill=blade:razor
blackout      n.(幕间或剧中)灯暗;临时眩晕;删除;新闻封锁)
a blotting out by censorship:SUPPRESSION

bland   a. 温和的,乏味的,冷漠的
DULL, INSIPID
pungency←→blandness
tangy←→bland

blandishment  n.奉承
something that tends to coax or cajole:ALLUREMENT
blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede
blandishment:coax=medal:honor/prevarication:deceive
blandishment←→threat

blase   adj. 1 对享乐 [人生] 等厌倦的
apathetic to pleasure or excitement as a result of excessive indulgence or enjoyment
miser:munificent:zealot:blase

blaspheme     vt.vi. 亵渎
REVILE, ABUSE

blast   n.一阵(风);v. 爆破
a violent gust of wind   blast:whiff=gush:trickle

blatant       adj. 喧哗的,无耻的
completely obvious, conspicuous, or obtrusive especially in a crass or offensive manner:BRAZEN
ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
blatant←→inconspicuous/unimpressive/unobtrusive
blatant←→subtle

blazon        vt. 以家徽装饰,宣布
to publish widely:PROCLAIM
alliterate:remove=blazon:efface
blazon:adorn=pillar:support
blazon←→efface

bleach        vt. 漂白
to remove color or stains from

blemish       v. 损害,玷污n. 瑕疵,缺点
to spoil by a flaw
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless

blender       n. 混合的人,混合器,搅拌器
an electric appliance for grinding or mixing

blight        n. 植物枯萎病 v. 使…枯萎
a disease or injury of plants resulting in withering, cessation of growth, and death of parts without rotting
blighted←→hale

blimp   n. 软式小型飞船,顽固的保守分子
a nonrigid airship

bliss   n.狂喜
complete happiness
dislike:loathing=pleasure:bliss

blunder       v.犯大错  n.愚蠢之举
a gross error or mistake resulting usually from stupidity, ignorance, or carelessness
protocol:blunder=bumper:damage

blunt   a. 钝的,坦率的,麻痹的
blunt←→whet

blurb   n. 大肆宣传
a short publicity notice
blurb:notice=gloss:explanation

bluster       vt. 风狂吹,咆哮,汹涌
to talk or act with noisy swaggering threats
blustering:speak=swaggering:walk
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless

boding        n. 凶兆,前兆,预感
an omen, prediction, or presentiment especially of coming evil:PORTENT ,FOREBODING
auspicious←→boding ill

boggle        vi. 犹豫,踌躇,吃惊,搪塞
to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples
boggle←→embolden

boisterous    adj. 喧闹的,欢闹的
noisily turbulent:ROWDY
boisterous←→quiet

bolster       n. 枕垫v. 支持,鼓励
a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support or bearing
bolster:support=tackle:hoist

bombast       n. 夸大的言辞
pretentious inflated speech or writing
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast
bombast←→down  to  earth language/understated/unpretentious

bonhomie      n. 好性情,温和,和蔼
good-natured easy friendliness
congenial:bonhomie=??
bonhomie:good natured=??

bonus   n. 奖金,红利
something in addition to what is expected or strictly due
bonus:employee={decoration:soldier}

boon     n. 恩惠
BENEFIT, FAVOR
boon←→misfortune

boor     n. 粗野的人,不懂礼貌的人,农民
a rude or insensitive person
insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp

bootless      a. 无用的,无益者  
USELESS, UNPROFITABLE
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence
interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile

bore     vt. 使烦扰,钻孔
to make a hole by or as if by boring
die:shaping=drill:boring
entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore

bottleneck    n.瓶颈口,(喻)交通易阻塞的狭口;妨碍生产流程的一环
NARROW
{bottleneck:indefinite}

bough   n. 大树枝
a branch of a tree;  especially :a main branch

box       vi. 拳击
to fight with the fists:engage in boxing
box:fight:debate:argue

bracing       adj. 增加气力的,令人振奋的,提神的,使心神清爽的
giving strength, vigor, or freshness
bracing←→vapid

bracket       n. 支架,括弧,托架
an overhanging member that projects from a structure (as a wall) and is usually designed to support a vertical load or to strengthen an angle
buttress:wall=bracket:shelf

brackish      a. 有盐味的,可厌的
REPULSIVE
brackish:repulse

braided       adj. 编织成的,梳成辫子的,编成缏的;束
made by intertwining three or more strands
grooved:striated=braided:stranded

brake   n. 刹车,阻碍,丛林
to retard or stop by a brake
divert:shunt=retard:brake

brash   a. 性急的,仓促的,无礼的,傲慢的
done in haste without regard for consequences
frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion

brassy        a. 似黄铜的,厚脸皮的
being shamelessly bold
diffident←→brassy
furtive←→open/forthright/brassy
brassy←→humble

brattish      adj.  (指小孩) 讨厌的; 宠坏的; 不听话的; 不礼貌的
an ill-mannered annoying child
tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous

bravura       adj. 雄壮华丽的,气势磅礴的
marked by an ostentatious display of skill
bravura:performance=resplendent:appearance

brazen        a. 黄铜制的,厚颜无耻的
marked by contemptuous boldness
impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive
brazen←→modest

breach        v. 毁坏,泄密 n. 缺口
to make a breach in
breach←→solder
solder←→breach

breezeway     n. 有屋顶的通路
a roofed often open passage connecting two buildings (as a house and garage) or halves of a building
breezeway:building=stairway:floor

brevity       n.简短,简洁
shortness or conciseness of expression
brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram

bribe   v. & n. 贿赂,收买
to induce or influence by or as if by bribery
bribe:incorruptible=affect:insensible

bridle        v.  限制,阻止
to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle
bridled←→without restraint

brisk   a. 敏锐的,凛冽的,活泼的
keenly alert:LIVELY
ponderous←→lively/vibrant/briskly

bristle       n. 硬毛 v. 气势汹汹,直立,发怒,充满
to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance (as in response to a slight)
bristle←→cower

brittle       a. 易碎的,脆弱的,易坏的
easily broken, cracked, or snapped
manifest:perceive=brittle:break

broach        v. ①开瓶 ②提出(问题)
to open for the first time
broach←→close off

bromide       n. 溴化物(镇静药用),平庸的人或物
a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion
equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed

browbeat      vt.  (用神情、言词) 威吓; 严词厉色地斥责
instigator:incite=bully:browbeat

bruit   vt. 散播
to noise abroad:REPORT
bruit←→keep secret

buck     n. ①雄鹿 ②美元  v. (马)跳跃,反对,吹牛,闲聊
to refuse assent:BALK
buck←→assent to

bucolic       adj. 乡村的,牧羊的
relating to or typical of rural life
palatial:hovel=city:bucolic
bucolic←→urban

budge   vi. 移动,微微一动,放弃
to give way:YIELD
palter:candor=diehard:budge

buffoon       n.丑角,缺乏教养之人
a ludicrous figure:CLOWN
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag

bully   n. 欺凌弱小者,土霸
one habitually cruel to others who are weaker
instigator:incite:bully:browbeat   underdog←→bully

bumper        n. 缓冲器,满杯,丰收
a device for absorbing shock or preventing damage
protocol:blunder=bumper:damage

bumptious     a. 瞎自夸的,瞎自大的,傲慢的
presumptuously, obtusely, and often noisily self-assertive:OBTRUSIVE
dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness
impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness
bumptious←→humble

bung     n. (桶口等的) 塞子
the stopper especially in the bunghole of a cask

bungle        vt.vi. 拙劣地工作,粗制滥造,失败
to act or work clumsily and awkwardly
bungle←→bring off

buoy     vt. 使浮起,支撑,鼓励
SUPPORT, UPLIFT
buoyed←→unsupported

buoyant       adj.易浮的,快乐的
a:capable of floating
b:CHEERFUL, GAY
bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble
hangdog←→buoyant
buoyant←→sink

burgeon       v. 迅速成长,发展
to grow and expand rapidly:FLOURISH
burgeon←→wither
burgeon←→subdue

burial        n.安葬,埋葬,埋藏
the act or process of burying
inter:burial=obliterate:removal

burlesque     n. 讽刺或滑稽的戏剧
mockery usually by caricature
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
doggerel:verse=burlesque:play

burnish       v. 擦亮,磨光
to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing
numb:insensible:burnish:lustrous

burrow        n. (兔子等)所掘的地洞,v. 挖洞
to construct by tunneling
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern

buttress      n.扶墙,拱壁
a projecting structure of masonry or wood for supporting or giving stability to a wall or building
strut:wing=buttress:wall
buttress:wall=bracket:shelf

buttress      v.支持
to furnish or shore up with a buttress;  also :SUPPORT, STRENGTHEN
contravene←→buttress

bygone        n. 过去的事,往事
gone by:PAST;  especially :OUTMODED

byline        n. (列作者名字的)报刊文章首行
a line at the beginning of a news story, magazine article, or book giving the writer's name
article:byline=movie:credits

cabal   n. 徒党,秘密结社,(尤指政治上的)阴谋
the artifices and intrigues of a group of persons secretly united to bring about an overturn or usurpation especially in public affairs
cabal:association=plot:plan

cacophony     n. 刺耳的声音
harsh or discordant sound:DISSONANCE
cacophony:sound=malodor:scent
cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious

cadge   v.行乞,乞求
BEG, SPONGE
cadge←→earn

!caisson       n. 弹药箱,弹药车,潜水箱(水中工程用)
a usually 2-wheeled vehicle for artillery ammunition attachable to a horse-drawn limber
chevron:badge=caisson:cart

cajole        v. (以甜言蜜语)哄骗
to persuade with flattery or gentle urging especially in the face of reluctance:COAX
blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede

calamitous    a. 多灾难的,不幸的
being, causing, or accompanied by calamity

calcify       vi. 变成石灰质,钙化
to make inflexible or unchangeable     calcification←→flexibility

calibrate     vt. 测定口径,校准,查看刻度,划刻度
to determine, rectify, or mark the graduations of
measure:dimensions=calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth    
calibrated←→unstandardized

calligrapher  n. 书法家
one who writes a beautiful hand  
bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting}

callow        adj.(鸟)未生羽毛的,(人)未成熟的
lacking adult sophistication:IMMATURE
frank:secretiveness=callow:maturity
callow←→behaving with adult sophistication

callus        n. 皮肤的硬结,胼胝,(植物伤口的)愈合组织
a thickening of or a hard thickened area on skin or bark
gully:erosion=callus:friction

calorie       n. 卡路里
the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius that is equal to about 4.19 joules
power:watt=heat:calorie=decibel:sound=volt:electricity

calumniate    v. 诽谤,中伤( adj. Calumnious)
to utter maliciously false statements, charges, or imputations about
corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood
calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony
calumniate←→vindicate
calumnious:←→flattering
calumny←→approbation

cameo   n. 刻有浮雕的宝石或贝壳
a small piece of sculpture on a stone or shell cut in relief in one layer with another contrasting layer serving as background
peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture

candidate     n. 候选人,投考者
one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office, membership, or award
roster:personnel=slate:candidate
ballot:candidates=??

candor        n. 坦白,直率
unreserved, honest, or sincere expression:FORTHRIGHTNESS
palter:candor=diehard:budge
artifice←→candor

canon   n. 教会法规,圣典,准则
(1)the authentic works of a writer
(2)a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council
religion:devoutness canon:orthodoxy
canon←→apocrypha
canonical←→nontraditional

cantankerous  adj.脾气坏的,好争吵的
difficult or irritating to deal with

canvas        n. 帆布,画布,油画
a piece of cloth backed or framed as a surface for a painting  canvas:painter=marble:sculptor

canvass       v.游说
to seek orders or votes:SOLICIT
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass

canyon        n. 峡谷,溪谷
a deep narrow valley with steep sides and often with a stream flowing through it
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern

capitulate    v. (有条件地)投降
to cease resisting:ACQUIESCE
acquiesce:yield=capitulate:categorical
capitulate←→resist
capitulation←→resistance

caprice       n.异想天开
a sudden, impulsive, and seemingly unmotivated notion or action
caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied
apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate
capricious←→steadfast
caprice←→confirmation

caption       n. 说明,字幕,标题
the part of a legal document that shows where, when, and by what authority it was taken, found, or executed

captivate     vt. 迷住,迷惑
to influence and dominate by some special charm, art, or trait and with an irresistible appeal
captivate←→repulse

careworn      a. 疲倦的,饱经忧患的
showing the effect of grief or anxiety
careworn←→lighthearted

caricature    n. 讽刺画,滑稽模仿
exaggeration by means of often ludicrous distortion of parts or characteristics
brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature
caricature:presentation
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature

carouse       vi. 痛饮,畅饮
to drink liquor deeply or freely
roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw

carp     vi. 吹毛求疵,挑剔
to find fault or complain querulously
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
complain:carp=drink:guzzle

cartographer  n. 绘制地图者
one that makes maps
cartographer:map=tailor:clothing/lexicographer:dictionary

cast     n. 演员阵容,投掷,性质
the set of actors in a dramatic production
appoint:official=cast:actor
letter:signature=playbill:cast

castigation   n. 申斥,强烈反对
to subject to severe punishment, reproof, or criticism
castigation:disapproval=misbehave:crime
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial/glorification:merit
peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation

catalyze      vt. 催化
BRING ABOUT, INSPIRE
catalyze←→retard

!cataract      n. 大瀑布,奔流,洪水,白内障
WATERFALL;  especially :a large one over a precipice

catastrophe   n. 大灾难,大祸
a momentous tragic event ranging from extreme misfortune to utter overthrow or ruin
catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment

categorical   adj. 无条件的,绝对的
ABSOLUTE, UNQUALIFIED
acquiesce:yield=capitulate:categorical
categorical←→qualified/conditional

cater   vi.迎合,投合
to supply what is required or desired

catholic      a.天主教的,宽宏大量的,一般的,普遍的
COMPREHENSIVE, UNIVERSAL;  especially :broad in sympathies, tastes, or interests    
catholic←→narrow

caustic       adj.腐蚀性的,刻薄的
marked by incisive sarcasm
barb:caustic=pan:harsh
caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry
caustic:smoothing:??
caustic←→palliating/genial

!caveat        n.警告; 防止误解的说明
a warning enjoining one from certain acts or practices
overture:introductory=caveat:warning

cavern        n. 巨穴,洞窟
CAVE;  especially :one of large or indefinite extent
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern

cavil   v.挑毛病,吹毛求疵
to raise trivial and frivolous objection
cavil:criticize=probe:investigate
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil
nitpick:criticize=cavil:object
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil

!cavort        vi. 腾跃
to walk or move in a spirited manner  :PRANCE
dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly

cede          vt. 放弃
to yield or grant typically by treaty
cede:possess=??

celebrity     n. 名声,名人
the state of being celebrated
celebrity←→obscurity

cement       n.水泥;胶粘剂
to unite or make firm by or as if by cement
cement←→fracture

censor        vt. 检查,审查,删改
to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable
censorship:communication=preservative:decay
censorship:information=sanitation:disease
vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate

censorious    a. 受批判的,挑剔的
marked by or given to censure

censure       n./v. 责难,非难
to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy
lamentable:pity=reprehensible:censure
remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure
censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible
exonerate←→censure
extol←→censure

census        n. 户口普查
a count of the population
census:population=inventory:stock

centrifuge    n. 离心分离机
a machine using centrifugal force for separating substances of different densities, for removing moisture, or for simulating gravitational effects
centrifuge:separate=colander:drain

ceremony      n. 典礼,仪式,礼节
a formal act or series of acts prescribed by ritual, protocol, or convention
affidavit:statement=wedding:ceremony

cessation     n. 中止,(短暂的)停止
a temporary or final ceasing (as of action):STOP
cessation←→commencement

chaff   n. 谷壳,糠,揶揄
the seed coverings and other debris separated from the seed in threshing grain
winnow:chaff=filter:impurities

chagrin       n. 懊恼
disquietude or distress of mind caused by humiliation, disappointment, or failure

chamber       n. 室,房间,枪膛 a. 室内的
a natural or artificial enclosed space or cavity

chameleon     n. 变色龙,善变的人,轻浮的人
any of a family (Chameleon ) of chiefly arboreal Old World lizards with prehensile tail, independently movable eyeballs, and unusual ability to change the color of the skin
salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist

champion      vt. 保卫,拥护
to act as militant supporter of:UPHOLD, ADVOCATE
champion←→disparage
impugn←→champion

charade       n. 看手势猜字谜游戏
a word represented in riddling verse or by picture, tableau, or dramatic action
charade:word=mime:story
charade:dissimulate=??

charlatan     n. 吹牛者
one making usually showy pretenses to knowledge or ability:FRAUD, FAKER

chasm   n. 深渊,大差别,代沟
a deep cleft in the surface of a planet (as the earth):GORGE
cleft:chasm=cut:gash

check   n.支票 ;阻止
to block the progress of
jolt:move=check:stop
propagate←→check

chef     n. 厨师
a skilled cook who manages the kitchen (as of a restaurant)

!cherubic      a. 天使的,无邪的,可爱的
innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy
cherubic←→somber

!chevron       n. 山形袖章,回文状雕饰
a sleeve badge that usually consists of one or more chevron-shaped stripes that indicates the wearer's rank and service (as in the armed forces)
chevron:badge=caisson:cart

!chiaroscuro   n.(绘画中的)明暗对照法;用明暗对照法绘的图画
the interplay or contrast of dissimilar qualities
chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy  [filigree:delicacy ]

chic     adj. 漂亮的,时髦的
smart elegance and sophistication especially of dress or manner:STYLE

chicanery     n.欺诈,欺骗
deception by artful subterfuge or sophistry:TRICKERY
chicanery:clever=tactlessness:truthful
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination

chide   vt.vi. 斥责,责骂
to voice disapproval to:reproach in a usually mild and constructive manner:SCOLD
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle

chip     n. 晶片,薄片,碎片
a small usually thin and flat piece (as of wood or stone) cut, struck, or flaked off
chip:stone=shard:glass

choke   vt. 窒息,阻塞,噎,抑制
to check normal breathing of by compressing or obstructing the trachea or by poisoning or adulterating available air
smother:choke=??

!choleric      adj. 易怒的,暴躁的
easily moved to often unreasonable or excessive anger:hot-tempered
choleric←→difficult to provoke

choreography  n. 舞蹈,舞蹈编排
the composition and arrangement of dances especially for ballet
choreography:dance=plot:story

chronic       a.长期的,慢性的,惯常的,经常的
always present or encountered;  especially :constantly vexing, weakening, or troubling
chronic←→sporadic

chronicle     n. 年代记,记录,编年史
a usually continuous historical account of events arranged in order of time without analysis or interpretation

chronological  adj. 按年月顺序的
of, relating to, or arranged in or according to the order of time
dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological

churlish      adj. 脾气暴躁的,粗野的
marked by a lack of civility or graciousness:SURLY
complaisance←→churlishness

cinder        n. 煤渣,灰烬
the slag from a metal furnace:DROSS

cipher        n.暗号,密码
a method of transforming a text in order to conceal its meaning
cipher:cryptic=precis:concise

circuitous    a. 迂回的路的,迂曲的,绕行的
not being forthright or direct in language or action
immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness

circumference     n. 圆周,周围,胸围
the perimeter of a circle
border:country=circumference:circle

!circumlocutory    a. 委婉曲折的,迂回的
the use of an unnecessarily large number of words to express an idea
circumlocutory←→direct encounter

circumspect   adj.慎重的;小心的
careful to consider all circumstances and possible consequences:PRUDENT
circumspect←→audacious/reckless
temerity←→circumspection

circumvent    vt. 绕行,陷害,包围,智取
to manage to get around especially by ingenuity or stratagem
circumvent←→confront
circumvention←→direct encounter

cistern       n. 贮水器,水槽,水箱
an artificial reservoir (as an underground tank) for storing liquids and especially     water (as rainwater)
cistern:liquids=landfill:refuse

citation      n. 引用,引证,引用文,传票
an official summons to appear (as before a court)
summons:citation=??

civility      n. 礼貌,端庄
COURTESY, POLITENESS
civility←→rudeness

clandestine   adj.秘密的
marked by, held in, or conducted with secrecy:SURREPTITIOUS
clandestine:secretly=overt:openly
clandestine←→open

clarion       n. 尖音号角,a. 清澈响亮的
loud and clear
clarion←→soft and undistinct

clarity       n. 清楚,透明
the quality or state of being clear:LUCIDITY
ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth
consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion
equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
misunderstood:clarify=erroneous:retract
ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity
roil←→clarify/appease
obfuscate←→clarify

clasp   n. 扣子,钩,紧握
a device (as a hook) for holding objects or parts together
lathe:shape=clasp:fasten

cleft   n.裂缝
a usually V-shaped indented formation:a hollow between ridges or protuberances
cleft:chasm=cut:gash

clement       adj.仁慈的,温和的
inclined to be merciful:LENIENT

cliche  a. 陈腐的
a trite phrase or expression
hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:original

cling   vi. 粘紧,附着,紧贴,坚持
to hold together

clique        n. 朋党派系,小集团
a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons;  especially :one held together by common interests, views, or purposes
clique:intimates=flock:sheep

clog     n. 障碍,重物 v.障碍,阻塞
something that shackles or impedes:ENCUMBRANCE
clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations

closet        n. 壁橱,小室 a. 秘密的,空论的
a cabinet or recess for especially china, household utensils, or
clothing   pantry:food=closet (wardrobe):clothes

clot     n. 凝块,群
a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood
clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed

cloudburst    n. 倾盆大雨,豪雨
a sudden copious rainfall
gust:wind=cloudburst=rainfall

clout   n. 权力,势力
PULL, INFLUENCE
clout←→impuissance

cloying       adj. 甜得发腻的
excessively sweet or sentimental
garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet
loquacious:talkative=cloying:sweet

clumsy        a. 笨拙的,不雅观的,粗陋的
lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace
inane←→clumsy

coagulant     n. 凝结剂
something that produces coagulation
coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve

coalesce      v.合并,联合,结合
to unite into a whole:FUSE
coalesce←→disaggregate

coarse        a. 粗略的
not precise or detailed with respect to adjustment or discrimination
fastidious←→coarse

coax     vt.用巧言诱哄
to manipulate with great perseverance and usually with considerable effort toward a desired state or activity
equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten
blandishment:coax=medal:honor/prevarication:deceive
equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten

coda     n. 终结句,乐章结尾部,完结部
a concluding musical section that is formally distinct from the main structure
dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata

coeval        adj. 同年龄的,同时代的
of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration
congruent:dimension=coeval:age

cogent        adj. 有说服力的
appealing forcibly to the mind or reason:CONVINCING
cogent:convince=repugnant:repel

cognizant     a. 已认识,既知道,晓得
knowledgeable of something especially through personal experience
incognizance:knowledgeable=penury:wealthy
cognizant←→oblivious

colander      n. 滤器,漏勺
a perforated utensil for washing or draining food
centrifuge:separate=colander:drain

collapse      vt.使倒塌 vi. n.倒塌
to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely
collapse:implode=divide:sunder
collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness

collude       v. 串通,共谋
CONSPIRE, PLOT
collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey

colonnade     n. 柱廊
a series of columns set at regular intervals and usually supporting the base of a roof structure
colonnade:pillar=queue:person

coma     n. 昏迷状态
a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison
coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion

combustible   a. 易燃的,燃烧性的,易动激情的
capable of combustion
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible

comely        n. 清秀,美丽,合宜
having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain
comeliness←→unattractiveness

commencement  n. 开始
an act, instance, or time of beginning
cessation←→commencement
cease←→inaugurate/commencement

commencement  n. (大学的)毕业典礼
the ceremonies or the day for conferring degrees or diplomas
commencement←→matriculation

commend       vt. 委托给,推荐,嘉奖
to mention with approbation:PRAISE
execrable←→commendable/laudable

commensurate  adj. 同样大小的,相称的
equal in measure or extent:COEXTENSIVE
preponderant←→commensurate
tantamount←→incommensurate

commentary    n. 注释,评论,批评
an explanatory treatise

commercial    n. 广告节目
an advertisement broadcast on radio or television
advertising:commercial=publishing:journal

commitment    n. 委托,实行,承担义务,赞助
(1)    an engagement to assume a financial obligation at a future date
(2)    the state or an instance of being obligated or emotionally impelled
crime:misdemeanor=commitment:decision
dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
ambivalent←→commitment

committed     adj.在…方面]受约束的,受束缚的[in]  献身于 [主义、主张] 的,致力于
OBLIGATE, BIND
profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed

commodious    adj.宽敞的
comfortably or conveniently spacious:ROOMY
taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu   commodious←→constricted/(cramped)

commonsense   a. 具有常识的
sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgment
preposterous←→commonsensical

!commotion     n.骚动,动乱
an agitated disturbance:TO-DO
squall:commotion=flash:illumination

compendium    n. 简要,概略
a brief summary of a larger work or of a field of knowledge:ABSTRACT
compendium:summary=anthology:collection
encyclopedia:compendious=??

compensate    vt.vi. 偿还,补偿,付报酬
to offset an error, defect, or undesired effect

!complaisance  n. 彬彬有礼,殷勤,柔顺
disposition to please or comply:AFFABILITY
complaisance:intractable=adeptness:maladroit
complaisance←→churlishness
complaisance←→obstinacy

compliant     a. 顺从的,适应的
ready or disposed to comply:SUBMISSIVE
compliant:servile=trusting:gullible
obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield

compliment    vt. 称赞,褒扬,恭维
expressing or containing a compliment
apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed
vituperative←→complimentary

comply        vi. 顺从,答应
to conform or adapt one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity
mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain

composed      a. 镇静的,沉着的
free from agitation:CALM;  especially :SELF-POSSESSED
distraught←→composed

compress      vt. 压缩,压榨
to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing
compression←→increase in volume    distention←→compression

compromise    n. 妥协,折衷,折衷案,和解
to come to agreement by mutual concession
mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction
implacable:compromise=honest:swindle
intransigent←→open to compromise

compunction   n. 良心的责备,后悔,悔恨
anxiety arising from awareness of guilt

concatenate   v. 连结,连锁
to link together in a series or chain
concatenate←→separate

concede       v. 承认(为正确),让步
to grant as a right or privilege
concede←→refuse to grant

concentrate   vt.vi. 集中,专心,浓缩
a. to bring or direct toward a common center or objective:FOCUS
b. to make less dilute
concentrate←→dilute solution
deploy←→concentrate

concerted     a. 商议好的,协定的,预定的
mutually contrived or agreed on
concerted←→individually devised

concerto      n. 协奏曲
a piece for one or more soloists and orchestra with three contrasting movements

conciliate    v. 安抚,调和
APPEASE:to cause to subside:ALLAY  especially :to buy off (an aggressor) by concessions usually at the sacrifice of principles
sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive
conciliate←→vex
vex←→conciliation
contentious←→conciliatory

conciseness   n. 简明; 简洁
marked by brevity of expression or statement:free from all elaboration and superfluous detail
synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity

concord       n.和睦,公约
a state of agreement:HARMONY
concord←→dissension
dissonance←→concord

concur        vi. 意见相同,一致,互助
to act together to a common end or single effect
concur←→naysay

condemn       vt. 判刑,责备,谴责,声讨,处刑
to declare to be reprehensible, wrong, or evil usually after weighing evidence and without reservation
countenance←→condemn
exaltation←→condemnation
extol←→condemn/impugn/detract

condescending       a. 谦逊的,故意屈尊的,叫人领情似的
showing or characterized by condescension:PATRONIZING
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery

condign       a. 相当的,适宜的  
DESERVED, APPROPRIATE
condign←→undeserved/unmerited

condone       vt. 赦,宽恕
to pardon or overlook voluntarily;  especially :to treat as if trivial, harmless, or of no importance
condone←→denounce

conducive     adj. 有助于…的
tending to promote or assist
conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate

confederacy   n. 联盟,邦联
a league or compact for mutual support or common action:ALLIANCE

confess       vt.vi. 承认,坦白,忏悔,供认
to disclose one's faults;  specifically :to unburden one's sins or the state of one's conscience to God or to a priest
recantation:error=confession:crime

confidant     n. 心腹朋友,知己
one to whom secrets are entrusted

confidante    n. 知己的女友
CONFIDANT;  especially :one who is a woman

confident     a. 有信心的,有把握的
characterized by assurance;  especially :SELF-RELIANT    self
confident:timid=open:shy
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory

confine       vt. 限制,闭居,禁闭
something that restrains
loose:confinement:=disabuse:misconception

conform       vt.使遵守 vi.一致
to be similar or identical;  also :to be in agreement or harmony          incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey

confront      vt. 使面对,对抗,比较,使对质
to face especially in challenge:OPPOSE
craven:confront=honest:deceive
circumvent←→confront

congeal       v. 凝结,凝固
to make viscid or curdled:COAGULATE
congeal←→melt/disintegrated
congeal←→fail to solidify

congenial     a. 同性质的,适意的,趣味相同的  
SOCIABLE, GENIAL  congenial:bonhomie
dour←→congenial/genial

congruent     a.全等的
superposable so as to be coincident throughout
congruent:dimension=coeval:age
incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey
variance←→congruity

conjecture    n./v. 推测,臆测
inference from defective or presumptive evidence
conjecture←→restrain from the speculation
conjecture←→fact

connoisseur   n. 鉴赏家,行家
EXPERT;  especially :one who understands the details, technique, or principles of an art and is competent to act as a critical judge
connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine

conquest      n. 战胜,征服,战利品
the act or process of conquering
inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest

conscientious a. 有责任心的,负责的,本着良心的
governed by or conforming to the dictates of conscience:SCRUPULOUS

!consensus     n. 一致,交感,,团结
group solidarity in sentiment and belief
consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion
law:criminality=consensus:factionalism

conservative  a.保守的 n.保守的人
tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions:TRADITIONAL
bigoted:advice=conservative:change
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty

conservatory  n.温室,音乐学院   a. 保存性的,有保存力的
a school specializing in one of the fine arts
conservatory:music={seminary:theology }=observatory:astronomy
observatory:astronomy=conservatory:music

conserve      n. 蜜饯,果酱   vt. 保存,保全
to keep in a safe or sound state
conserve←→waste/squander/exhaust

considerable  a. 相当的,可观的,重要的
worth consideration:SIGNIFICANT
restive:calmness=piddling:considerable

consignment   n. 委托
the act or process of consigning
consignment:invoice

console       n.悬臂,肘托;控制台  vt. 安慰,藉慰
to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of:COMFORT
embarrass:shame=console:comfort

consolidate   vt. 巩固,使联合,统一
to join together into one whole:UNITE
consolidation←→fragmentation

consonance    n. 一致,调和,和音
harmony or agreement among components

conspicuous   adj.显著的,显而易见的
obvious to the eye or mind
authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention
conspicuous:see=transparent:understand
conspicuous:sheltered=??
blatant←→inconspicuous
nondescript←→conspicuous
salient←→unconspicuous

constellation n. 星座,星群
the configuration of stars.
constellation:star=chord:note{ queue:person}

constitute    vt. 构成,组成,任命
to appoint to an office, function, or dignity
abdicate←→constitute

constrained   a. 被强迫的,拘泥的,不舒服的
to appoint to an office, function, or dignity
constrain←→release
intemperate←→constrained

consultation  n. 请教,咨询,协议会
COUNCIL, CONFERENCE;  specifically :a deliberation between physicians on a case or its treatment

contagious    a. 传染性的,会蔓延的,会传播的
communicable by contact:CATCHING
sprain:injure=cold:contagion  contagious←→incommunicable

contaminate   vt. 弄污,弄脏,毒害,传染,染污
to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact or association
hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident

contemplate   vt. 注视,沉思,打算
to view or consider with continued attention:meditate on

contempt      n. 轻视,轻蔑
the act of despising:the state of mind of one who despises:DISDAIN
measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly
paragon:admire=pariah:contempt
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt
estimable←→contemptible

content       a. 满足的,满意的,意义的
feeling or manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions, status, or situation
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
gripe:discontent=praise:admiration
disaffected←→content
restiveness←→contentment

contentious   adj. 好辩的,喜争吵的
exhibiting an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes
contentious←→conciliatory

contingent    a. 或许发生的,附随的,暂时的
likely but not certain to happen:POSSIBLE

contradictory a. 反驳的,反对的,抗辩的
involving, causing, or constituting a contradiction
paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise

contravene    v. 违反,违背,反驳,反对
to oppose in argument:CONTRADICT
contravene←→support

contravene    v.违背(法规,习俗等)
to go or act contrary to:VIOLATE
contravene←→buttress

contrite      a. 悔悟了的,后悔的,痛悔的
grieving and penitent for sin or shortcoming
apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed

contrived     adj. 做作的,不自然的
ARTIFICIAL, LABORED
contrived:design=??

contumacious  adj. 违抗的,不服从的
stubbornly disobedient:REBELLIOUS
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty
contumacious←→obedient

!convalesce    vi. 渐渐康复,渐愈
to recover health and strength gradually after sickness or weakness
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce

convenience   n. 方便,便利的事物,无忧虑
something (as an appliance, device, or service) conducive to comfort or ease
opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience
opportune←→inconvenient

convention    n. 大会,协定,惯例
usage or custom especially in social matters
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated
offbeat←→conventional
ossify←→transcend conventions

convergent    a. 趋集于一点的,会聚性的,收敛的
tending to move toward one point or to approach each other:CONVERGING
convergent←→moving apart
discrepancy←→converge

convert       vt. 使改变信仰,兑换,倒置 n. 皈依者,改宗者
to bring over from one belief, view, or party to another
veer:direction=convert:belief
hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert

convey        vt. 传达,运输,转移
to transfer or deliver to another
collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey
splint:immobilize=duct:convey

conviction    n.确信,信服,深信
a strong persuasion or belief
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction

conviction    n. 定罪
the act or process of convicting of a crime especially in a court of law
mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction

convoke       v. 召集会议
to call together to a meeting
convoke←→adjourn

convoluted    adj. 旋绕的,费解的
INVOLVED, INTRICATE
convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience

convulsion    n. 骚动,痉挛
an abnormal violent and involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the muscles
convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion

coop     n. 小屋,鸡笼,捕鱼笼
a cage or small enclosure (as for poultry)
corral:horses=coop:chickens

copious       adj.丰富的
present in large quantity:taking place on a large scale
copious←→sparse

coquette      n. 风骚的女人,爱卖弄风情的女子,玩弄男人的女人
a woman who endeavors without sincere affection to gain the attention and admiration of men
supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious

cord     n. 绳索,束缚,木料计量单位
a unit of wood cut for fuel equal to a stack 4 x 4 x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet
ream:paper=cord:wood

cordon        n. 哨兵线,非常警戒线,饰带
a line of persons or objects around a person or place
levee:river=cordon:crowd

cornucopia    n.象征丰收的羊角(羊角装饰器内装满花、果、谷物等以示富饶)
an inexhaustible store:ABUNDANCE
cornucopia←→lack/pittance

coronation    n.加冕,加冕礼
the act or occasion of crowning;  also :accession to the highest office
coronation:reign=wedding:marriage
wedding:marriage=coronation:reign

corporeal     a. 肉体的,有形的,物质的
having, consisting of, or relating to a physical material body:as  a:not spiritual  b:not immaterial or intangible:SUBSTANTIAL
corporeal←→intangible/disembodied
spiritual←→corporeal

corral        vt. 占有,围住  n. 畜栏
a pen or enclosure for confining or capturing livestock
corral:horses=coop:chickens

corroborate   vt. 使坚固,确证
to support with evidence or authority:make more certain
corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood
corroboration←→lessening of certainty

corrosive     a. 腐蚀的,腐蚀性的,蚀坏的
tending or having the power to corrode
etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive

cosmopolitan  n.  四海为家的人,世界主义者,无国家偏见的人
having worldwide rather than limited or provincial scope or bearing
bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination}
insularity←→cosmopolitanism
insular←→cosmopolitan

cosset        v. 宠爱,娇养
to treat as a pet:PAMPER
cosset←→slight
cosseted←→unspoiled

coterie       n. (有共同兴趣的)小团体,小圈子
an intimate and often exclusive group of persons with a unifying common interest or purpose
coterie:group=??

countenance   n. 面容,表情 v. 支持,赞成 
to extend approval or toleration to:SANCTION
countenance←→condemn

counterfeit   n. 赝品,伪造品
made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive:FORGED
sophism:reasoning=counterfeit:money

counterpart   n. 副本,复本,配对物,相应物
one of two corresponding copies of a legal instrument:DUPLICATE

couplet       n. 对句,对联
two successive lines of verse forming a unit marked usually by rhythmic correspondence, rhyme, or the inclusion of a self-contained utterance:DISTICH

court   n.法院,法庭;庭院  vt. 献殷勤,追求,招致危险
to seek the affections of;  especially :to seek to win a pledge of marriage from
aversion←→court
court←→repel intentionally/repulse intentionally/snub
spurn←→court ,crave, embrace

courtesy      n. 礼貌,谦恭,允许
a:courteous behavior
b:a courteous act or expression

coven   n. (尤指十三个) 女巫的集会
an assembly or band of usually 13 witches retainer:retinue=witch:coven

covetous      adj. 贪婪的,贪心的
marked by inordinate desire for wealth or possessions or for another's possessions
troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious

cow       v.恐吓,吓倒,威胁
to destroy the resolve or courage of
cowed←→undaunted
embolden←→abash/faze/cow

cowardice     n. 懦弱
lack of courage or resolution
pluck←→cowardice

cower   vi. 畏缩,退缩,抖缩
to shrink away or crouch especially for shelter from something that menaces, domineers, or dismays
fear:cower=anger:rant
bristle←→cower

craft   n. 技艺,手艺,诡计
skill in planning, making, or executing:DEXTERITY

cramp   a. 狭窄的,难解的  
CONFINE, RESTRAIN
commodious←→constricted/(cramped)

crass   a.粗糙,粗厚的;愚钝的;极度的,非常的
having or indicating such grossness of mind as precludes delicacy and discrimination
crass←→refined

craven        adj.懦弱的,畏缩的
lacking the least bit of courage:contemptibly fainthearted
craven:admirable=deft:awkward
craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift
craven:heroic=volatile:constant
heroic:craven=erratic:permanent
craven:confront=honest:deceive

craving       n. 渴望,热望
an intense, urgent, or abnormal desire or longing
terror:fear=craving:desire
spurn←→court ,crave, embrace

credence      n. 信用,祭器台,供桌,凭证
mental acceptance as true or real

creek   n. 小溪,小河,小湾
a natural stream of water normally smaller than and often tributary to a river
hill:mountain=creek:river

crescendo     n. (音乐)渐强,高潮
a gradual increase;  specifically :a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage

crest   n.鸡冠, 顶饰;
the top of a wave
crest:wave=summit/peak:mountain

crestfallen   adj. 挫败的,失望的
feeling shame or humiliation:DEJECTED

criteria      n. 标准
a standard on which a judgment or decision may be based

cronyism      n. 任人唯亲
partiality to cronies especially as evidenced in the appointment of political hangers-on to office without regard to their qualifications
nepotism:relative=cronyism:friend

croon   v. 低声歌唱,低吟
to sing or speak in a gentle murmuring manner;  especially :to sing in a soft intimate manner adapted to amplifying systems
croon:sing=murmur:speak

crop     n. 农作物,产量,平头
a plant or animal or plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence:COLLECTION
crop←→pittance

crouch        v. 蹲伏、弯腰
to bend or bow servilely:CRINGE

crown   vt. 使成王,加冕,居...之顶
to place a crown or wreath on the head of;  specifically :to invest with regal dignity and power
inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king

crucial       adj.严重的;极重要的
important or essential as resolving crisis:DECISIVE
relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious
crucial←→inconsequential

crude   a. 天然的,未成熟的,粗糙的,粗鲁的
marked by the primitive, gross, or elemental or by uncultivated simplicity or vulgarity
delicacy←→crudity

crutch        n. 拐杖,支撑,帮助
a support typically fitting under the armpit for use by the disabled in walking
crutch:walk=glasses:see

crux     n. 十字架形,关键,难题
an essential point requiring resolution or resolving an outcome
crux←→peripheral element

cryptic       a. 秘密的,神秘的,含义模糊的
having or seeming to have a hidden or ambiguous meaning:MYSTERIOUS
cipher:cryptic=precis:concise
cryptic:perplex=cryptic←→self explain
cryptic←→self explanatory

cuisine       n.烹调
manner of preparing food:style of cooking;  also :the food prepared
connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine

culpable      adj.该受谴责的
meriting condemnation or blame especially as wrong or harmful
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame
culpable←→innocent

cultivated    a. 耕耘的,栽植的,有教养的
REFINED, EDUCATED
feral←→cultivated

cumbersome    a. 讨厌的,麻烦的,累赘的
unwieldy because of heaviness and bulk
cumbersome←→easy to handle

cunning       a. 狡猾的,巧妙的,可爱的
characterized by wiliness and trickery
artless←→cunning/guile
ingenuous←→cunning

curative      a.治病的,有治病效力的
relating to or used in the cure of diseases:tending to cure
curator       n.  (博物馆、图书馆等的) 馆长,主持
one that has the care and superintendence of something;  especially :one in charge of a museum, zoo, or other place of exhibit
ranger:forest=curator:museum

cursory       adj.粗略的,草率的
rapidly and often superficially performed or produced:HASTY
cursory←→painstakingly thorough
fastidious←→easygoing/cursory/uncritical

curt     adj. (言词、行为)简略而草率的
sparing of words:TERSE
curt:words=parsimonious:resource

curtail       vt.截短,缩短;削减
to make less by or as if by cutting off or away some part
curtail:period=enervate:energy  protract←→curtail

cyclone       n. 飓风,暴风
a storm or system of winds that rotates about a center of low atmospheric pressure, advances at a speed of 20 to 30 miles (about 30 to 50 kilometers) an hour, and often brings heavy
rain   snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone

cynical       a. 愤世嫉俗的,讽刺的,冷嘲的
having or showing the attitude or temper of a cynic;  especially :contemptuously distrustful of human nature and motives
ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness

dabble        vi. 玩水,泼溅,涉猎
to work or involve oneself superficially or intermittently especially in a secondary activity or interest
dabble←→dedicate/devote
dabbler←→specialist

daft     adj. 傻的,愚蠢的
a:SILLY, FOOLISH  b:MAD, INSANE
daft←→judicious

daguerreotype n. (早期)银板照相
an early photograph produced on a silver or a silver-covered copper plate;  also :the process of producing such photographs

dally   vi. 戏耍,玩弄,赋闲
a:to act playfully;  especially :to play amorously
b:to deal lightly:TOY

damp     n. & a. 潮湿(的);v. 打湿,!抑制
MOISTURE,HUMIDITY, DAMPNESS
tint:suffuse:damp:quench
sere←→lush/damp

dander        n. 生气,头皮屑
DANDRUFF;  specifically :minute scales from hair, feathers, or skin that may be allergenic

dandy   n.花花公子,好打扮的人
a man who gives exaggerated attention to personal appearance
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion

dank     adj.阴湿的
unpleasantly moist or wet
dank:moisture=??

dapper        adj.衣冠楚楚的,干净的
a:neat and trim in appearance
b:excessively spruce and stylish
dapper:fastidious=??
dapper←→frowsy
unkempt←→dapper

dappled       a. 斑纹的,花的
marked with small spots or patches contrasting with the background
striated:groove=mottled/dappled:spot

daredevil     n. 铤而走险的人,不怕死的人
a recklessly bold person
prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton
daredevil:???=malcontent:dissatisfaction

dart     vi. 疾走,突进
to move suddenly or rapidly fall
descend:plummet=move:dart

daunt   v. 使胆怯,使畏缩
to lessen the courage of:COW, SUBDUE
dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment
cowed←→undaunted
daunt←→embolden/make resolute
daunting←→meek
dauntless←→craven/easily discouraged/pusillanimous

dawdle        vi.vt. 游手好闲,混日子
to move lackadaisically
hie←→dawdle

deactivate    vt. 解除动员,复员,使无效,使不活动
to make inactive or ineffective
deactivate←→potentiate

deaden        vt. 使减弱,消除
to impair in vigor or sensation:BLUNT
tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden

!deadpan       a. 无表情的脸
marked by an impassive matter-of-fact manner, style, or expression
impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive

dearth        n. 缺乏,粮食不足,饥谨
an inadequate supply:LACK
plethora←→dearth
spate←→dearth

debase        v.贬低,贬损
to lower in status, esteem, quality, or character
debase:value=attenuate:force
enervation:vitality=debase:value

debilitate    vt. 使衰弱
to impair the strength of:ENFEEBLE
attenuate:thickness=debilitate:strength
debilitate←→invigorate/fortified

debunk        v.揭穿真相,暴露
to expose the sham or falseness of

debut   n.初次登台,初次露面
a first appearance
debut:←→farewell performance

decadence     n. 衰落,颓废
the process of becoming decadent:the quality or state of being decadent
decadence←→wholesomeness

!decant        vt. 轻轻倒出,移入其他容器
to pour out, transfer, or unload as if by pouring
subterfuge:deceive=decant:pour

decibel       n. 分贝(音量的单位)
a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from zero for the average least perceptible sound to about 130 for the average pain level
decibel:sound=volt:electricity=watt:power=lumen:light

decipher      vt. 译解,解释
a:to make out the meaning of despite indistinctness or obscurity
b:to interpret the meaning of
legible:decipher=??

decode        vt. 解码,译解
to convert (as a coded message) into intelligible form
tacit:infer=encoded:decode

decorum       n.礼仪
propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance
miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum
decorum←→impropriety

decrepit      adj. 衰老的,破旧的
wasted and weakened by or as if by the infirmities of old age
decrepit←→vigorous

dedication    n. 奉献,致力,献辞
a devoting or setting aside for a particular purpose
bigot=dedication=rage:anger
zeal:dedication={mesmeric:interest}
dabble←→dedicate/devote

default       n. & v. 拖欠,违约,欠缺,默认,缺省
a failure to pay financial debts
default:pay=yield:resist

deference     n. 敬意,尊重
respect and esteem due a superior or an elder;  also :affected or ingratiating regard for another's wishes
defer:leader=admire:hero
deferential:offend=scornful:respect
intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend
frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant
impudent←→deferential/respectful

deficiency    n. 缺乏,不足
an amount that is lacking or inadequate:SHORTAGE
surfeit←→deficiency

defile        v.弄污,弄脏  n.(山间)小道
a narrow passage or gorge
precipice:steepness=defile:narrowness

defoliate     vt.vi. (使)落叶
to deprive of leaves especially prematurely
defoliate:tree=insecticide:insect

defraud       vt. 欺骗  
to deprive of something by deception or fraud

deft     adj. 灵巧的,熟练的(deft) 
characterized by facility and skill
craven:admirable=deft:awkward
maladroit:deft=voluble:verse
deft←→maladroit

defuse        vt. 放松,抚慰,减轻
to make less harmful, potent, or tense
defuse←→foment

defy     vt. 藐视,挑衅,使落空
to challenge to do something considered impossible:DARE
acquiesce←→defy

dehydrate     vt. (使)脱水(n. dehydration)
to remove bound water or hydrogen and oxygen from (a chemical compound) in the proportion in which they form water
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
dehydrate:water=wither:vitality=fade:brightening
fatigue:rest=dehydration:water
reconstitute←→dehydrate

deject        vt. 使沮丧,使灰心
to make gloomy
mollify:anger=hearted:dejection
dejected←→exultant

deleterious   adj. (对身心)有害的,有毒的
harmful often in a subtle or unexpected way
wholesome←→deleterious
deleterious←→salutary/salubrious

deliberate    a.深思熟虑的;审慎的
to think about or discuss issues and decisions carefully
apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate
hasty←→characterized by deliberation
hasty←→deliberate
impetuous←→deliberate

delicacy      n. 细软,精致,精美的食品,娇气
the quality or state of being dainty:FINENESS
delicacy←→crudity
husky←→delicate

delinquent    n. 行为不良的人,流氓
offending by neglect or violation of duty or of law

delirium      n.精神错乱,发狂
a mental disturbance characterized by confusion, disordered speech, and hallucinations
coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion

delude        vt. 迷惑,蛊惑
to mislead the mind or judgment of:DECEIVE, TRICK
transparent←→delusive

deluge        n.大洪水,豪雨
a. an overflowing of the land by water  
b. a drenching rain
rain:deluge=wind:hurricane
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide
deluge←→drizzle

!delve   vt.vi. 探究,查考
to make a careful or detailed search for information
quaff:sip=delve:skim
scrutinize=gloss=delve:skim

demagogue     n. 煽动者,群众煽动者
a leader who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power
{demagogue:instruct }

demise        n.死亡  vt. 让渡,遗赠,转让
DIE, DECEASE

demography    n. 人口统计学
the statistical study of human populations especially with reference to size and density, distribution, and vital statistics
demography:population=meteorology:weather

!demolition    n. 破坏,毁坏,毁坏之遗迹
the act of demolishing;  especially :destruction in war by means of explosives
recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition

demoralize    vt. 使道德颓废,使堕落,挫折锐气
a:to weaken the morale of:DISCOURAGE, DISPIRIT
b:to upset or destroy the normal functioning of
c:to throw into disorder

demur   v.表示异议,反对
to take exception:OBJECT
praise:approbation=demur:objection
demur←→accept

demystify     vt. 使非神秘化
to eliminate the mystifying features of

den       n. 兽穴,洞穴
the lair of a wild usually predatory animal

denigrate     vt. 使变黑,玷污,诋毁
to cast aspersions on:DEFAME
denigrate←→honor

denouement    n.(小说的)结尾,结局
the final outcome of the main dramatic complication in a literary work
joke:punch line=plot:denouement

denounce      v. 指责,揭发
to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil
admonish:denounce=punish:pillory  {persuade:convince}
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial/glorification:merit
condone←→denounce

denude        v.脱去,剥蚀,剥夺
to strip of all covering or surface layers
denude←→cover

denunciation  n. 谴责,告发
an act of denouncing;  especially :a public condemnation

depart        vi. 离开,出发,去世,违反,放弃
to go away:LEAVE
abscond:depart=pilfer:take
lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate/abscond:depart

depict        vt. 描述,描写
to represent by or as if by a picture

deplete       vt. 耗尽,使衰竭
to lessen markedly in quantity, content, power, or value
enrich←→deplete

deplore       vt. 悲悼,哀叹,悔恨
a:to feel or express grief for
b:to regret strongly
deplore←→laud
deplore←→accolade/extol

deploy        v.[军]展开,调度,部署
to extend (a military unit) especially in width
deploy←→concentrate

deportation   n. 驱逐,放逐
the removal from a country of an alien whose presence is unlawful or prejudicial
deportation:country=eviction:dwelling

depose        vt. 免职,废,作证
to testify to under oath or by affidavit
perjury←→deposition

deposit       vt.使淤积
a natural accumulation (as of iron ore, coal, or gas)
deposit←→process of eroding

depravity     n. 堕落,腐败,邪恶
a corrupt act or practice
doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue

deprecate     vt. 声明不赞成,抨击,反对
BELITTLE, DISPARAGE
deprecate:value=restrict:diameter
depreciation:value=ossification:flexible
deprecate←→extol
vaunt←→deprecate

depreciate    v. 贬低,贬值
to lower the price or estimated value of
fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger
imperious:fawn=swagger:self depreciate
imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger

depress       vt. 使沮丧,压低,降低,使萧条
to press down
depressant:mood=???
protuberant←→depressed

deprivation   n. 剥夺,剥夺官职,免职
the state of being deprived:PRIVATION;  especially :removal from an office, dignity, or benefice
deprivation←→surfeit {fecundity}

!deracinate    vt. 根除,灭绝,使孤立
UPROOT
deracinate←→plant

derelict      n. 遗弃物,被遗弃的人,玩忽职守者
a destitute homeless social misfit:VAGRANT, BUM
derelict←→pillar of society

deride        vt. 嘲弄,嘲笑
to subject to usually bitter or contemptuous ridicule
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
smirk:smugness=sneer:derision
ridicule:derision=??
deride←→praise
veneration←→derision

derivative    adj. 派生的,无创意的
lacking originality:BANAL
precursory←→derivative

derogatory    a. 贬损的
expressive of a low opinion:DISPARAGING

descendant    n.后代,后裔
one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype
forbears←→descendants

desecrate     vt. 供俗用,亵渎,污辱
to violate the sanctity of:PROFANE
desecrate←→sanctify/revere

desert        vt. 放弃,遗弃,逃跑
to withdraw from or leave usually without intent to return

desiccate     vt. 使干,干贮  (adj. Desiccated)
to preserve (a food) by drying:DEHYDRATE
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry
desiccate:moisture=detoxify:poison

despair       vi. 绝望  
to lose all hope or confidence
abandon:inhibition=despair:hope

despicable    a. 可鄙的,卑劣的
deserving to be despised:so worthless or obnoxious as to rouse moral indignation
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn
despicable:value=mulish:flexible

despondent    adj. 失望的,意气消沉的
feeling or showing extreme discouragement, dejection, or depression
elated←→despondent
sanguine←→despondent

dessert       n.甜点心
a usually sweet course or dish (as of pastry or ice cream) served at the end of a meal
dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata

detach        vt. 分离,分遣
to separate especially from a larger mass and usually without violence or damage
tether←→detach

deter   vt. 制止,使断念,威慑
to turn aside, discourage, or prevent from acting
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract
inducement←→deterrent
deter←→spur

detestable    a. 嫌恶的,可憎的,可厌恶的
arousing or meriting intense dislike:ABOMINABLE

detract       vt.vi. 减去,贬低
to diminish the importance, value, or effectiveness of something
extol←→condemn/impugn/detract

detritus      n. 碎石
a product of disintegration, destruction, or wearing away:DEBRIS
detritus←→valuable mass

deviation     n. 背离
noticeable or marked departure from accepted norms of behavior

devise        vt. 设计,发明,图谋,遗赠给
to form in the mind by new combinations or applications of ideas or principles:INVENT

devoted       a. 投入的,深爱的
characterized by loyalty and devotion
devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious
fanatic:devoted=prude:proper
elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence
dabble←→dedicate/devote

devout        a. 虔诚的,虔敬的,衷心的
devoted to religion or to religious duties or exercises
religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy
impiety←→devoutness

dexterous     a. 灵巧的,用右手的
mentally adroit and skillful:CLEVER
dexterous:awkward=??

diabolic      adj.   恶魔 (一样) 的,魔鬼性格的
of, relating to, or characteristic of the devil:DEVILISH
diabolize←→benediction

diagnose      vt.vi. 诊断
to recognize (as a disease) by signs and symptoms

diaphanous    adj.(布)精致的,半透明的
characterized by such fineness of texture as to permit seeing through
diaphanous←→opaque

diaphanous    adj.(布)精致的,半透明的
INSUBSTANTIAL, VAGUE
diaphanous←→substantial

diatribe      n. (口头或书面猛烈的)抨击,抨击性演说
a bitter and abusive speech or writing
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse

didactic      adj.教诲的、说教的
designed or intended to teach
didactic:teach=hortatory:urge==exhortative:urge
didactic:teach=fantastic:amaze

diehard       n. 顽固分子
strongly or fanatically determined or devoted
palter:candor=diehard:budge

diffident     a. 无自信的,客客气气的,羞怯的
hesitant in acting or speaking through lack of self-confidence
diffident←→brassy
expansive←→reserved/diffident

digit   n. 数字,位数,指头
any of the divisions in which the limbs of amphibians and all higher vertebrates terminate, which are typically five in number but may be reduced (as in the horse), and which typically have a series of phalanges bearing a nail, claw, or hoof at the tip
fang:tooth=finger:digit

dignity       n. 尊严,高贵
quality or state of being worthy, honored, or esteemed

digress       v. 离题,把(话题)离开
to turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument
digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant
digressive:topic/subject=stray:group
stray:group=digress:subject

dilapidate    vi.vt. (使)荒废,(使)毁坏
to bring into a condition of decay or partial ruin      dilapidated←→restored

dilate        vt.使膨胀;使扩大
to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent:DISTEND, WIDEN     dilate←→contract

dilatory      a. 拖拉的
characterized by procrastination:TARDY
dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain
alacrity←→dilatoriness/hesitance
precipitate←→retard/dilatory

dilettante    n. 半瓶醋,业余爱好者
a person having a superficial interest in an art or a branch of knowledge:DABBLER
dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence

diligent      a. 勤勉的,用功的
characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic effort:PAINSTAKING
procrastination←→diligence

dilute        v. 冲淡,稀释
to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture
slacken:tautness=dilute:strength/concentration

din       n. 喧闹声,嘈杂声
a loud continued noise;  especially :a welter of discordant sounds
stench:nose=din:ear

dingus        n. ((俚))新发明品; 新玩意儿
an ornamental attachment or decoration :DOODAD

dingy   adj. 肮脏的,褪色的
DIRTY, DISCOLORED
dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere

diocesan      a. 主教管区的
a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese
diocesan←→  ecumenical

dire     a. 可怕的,悲惨的,阴惨的,极端的
DISMAL, OPPRESSIVE
dire←→pleasant

dirge   n. 哀歌、凄凉之曲调
a song or hymn of grief or lamentation;  especially :one intended to accompany funeral or memorial rites

disabuse      v. 打消(某人)的错误念头,纠正
to free from error, fallacy, or misconception
disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease
loose:confinement:=disabuse:misconception

disaffected   adj.(政治上)不满的,叛离的
discontented and resentful especially against authority:REBELLIOUS
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel
disaffected←→contented

disaggregate  vt.释放;排出 n.释放
to separate into component parts

disagreeable  a. 不愉快的,厌恶的,不为人喜的
causing discomfort:UNPLEASANT, OFFENSIVE
disagreeable:hateful=harmful:lethal

disarm        vi. 放下武器,缓和
to deprive of means, reason, or disposition to be hostile
bait←→disarm

disavow       vt. 否认,否定,抵赖
to deny responsibility for:REPUDIATE
disavow←→affirm

discard       vt. 丢弃,抛弃,解雇
to get rid of especially as useless or unpleasant
retain←→discard

discerning    adj. 有洞察力的,眼力好的,眼光敏锐的
showing insight and understanding:DISCRIMINATING
palatable:savory=discernible:manifest
myopic←→discerning

discharge     vt. 卸下,放出,解雇,放电,履行
to dismiss from employment
discharge←→hire

disclaim      vt.vi. 放弃,弃权,拒绝
to renounce a legal claim to

discography   n. (按作曲家、演奏家或演唱家分类之) 音乐唱片分类目录
a descriptive list of phonograph records by category, composer, performer, or date of release
list:discography=tool:hoe

discommode    v. 使失态,慌张
to cause inconvenience to:TROUBLE
discommode←→assist
discommode←→convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify

discompose    vt. 使不安,使烦乱,使烦恼
to destroy the composure of
discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic

discord       n. 不调和,不和
lack of agreement or harmony (as between persons, things, or ideas)
harmony←→discord

discourse     n.演讲;论文
a:formal and orderly and usually extended expression of thought on a subject
b:connected speech or writing
c:a linguistic unit (as a conversation or a story) larger than a sentence    lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse

discrepancy   n. 不同,矛盾
an instance of being discrepant
discrepancy←→converge

discretion    n. 慎重,辨别力,考虑,处理权
the quality of being discreet:CIRCUMSPECTION;  especially :cautious reserve in speech frivolous
gravity=brash:discretion
foolish:discretion=impecunious:money
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention

discretionary adj.随意的,自由裁量的
left to discretion:exercised at one's own discretion
discretionary←→obligatory
discretionary←→mandatory

discriminate  vt.vi. 区别,差别待遇
to mark or perceive the distinguishing or peculiar features of
epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching
liken:similarity=discriminate:difference
sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating
equitable←→discriminatory/unfair

discursive    adj. 散漫的,无层次的
moving from topic to topic without order:RAMBLING
discursive←→keen on title
discursive←→succinct

disdain       v. 轻视、鄙视
a feeling of contempt for what is beneath one:SCORN
snub:disdain=double cross:disloyalty
adulation←→disdain

disengage     vt. 使自由,解放,解开
to release from something that engages or involves

disgorge      v. 呕出,(水)流走
to discharge by the throat and mouth:VOMIT
disgorge←→swallow

disgruntle    vt. 使不高兴
to make ill-humored or discontented ? usually used as a participial adjective
disgruntle←→refresh
disgruntled←→contented

disguise      vi.隐瞒,掩埋 n.假装
to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity
padding:damage=disguise:recognition

disgust       n. 厌恶,嫌恶
marked aversion aroused by something highly distasteful:REPUGNANCE
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
odious:disgust=menacing:fear
scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust}
entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore

dishevel      vt. 使蓬乱,使头发凌乱
to throw into disorder or disarray

disinclination  n. 不起劲,不感兴趣,厌恶
a preference for avoiding something:slight aversion
aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration
aversion:inclination=??

disinfect     vt. 消毒
to free from infection especially by destroying harmful microorganisms
oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect

disinterested a. 无私欲的,廉洁的,公平的
free from selfish motive or interest:UNBIASED
factional←→disinterested
iniquity←→disinterestedness

disjunctive   a. 可分的,分离的,分隔的
marked by breaks or disunity
nominal:significance=disjunctive:unity

dismantle     vt. 拆除...的设备,分解,去除覆盖物
to take to pieces;  also :to destroy the integrity or functioning of

disparage     v. 贬抑,轻蔑
to depreciate by indirect means (as invidious comparison):speak slightingly about
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
             aggrandize←→disparage
champion←→disparage    extol←→disparage

disparate     adj. 迥然不同的,不可并论的
containing or made up of fundamentally different and often incongruous elements

dispassionate adj. 平心静气的
not influenced by strong feeling;  especially :not affected by personal or emotional involvement
dispassionate←→responsive

dispatch      v. 派遣,一下做完、吃完 n. 迅速 
promptness and efficiency in performance or transmission
dispatch←→leisureliness

disposal      n. 处理,排列,支配,布置,废料
systematic destruction;  especially :destruction or transformation of garbage
recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition

disquiet      n./v. 担心,焦虑
to take away the peace or tranquillity of:DISTURB, ALARM  
disquiet←→put at ease

disrupt       vt. 使分裂,使瓦解
to throw into disorder
saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend

dissect       vt.vi. 解剖,切细
to analyze and interpret minutely
specimen:dissect=sentence:parse

dissemble     v. 隐藏、掩饰(感受,意图)
to put on a false appearance:conceal facts, intentions, or feelings under some pretense
dissemble:honesty=snub:politeness
dissemble:information=masquerade:feeling
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub

disseminate   vt. 散播,传播,宣传
to spread abroad as though sowing seed
disseminate:information=foment:discontentment
disseminate←→garner

dissension    n. 意见不合,纠纷,倾轧
DISAGREEMENT;  especially :partisan and contentious quarreling
concord←→dissension

dissent       vi. 持异议,不同意
to withhold assent
dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group

dissertation  n. 论文
an extended usually written treatment of a subject;  specifically :one submitted for a doctorate

dissipate     vt. 散失,驱散,浪费 (dissipation)
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
accumulation←→dissipation
dissipate←→accumulate
dissipate←→gather
amass←→dissipate

dissociate    vt.vi. 分离,游离,分裂
to separate from association or union with another
affiliation←→dissociation

dissolute     adj.放荡的,无节制的
lacking restraint;  especially :marked by indulgence in things
libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag
voluble:speech=licentious:dissoluteness

dissolve      vt.vi. 溶解,解散
to cause to pass into solution
clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed
coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve

dissonance    n.不和谐(的音调)
lack of agreement;  especially :inconsistency between the beliefs one holds or between one's actions and one's beliefs
dissonance←→concord

dissuade      vt. 劝阻
to advise (a person) against something
remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure
remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal
dissuade←→abet

distention    n.  膨胀
the act of distending or the state of being distended especially unduly or abnormally
distention←→compression

distillation  n. 蒸馏
the process of purifying a liquid by successive evaporation and condensation
synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity
distill:purity=leaven:volume

distinction   n. 区别
the quality or state of being distinguishable
nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion
nebulous←→distinct
repute←→lack of distinction

distinguished a. 卓著的,著名的
marked by eminence, distinction, or excellence      
eminent←→undistinguished

distort       vt. 扭曲,歪曲
to twist out of the true meaning or proportion   brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature

distract      vt. 转移,分心,使发狂
to draw or direct (as one's attention) to a different object or in different directions at the same time
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract
rapt←→distracted

distraught    adj. 心神狂乱的
agitated with doubt or mental conflict
troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious
distraught←→composed

ditch   n. 沟
a long narrow excavation dug in the earth
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern

ditty   n. 小调,小曲
an especially simple and unaffected song
fable:tale=ditty:song

diurnal       adj. 白昼的,白天的
of, relating to, or occurring in the daytime
diurnal←→nocturnal

diverge       vi. 分歧,岔开
to move or extend in different directions from a common point:draw apart
ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent
diverge:apart=traverse:across

divert        vt.使转向 vi.转移
to turn from one course or use to another:DEFLECT
divert:shunt=retard:brake

divestiture   n. 剥夺,脱衣
the act of divesting
divestiture←→acquisition

divulge       vt.泄漏(秘密等);宣布,公布
to make known (as a confidence or secret)
divulge←→keep secret

doctrine      n.教义,主义;学说
a principle or position or the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief:DOGMA
doctrine:heretical=course:errant

dodder        vi. 摇摆,蹒跚
to progress feebly and unsteadily
dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly

doff     vt. 脱,丢弃,废除
to remove (an article of wear) from the body
doff←→don

dogged        a. 顽固的,顽强的
marked by stubborn determination
dogged←→yielded
dogged←→easily discouraged

doggerel      adj.  歪诗的,打油诗
loosely styled and irregular in measure especially for burlesque or comic effect;  also :marked by triviality or inferiority
doggerel:verse=burlesque:play

doggo   adv. ((俚)) (一动不动地) 隐藏着
in hiding
doggo:instability=??

dogma   n. 教条
something held as an established opinion;  especially :a definite authoritative tenet
dogma←→heresy

doldrums      n. (海洋上的)无风带,情绪低沉 
state or period of inactivity, stagnation, or slump
doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue

dolorous      adj. 悲哀的,忧愁的
causing, marked by, or expressing misery or grief
dolorous←→jubilant

dolt     n. 呆子,笨蛋,傻瓜
a stupid person
wag:humorous=dolt:stupid

domination    n. 支配,控制,管辖
supremacy or preeminence over another
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued
inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest

domineering   adj. 盛气凌人的,跋扈的,作威作福的
inclined to domineer

don       vt. 穿上
to put on (an article of clothing)
doff←→don

donor   n. 捐赠人
one that gives, donates, or presents something
legacy:predecessor=gift:donor

doodle        n.v. 乱写,乱画
an aimless or casual scribble, design, or sketch
draw:doodle=travel:ramble

dour     a. 不爱讲话的,沉沉的,严厉的
STERN, HARSH
dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness
dour←→congenial/genial

downpour      暴雨
a pouring or streaming downward;  especially :a heavy rain
downpour:flooding=wind:erosion
wind:erosion=downpour:flooding

doyen   n. 老资格,首席
a:the senior member of a body or group
b:a person considered to be knowledgeable or uniquely skilled as a result of long experience in some field of endeavor
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated

draconian     adj. 严峻的,苛刻的
CRUEL;  also :SEVERE
palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity
draconian←→indulgent/mild

drawl   vt.vi. 懒洋洋地说,做作而慢慢地说
to utter in a slow lengthened tone
inch:move=drawl:speak    
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless

dreary        a. 沉闷的
having nothing likely to provide cheer, comfort, or interest:GLOOMY, DISMAL
jocund←→dreary

drivel        vi. 淌口水,说傻话
to utter in an infantile or imbecilic way
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast

drizzle       n./v. 下毛毛雨,毛毛雨
a fine misty rain
deluge←→drizzle

droll   adj. 古怪的,好笑的
having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality
grisly:flinch=droll:laugh
droll←→grave

droplet       n. 小滴
a tiny drop (as of a liquid)
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide

drudgery      n. 苦差事,苦工
dull, irksome, and fatiguing work:uninspiring or menial labor
drudgery←→rewarding work

dryad   n. 森林的精灵
WOOD NYMPH

dubious       a. 可疑的,不确定的
questionable or suspect as to true nature or quality
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
dubious←→certain

dulcet        adj.(声音)悦耳的,美妙的
pleasing to the ear
cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious

dull     a. 钝的,无趣的,呆滞的,阴暗的
lacking brilliance or luster
tarnish:dull=vitrify:smooth
brilliance←→dullness
perspicuous←→dull
resplendent←→dull
trenchant←→vague/dull

dullard       n.笨蛋
a stupid or unimaginative person

dupe     n. 傻瓜,易受骗的人
one that is easily deceived or cheated:FOOL
reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe

dwelling      n. 住处
a shelter (as a house) in which people live
deportation:country=eviction:dwelling
potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling

dyspeptic     a. 消化不良的,胃弱的,患胃病的
INDIGESTION
genial←→dyspeptic

eaglet        n. 小鹰
a young eagle eaglet:bird
eaglet:bird=frog:amphibian

earnest       a.认真的,诚恳的
characterized by or proceeding from an intense and serious state of mind
facetious←→earnest

earplug       n. 耳栓
device of pliable material for insertion into the outer opening of the ear (as to keep out water or deaden sound)
earplug:noise=shield:impact

earshot       n. 听力所及之范围,声音所及的距离
the range within which the unaided voice may be heard
earshot:hear=ken:see

earsplitting  a. 震耳欲聋的
distressingly loud or shrill
earsplitting:voice=??

ebullience    n. 沸腾,热情,热情洋溢
the quality of lively or enthusiastic expression of thoughts or feelings:EXUBERANCE
ebullience←→impassiveness

eccentric     a. 古怪的,反常的,不同圆心的
deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct especially in odd or whimsical ways
hero:admirable=eccentric:unconventional
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated

echelon       n.[军]梯队;组织系统中的等级
an arrangement of a body of troops with its units each somewhat to the left or right of the one in the rear like a series of steps
echelon:hierarchy=??

eclat   n.  辉煌的成就; 喝采; 名声
brilliant or conspicuous success
eclat←→fiasco

eclectic      n. 折衷主义者,折衷派的人
selecting what appears to be best in various doctrines, methods, or styles

eclipse       n. (日,月)蚀,名声缺落,失势
a falling into obscurity or decline;  also :the state of being eclipsed
eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor

ecumenical    adj. 世界范围的,节俭的,一般性的,普遍性的
worldwide or general in extent, influence, or application   ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity
diocesan←→ecumenical

edifice       n. 大厦,大建筑物
BUILDING;  especially :a large or massive structure
tower:edifice=rampart:barrier

efface        v. 擦掉,抹去
to make (oneself) modestly or shyly inconspicuous
alliterate:remove=blazon:efface    blazon←→efface

effervesce    vi. 冒泡,沸腾,兴奋
to show liveliness or exhilaration
effervesce←→be flat
effervescent←→still

effete        adj. 衰老的,虚弱的,精疲力尽的
having lost character, vitality, or strength
effete←→hale

effluvia      n. pl. 臭气(effluvium的复数形式),没用的副产品
a by-product especially in the form of waste
effluvia←→desired products

effulgent     adj.光辉的,灿烂的
radiant splendor:BRILLIANCE
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence

effusive      a. 感情横溢的,流出的
characterized or formed by a nonexplosive outpouring of lava
gush:effusive=rage:irate
emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandiose}

egocentric    adj.自我中心的,利己的
concerned with the individual rather than society
altruism←→egocentric

elaborate     a. 精细的,详尽的,精心的
marked by complexity, fullness of detail, or ornateness
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy
abstract←→elaborate

elastic       a. 有弹性的,能伸缩的,可通融的
capable of being easily stretched or expanded and resuming former shape:FLEXIBLE
ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch
elastic:expand=viable:live

elated        adj. 得意洋洋的振奋的
marked by high spirits:EXULTANT
elated←→despondent
elation←→dejection

eleemosynary  a. 施舍的,慈善的,接受接济的
of, relating to, or supported by charity
philanthropist:eleemosynary=??

elegant       a. 优雅的,端庄的,高雅的
of a high grade or quality:SPLENDID
insolent←→polite {elegant}

elegy   n. 哀歌、挽歌
a song or poem expressing sorrow or lamentation especially for one who is dead
satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow
elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence

elephantine   a. 象的,巨大的,粗笨的
having enormous size or strength:MASSIVE
microscopic←→elephantine

elevate       vt. 举起,提拔,鼓舞
to raise in rank or status:EXALT
debasement←→elevation

elicit        vt. 引出,抽出,引起
to draw forth or bring out
evoke←→fail to elicit

elitism       n.精英论,优秀人士统治
leadership or rule by an elite

ellipsis      n省略
the omission of one or more words that are obviously understood but that must be supplied to make a construction grammatically complete
apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence

elliptical    a.椭圆的;省略的  , 朦胧的,含糊的
of or relating to deliberate obscurity (as of literary or conversational style)
elliptical←→palpable

elongate      v.延长,伸长
to extend the length of

elucidate     v.阐明说明
to give a clarifying explanation
garble←→elucidate
obfuscate←→elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly

emanate       vi. 散发,发出,发源
to come out from a source

emancipate    v. 解放,解除
to free from restraint, control, or the power of another;  especially :to free from bondage
emancipate←→shackle

embargo       n. 禁运令,封港令
a legal prohibition on commerce
embargo:commerce=quarantine:contact

embark        vi. 乘船,着手,从事,上飞机
to make a start
conclude←→embark on

embarrass     vt. 使困窘,使局促不安,阻碍
to place in doubt, perplexity, or difficulties
catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment
embarrass:shame=console:comfort
unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement

embed   vt.埋
to enclose closely in or as if in a matrix
embed←→extract

embolden      v.给……壮胆,鼓励
to instill with boldness or courage
appall←→embolden/nerve
embolden←→abash/faze/cow
boggle←→embolden
embolden←→daunt


embrace       n. 拥抱
close encircling with the arms and pressure to the bosom especially as a sign of affection:HUG
embrace:affection=shrug:indifference
abrogate←→embrace/institute/uphold
eschew←→embrace, greet , welcome
abjure←→embrace/espouse
ostracize←→include/embrace
spurn←→court ,crave, embrace

encompass     v.  围绕,包围
to form a circle about:ENCLOSE
encompass←→exclude

emigrate      vi.vt. (使)移居,(使)移民
to leave one's place of residence or country to live elsewhere
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification

eminence      n. 卓越;显赫;(此处喻指高处)
one that is eminent, prominent, or lofty:as
a:an anatomical protuberance (as on a bone)
b:a person of high rank or attainments
c:a natural elevation
master:experience=luminary:eminence
maven:experience=luminary:eminence
eminent←→undistinguished

emphasis      n. 强调,加强,重要,强语气
special consideration of or stress or insistence on something
underscore:emphasis=brand:ownership

emulate       vt.与…竞争;效法
strive to equal or excel
emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary

enact   vt. 制定法律,扮演,颁布
to establish by legal and authoritative act;  specifically :to make (as a bill) into law
rescission←→enactment

enamel        n. 珐琅,瓷釉
a hard calcareous substance that forms a thin layer capping the teeth
enamel:tooth=bark:tree

enclosure     n. 附件,围墙,围绕
something that encloses
stockade:enclosure=pillar:support

encomium      n. 赞颂,颂辞
glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise;
encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil
encomium←→harsh criticism

encompass     1. 围绕,包围   2. 包含,含有
to form a circle about:ENCLOSE  obsolete :to go completely around

encounter     n. v.  相会,相遇,遭遇
to come upon face-to-face
circumlocutory←→direct encounter

encumbrance   n. 阻碍,妨害物,累赘
something that encumbers:IMPEDIMENT

encyclopedia  n. 百科全书
a work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or treats comprehensively a particular branch of knowledge usually in articles arranged alphabetically often by subject
encyclopedia:compendious=??

endorse       vt.签名于(票据)等的背面vt.确认;赞同;支持
to approve openly  especially :to express support or approval of publicly and definitely rider:bill=endorsement:policy
endorse←→oppose publicly
impugn←→endorse

enduring      a. 持久的,忍耐的  
LASTING, DURABLE
ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch
ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living
transitory:endure=immutable:change transitory←→enduring

enervate      vt.使衰弱
to lessen the vitality or strength of
enervation:vitality=debase:value
curtail:period=enervate:energy
eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor
enervate←→invigorate
enervate←→fortify/strengthen

enfeeble      vt. 使衰弱
to make feeble:deprive of strength
eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor
enfeeble←→invigorate
tonic←→enfeebling

enfranchise   vt. 给予自治权,给予选举权,解放
to endow with a franchise:as
a:to admit to the privileges of a citizen and especially to the right of suffrage  b:to admit (a municipality) to political privileges or rights
enfranchise←→enfetter

engender      vt. 产生,引起
to cause to exist or to develop:PRODUCE
quash←→engender

engross       vt.全神贯注于
to take or engage the whole attention of:occupy completely
attentive:officious=refined:snobbish { absorbed:engrossed}

enigmatic     a. 阴阳怪气的,谜一般的,高深莫测的
of, relating to, or resembling an enigma:MYSTERIOUS
enigmatic:simplistic=??
enigmatic←→broadly known { wildly accepted}
enigmatic←→ readily understood

enlighten     vt. 授予...知识,启发,教导,开导
a:to furnish knowledge to:INSTRUCT
b:to give spiritual insight to
equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten

ennoble       vt. 授予爵位,使高贵
to make noble:ELEVATE

ennui   n. 倦怠,厌倦
a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction:BOREDOM
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic
ennui←→energy/enthusiasm
ennui←→keen interest
ennui←→exuberance

enslave       vt.奴役
to reduce to or as if to slavery:SUBJUGATE
manumit←→enslave

ensuing        adj. 随后的,接着的
to take place afterward or as a result
anterior←→ensuing

entangle      vt. 使纠缠,卷入,使混乱
a:to wrap or twist together:INTERWEAVE
b:ENSNARE
disentangle←→snarl

enthusiasm    n. 狂热,热心
a:strong excitement of feeling:ARDOR
b:something inspiring zeal or fervor
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic
enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia
reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm   ennui←→energy/enthusiasm

entice        vt. 诱骗,引诱,怂恿
to attract artfully or adroitly or by arousing hope or desire:TEMPT
command:entreaty=goad:enticement

entrance      vt. 使出神,使入迷
to carry away with delight, wonder, or rapture
entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore
unprepossessing←→entrancing/winsome

entrap        vt. 骗入,诱捕,使陷入
to catch in or as if in a trap
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied

entreaty      n. 恳求,哀求
an act of entreating:PLEA
command:entreaty=goad:enticement
protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat

entry   n. 登录,条目,报关手续,入口,进入
a descriptive record (as in a card catalog or an index)
journal:entries=run:performance

enumerate     vt. 列举,计算,枚举,数

to specify one after another:LIST

enunciate     v. 发音,(清楚地)表达
a:to make a definite or systematic statement of
b:ANNOUNCE, PROCLAIM
enunciate←→mumble

envision      vt. 想象,预想
to picture to oneself

ephemeral     adj. 朝生暮死的,生命短暂的
lasting a very short time
convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience
ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch
ephemeral:transience=permanent:perpetually
repellent:attract=ephemeral:endure
ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility
ephemeral←→permanent/perpetual

epic     史诗;英勇的;超出正常范围的
extending beyond the usual or ordinary especially in size or scope
epic←→modest

epicure       n. 美食家
one with sensitive and discriminating tastes especially in food or wine
epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching
sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating

epigram       n. 警句,讽刺短诗
a concise poem dealing pointedly and often satirically with a single thought or event and often ending with an ingenious turn of thought
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram
paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise

epilogue      n. 收场白,尾声
a concluding section that rounds out the design of a literary work; the final scene of a play that comments on or summarizes the main action; the concluding section of a musical composition:CODA
dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata
terminus:stop=epilogue:story
preface←→epilogue


epistemology  n. 认识论
the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity
aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge

epitomize     vt. 摘要,概括
to serve as the typical or ideal example of

equable       adj. 稳定的,(脾气)温和的
marked by lack of noticeable, unpleasant, or extreme variation or inequality
equable←→intemperate

equipoise     n. 平衡,均衡
a state of equilibrium
equipoise:vacillate=??

equity        a. 公平的,公正的
justice according to natural law or right;  specifically :freedom from bias or favoritism
illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution
equitable←→discriminatory/unfair

equivocal     adj. 意义含糊的,不直率的
a:subject to two or more interpretations and usually used to mislead or confuse
b:uncertain as an indication or sign
equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth
equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten
equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
equivocate:commitment=procrastinate:action
equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness
grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive
equivocation:truth=metaphor:description
waffle←→speak unequivocally

erect   vt. 使竖立,使直立,树立,建立
SET UP, ESTABLISH
suspend←→erect

erect   a. 直立的,竖立的,笔直的
characterized by firm or rigid straightness in bodily posture
prostrate←→erect
slouch←→stand erect

erode   v. (受)腐蚀,(受)侵蚀
to diminish or destroy by degrees
accrete:growth=erode:destruction    downpour:flooding=wind:erosion
gully:erosion=callus:friction
wind:erosion=downpour:flooding
deposit←→process of eroding

errant        a. 周游的,错误的,不定的
traveling or given to traveling
amorphous:shape=errant:course
doctrine:heretical=course:errant

erratic       a.反复无常的,古怪的
having no fixed course:WANDERING
heroic:craven=erratic:permanent

erudite       adj.博学的,饱学的  
possessing or displaying erudition:LEARNED
erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect
erudite←→smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered

escalate      v.(战争等)升级,扩大,上升
to increase in extent, volume, number, amount, intensity, or scope
escalate←→diminish

eschew        v.避开,戒绝
to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds:SHUN
eschew←→embrace, greet , welcome

esoteric      adj.秘传的,神秘的
designed for or understood by the specially initiated alone
esoteric←→common accepted
esoteric←→generally known

espouse       vt. 支持,赞成,嫁娶
to take up and support as a cause:become attached to
abjure←→embrace/espouse



esteem        n. 尊敬,尊重
to set a high value on:regard highly and prize accordingly  
stigma←→mark of esteem
odium←→esteem

estimable     a. 可尊敬的,可估计的
estimable←→contemptible
worthy of esteem

estrange      vt. 使疏远,离间,使离开
to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness:ALIENATE
estrangement←→rapprochement

estrange      vt.使疏远
to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness:ALIENATE

etch     n. 腐蚀剂  
a chemical agent used in etching
etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive

ethereal      a. 轻的,象空气的,天上的
a:lacking material substance:IMMATERIAL, INTANGIBLE
b:marked by unusual delicacy or refinement    
ethereal←→material/ponderous
ponderous←→ethereal/gossamer/lively

ethics        n. 道德规范
the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation
logic:reasoning=ethics:behavior

eulogize      vt. 称赞,颂扬
to speak or write in high praise of:EXTOL
encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil
panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize
eulogy:speak=??

euphemism     n. 婉言,委婉的说法
the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant

equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
euphemism:offend=invulnerable:injure
euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse
euphonious    a. 音响好的,悦耳的,和谐的
pleasing to the ear
cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious

euphoria      n. 安乐感,陶醉,陶醉感
a feeling of well-being or elation
satisfaction:euphoria==??

evade   vt.vi. 规避,逃避,躲避
to avoid answering directly:turn aside
evade:answer=goldbrick:work

evanescent    adj.短暂的,瞬息的
tending to vanish like vapor
evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency
evanescent:disappear=pliant:yield
cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious
abiding←→evanescent

evasive       a. 逃避的,回避的,托辞的
tending or intended to evade:EQUIVOCAL  inclemency:evasion

everlasting   a. 永恒的,持久的,无止境的
lasting or enduring through all time:ETERNAL
countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration

evict   vt. 逐出,赶出,驱逐
to force out:EXPEL
deportation:country=eviction:dwelling
evict:residence=banish:country harbor←→evict

evoke   vt. 唤起,引起
to call forth or up
evoke←→fail to elicit

exacerbate    vt. 恶化,增剧,激怒,使加剧
to make more violent, bitter, or severe
palliate←→exacerbate

exacting      a. 苛求的,吃力的
tryingly or unremittingly severe in making demands
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied  =wary:gulled

exaggerate    vt.vi. 夸大,夸张
to enlarge or increase especially beyond the normal:OVEREMPHASIZE
anger:tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram
malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature

exalt   n. 提升,提高,得意洋洋
to elevate by praise or in estimation:GLORIFY
exaltation←→condemnation

exasperate        vt. 使恼怒,激怒,恶化
a:to excite the anger of:ENRAGE
b:to cause irritation or annoyance to

exceptional       a. 例外的,异常的,特别的
deviating from the norm
prosaic←→exceptional/imaginary/exciting

excerpt   n.摘录,节录; 引用(from)
to select (a passage) for quoting:EXTRACT

exclamation       n. 惊呼,惊叹词
a sharp or sudden utterance

excoriate       v. 撕去皮,严厉批评
to censure scathingly
excoriate←→extol/praise lavishly

excrete   vt.排泄,分泌
to separate and eliminate or discharge (waste) from the blood or tissues or from the active protoplasm
excrete←→ingest

exculpate       vt. 使无罪,分辩,辩解,开脱
to clear from alleged fault or guilt
exculpatory:absolve:=motivational:stir

hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve
alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory
exculpate←→inculpate

excursive       a. 游览的,离题的,散漫的
constituting a digression:characterized by digression
digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant

execrate         v.憎恶,咒骂
to declare to be evil or detestable:DENOUNCE
execrable←→commendable/laudable

execute   vt. 执行,实行,制成,处死
to carry out fully:put completely into effect
impossible:execute=adamant:moved
vagary:predict=impossibility:execute

exemplary       a. 可仿效的,可做模范的
a:serving as a pattern
b:deserving imitation:COMMENDABLE
emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard

exempt     a. 免除的 vt. 使免除,豁免  n. 免税者,被免除义务者
free or released from some liability or requirement to which others are subject
exempt:liability:pardon:penalty

exert       vt. 发挥,运用,施以影响
to bring to bear especially with sustained effort or lasting effect

exhaust   vt. 用尽,耗尽,抽完,使精疲力尽
to consume entirely:USE UP
infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap

exhilarate        vt. 使高兴,使愉快
a:to make cheerful
b:ENLIVEN, EXCITE
exhilarate←→sadden

exhortation       n.劝告,规劝
language intended to incite and encourage
exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit

exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite
exhortative:urge=didactic:teach { risible:ridicule}

exodus     vt.大批离去
a mass departure:EMIGRATION
exodus←→influx

exonerate       v. 免除责任,确定无罪
to relieve of a responsibility, obligation, or hardship
exonerate←→censure
exonerate←→inculpate
incrimination←→exoneration

exorbitant        adj.过份的,过度的
exceeding in intensity, quality, amount, or size the customary or appropriate limits
exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty

exotic     a.外来的,异国的
introduced from another country:not native to the place where found
exotic←→indigenous

expansive       a. 易膨胀的,易扩张的,健谈的
characterized by high spirits, generosity, or readiness to talk:OPEN
expansive←→reserved/diffident
expansive←→malicious
expansive←→taciturn/withdrawn/limited

expedite         vt. 加快,促进,派出  a. 畅通的,无阻碍的,迅速的,方便的
to accelerate the process or progress of:speed up
expedite:process=accelerate:pace
expedite←→retard

expedition        n. 远征,探险队,迅速
efficient promptness:SPEED
expedition←→foot dragging

explicit         adj.清楚明确的
fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity:leaving no question as to meaning or intent
explicit←→obscure
immanent←→explicit

exponent         n. 说明者,支持者
a:one that expounds or interprets
b:one that champions, practices, or exemplifies
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass

expurgate       v. 净化,删去
to cleanse of something morally harmful, offensive, or erroneous;  especially :to expunge objectionable parts from before publication or presentation
vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate

extant     adj. 现存的,传世的
currently or actually existing
extant←→extinct/lost

extenuate       vt. 减轻,使人原谅
to lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of by making partial excuses:MITIGATE
moderate:intensify=extenuate:seriousness

exterminate       vt. 扑灭,消灭,根绝
to get rid of completely usually by killing off

extinct   a.绝种的;熄灭了的
no longer existing
extant←→extinct
extinct←→resuscitated
extinction←→perpetuation

extinguish        vt.熄灭,扑灭;消灭
to cause to cease burning:QUENCH
extinguish←→kindle
ignite←→extinguish

extol       v. 赞美
to praise highly:GLORIFY
deprecate←→extol
excoriate←→extol/praise lavishly
extol←→censure
extol←→disparage
extol←→condemn/impugn/detract
extol←→malign

extort     vt. 勒索,敲诈,强要
to obtain from a person by force, intimidation, or undue or illegal power:WRING
sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation     extort:obtain

extraneous        adj.外来的,无关的
a:not forming an essential or vital part
b:having no relevance
apposite←→extraneous
extraneous←→essential

extravagant       adj.奢侈的 无节制的
a:spending much more than necessary
b:PROFUSE, LAVISH
frugality←→extravagancy

extricate       v. 拯救,救出
to free or remove from an entanglement or difficulty

extrovert       n. 『心理』性格外向的人
a gregarious and unreserved person
extrovert:outgoing=perfectionist=exacting

exuberant       a. 繁茂的,丰富的,非凡的
joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic
ennui←→exuberance

exude       vt.vi. (使)流出,(使)渗出
to undergo diffusion
exude←→absorb

exultant         adj. 愉悦的
filled with or expressing great joy or triumph:JUBILANT
abject←→exultant
dejected←→exultant

fabricate       vt.制造;装配,伪造
CONSTRUCT, MANUFACTURE;  specifically :to construct from diverse and usually standardized parts
discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic

facetious       adj. 轻浮的,好开玩笑的
joking or jesting often inappropriately:WAGGISH
facetious:speech=antic:behavior
facetious←→earnest

facilitate        vt. 帮助,使容易,促进
to make easier:help bring about
facilitate←→impeding
obstruct←→facilitate
hamper←→facilitate

faction   n. 小派系,内讧
a party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or self-seeking:CLIQUE
consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion
factional←→disinterested

faint       a. 微弱的,无力的,模糊的
lacking strength or vigor:performed, offered, or accomplished weakly or languidly
stentorian←→faint

fainthearted      a. 懦弱的,无精神的,胆小的
lacking courage or resolution:TIMID
fallacy   n. 错误的观念或信念,谬见,谬论
a:a false or mistaken idea
b:erroneous character:ERRONEOUSNESS
disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease

falsehood       n. 谎言,虚假
absence of truth or accuracy
corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood

falter     vt. 支吾地说,迟疑
a:to hesitate in purpose or action:WAVER
b:to lose drive or effectiveness
falter:act=stammer:speak

fantasy   n. 幻想,白日梦
imaginative fiction featuring especially strange settings and grotesque
characters nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy
imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy

farce       n. 闹剧,胡闹
ridiculous or empty show
farce:performance=limerick:poem

fascinate       vt. 令人入神,使着迷
to be irresistibly attractive
fascination:interest=adoration:fondness

fast         n. 绝食,斋戒
the act to eat sparingly or abstain from some foods
fast:eat=respite:labor
fast:eat=moratorium:act

fast         ad. 很快地,紧紧地,彻底地
in a firm or fixed manner
fast←→loosely attach

fasten     vt. 拴紧,使固定,强加于,集中于
to attach especially by pinning, tying, or nailing
lathe:shape=clasp:fasten

fastidious        adj.难取悦的,挑剔的
showing or demanding excessive delicacy or care
devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious
dapper:fastidious=??
fastidious←→coarse
fastidious←→easygoing/cursory/uncritical

fathom     n. 英寻(=1829米),v. 领会,理解
to penetrate and come to understand
erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect
measurable←→unfathomable
occult←→bare/patent/readily fathomable
measurable←→unfathomed

fatigue   n. 疲乏,劳累
weariness or exhaustion from labor, exertion, or stress
fatigue:rest=dehydration:water
guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose
indefatigable←→soon tired

fatuous   adj. 愚昧而不自知的
complacently or inanely foolish:SILLY

fawn         n.未满周岁的小鹿,v.巴结,奉承
to court favor by a cringing or flattering manner
adulate:fawn=woo:adorn
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger
fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield
parsimonious:spend:peremptory:fawn
reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn
equivocate:directness=fawn:imperiousness

faze         vt. 打扰,折磨,使狼狈
to disturb the composure of:DISCONCERT, DAUNT
embolden←→abash/faze/cow
fazed←→undisturbed

feckless         a. 没精神的,软弱的,无用的
WEAK, INEFFECTIVE
feckless←→responsible

fecund     a. 多产的,丰饶的,肥沃的
fruitful in offspring or vegetation:PROLIFIC
deprivation←→fecundity

feeble     a. 微弱的,衰弱的,无效的
a:markedly lacking in strength
b:indicating weakness

fender     n.挡泥板,护舷的垫子等
a device in front of locomotives and streetcars to lessen injury to animals or pedestrians in case of collision
fender:collision

feral       a. 野生的,凶猛的
not domesticated or cultivated:WILD
feral←→cultivated

fertilize       vt. 施肥,使丰饶,使受精
to make fertile
fertilize:grow=immunize:resist


fervid     a. 热的,热心的
marked by often extreme fervor
fervid←→restrained

fervor     n. 热诚,热心
intensity of feeling or expression
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic
fervor:zealot=improvidence:spendthrift
zealotry←→lack of fervor

fetid       a. 有恶臭的
having a heavy offensive smell
grating;sound=fetid:smell

fetter     n. 脚镣,束缚
to restrain from motion, action, or progress
enfranchise←→enfetter
liberalistic←→enfetterist

fiasco     n. 大失败,惨败
a complete failure
fiasco←→a notable success

fictitious        adj. 假的、虚构的
of, relating to, or characteristic of fiction:IMAGINARY
fictitious←→factual

fidelity         n. 忠实,诚实,忠诚,保真度
the quality or state of being faithful
apostasy←→fidelity

figurative        a. 比喻的,形容多的,修饰丰富的
a:representing by a figure or resemblance:EMBLEMATIC
b:of or relating to representation of form or figure in art

filibuster        n./v. 妨碍议事,阻挠
the use of extreme dilatory tactics in an attempt to delay or prevent action especially in a legislative assembly

filigree         n. 金银丝做的工艺品
ornamental openwork of delicate or intricate design
chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy  [filigree:delicacy ]

filly       n. 小雌马,小姑娘
a young female horse usually of less than four years
filly:horse=pullet:chicken

filter     vt.过滤 n.滤纸
a porous article or mass (as of paper or sand) through which a gas or liquid is passed to separate out matter in suspension
winnow:chaff=filter:impurities

finesse   n. 技巧、计谋、手段
skillful handling of a situation:adroit maneuvering
finesse←→ineptitude

finicky   a. 过分注意的,过分周到的,过分讲究的
extremely or excessively nice, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards
fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky

flaccid   n. 软弱,没气力
not firm or stiff;  also  :
lacking normal or youthful firmness
flaccidity←→firmness

flagging         a. 下垂的,衰弱的,委顿的
LANGUID, WEAK
flagging←→thriving
flagging←→vibrant
flag←→wax

flamboyant        a. 辉耀的,华丽的,火焰似的
marked by or given to strikingly elaborate or colorful display or behavior
flamboyant←→subdued
flamboyant←→understate

flamboyant        adj. 艳丽的,炫耀的
marked by or given to strikingly elaborate or colorful display or behavior
flamboyant←→subdued

flange     n. 边缘,轮缘,凸缘,法兰
a projecting edge of cloth used for decoration on clothing

flannel   n.法兰绒;法兰绒衣服
outer garments of flannel;  especially :men's trousers
flannel:cloth=linen:fabric{ limerick:poem }

flatter   vt. 过分夸赞,奉承,阿谀,使高兴
to praise excessively especially from motives of self-interest
flatter:praise=loquacious:talkative
sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation
toady:flatter=??

flaw         n. 瑕疵,v. 生裂缝
a defect in physical structure or form
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile

flax         n. 亚麻,麻布,亚麻织品
any of a genus (Linum of the family Linaceae, the flax family) of herbs;  especially :a slender erect annual (L. usitatissimum) with blue flowers commonly cultivated for its bast fiber and seed
clay:porcelain=flax:linen

fledge     vi. 长羽毛
to acquire the feathers necessary for flight or independent activity
fledging←→molt

flexible         a. 易曲的,灵活的,可通融的,能变形的,柔软的
capable of being flexed:PLIANT
adamant:flexibility=refractory:control
limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty
static:move=pliable:inflexible
calcification←→flexibility
flexible←→mulish

flinch            v.畏缩,退缩
to withdraw or shrink from or as if from pain:WINCE;  also :to tense the muscles involuntarily in anticipation of discomfort
grisly:flinch=droll:laugh
stoic:flinch=??

flint             n. 打火石,燧石,极硬的东西
a massive hard quartz that produces a spark when struck by steel
pestle:grind=flint stone:sharpen

flippancy       n.无礼,言语尖刻
unbecoming levity or pertness especially in respect to grave or sacred matters
flippancy←→seriousness

flirt             vi. 调情,玩弄,摆动,轻率地对待
to behave amorously without serious intent
flirt:decency=??
supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious

flock       n. 群,一群人,大量
a group of birds or mammals assembled or herded together
clique:intimates=flock:sheep

flounder         vi. 挣扎,折腾,挣扎着前进
to proceed or act clumsily or ineffectually
flounder:process=??
flounder←→slide

flourish         vi.繁荣,茂盛,兴旺
to grow luxuriantly:THRIVE
flourish←→waste away

flout            v\n.嘲弄,愚弄,轻视
to treat with contemptuous disregard:SCORN
flout:disregard=taunt:challenge

fluctuate       vi. 变动,上下,动摇
to shift back and forth uncertainly
pristine:decay=stable:fluctuation

fluent     a. 流利的,流畅的
a:ready or facile in speech
b:effortlessly smooth and rapid:POLISHED
fluent:glib=humorous:wry
fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky
fluent←→halting

flush      a. 丰足的,齐平的,,泛滥的,满盈的
to pour liquid over or through;  especially :to cleanse or wash out with or as if with a rush of liquid
galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush

fluster   a.  慌乱,狼狈,混乱,激动
to put into a state of agitated confusion:UPSET
flustered←→calm

foible     n.小缺点,小毛病
a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior:WEAKNESS
squabble:dispute=foible:failing
tiff:squabble=foible:failing

foil         v. 阻挠,n. ①花剑,②金属薄片
a thin piece of material (as metal) put under an inferior or paste stone to add color or brilliance
foil:metal=veneer:wood

folly       n.愚笨,愚蠢;傻念头
a foolish act or idea
folly←→sagacious

foment     vt.引发
to promote the growth or development of:ROUSE, INCITE
conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate
disseminate:information=foment:discontentment
defuse←→foment
foment←→inhibit
quell←→foment/instigate/rouse
squelch←→foment

fondness        n. (U)慈爱; 溺爱
tender affection
fascination:interest=adoration:fondness

foolhardy       adj. 鲁莽的,有勇无谋的
foolishly adventurous and bold:RASH

footloose       adj. 自由自在的,无拘束的
having no ties:free to move about
dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment
footloose←→attached

forbears         n. 列祖列宗
forbears←→descendants

forbidding        a.令人生畏的
such as to make approach or passage difficult or impossible

forestry         n. 林产,森林地
the management of growing timber
tree:forestry=flower:horticulture

forgery   n. 伪造,伪造罪,伪造物
an act of forging;  especially :the crime of falsely and fraudulently making or altering a document (as a check)
plagiarism:ideas=forgery:documents

formidable        adj. 可怕的,困难的
causing fear, dread, or apprehension
formidable←→comforting
formidable←→simple/reassure

forthright        adj.直接的;立即的
free from ambiguity or evasiveness:going straight to the point
acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile
furtive←→open/forthright/brassy

fortify   vt. 增强
to make strong:as
a:to give physical strength, courage, or endurance to
b:to add mental or moral strength to:ENCOURAGE
debilitated←→fortified
vitiate←→fortify
enervate←→fortify/strengthen

foster     vt. 养育,抚育,抱(希望),鼓励,培养
to promote the growth or development of:ENCOURAGE
foster←→retract

founder   n.创立者,奠基者
one that founds or establishes

founder   vt. 弄摔倒,弄跛,浸水,破坏
to become submerged:SINK
founder←→stay aloft

foundry   n. 铸造,铸造场,铸造类
the act, process, or art of casting metals

fracture         n. 破碎,骨折  
RUPTURE, TEAR
cement←→fracture

fragile   a. 易碎的,脆的
a:easily broken or destroyed
b:constitutionally delicate:lacking in physical vigor
fragile:break=porous:penetrate
limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty

fraudulent        a. 欺诈的,不正的,不诚实的
characterized by, based on, or done by fraud:DECEITFUL
authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical

freewheel       vi. 轻松快活地行动,凭惯性前进
to move, live, or play freely or irresponsibly

frenzy     n.狂热
a violent mental or emotional agitation
convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion
energetic:frenetic=firm:obdurate

fresco     n.壁画
the art of painting on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments
fresco:wall=parquetry:floor

friable   a.易碎的
easily crumbled or pulverized
friable:crumble=malleable:alter
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible
friable←→not easily crumbled/resistance to be pulverized

friction         n. 摩擦,医疗摩擦,不和
the rubbing of one body against another
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration

frieze     n. (在墙顶与天花板间起装饰作用的)横条,饰带
a heavy durable coarse wool and shoddy fabric with a rough surface
frieze:building=illumination:manuscript

frigid     a. 死板的;呆板的,寒冷的
sweltering←→frigid

frivolous       a. 轻佻的,妄动的,琐碎的
intensely cold
frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion

frowsy     a. 不整洁的,有臭味的,很闷的   (frowzy)
having a slovenly or uncared-for appearance
dapper←→frowsy

frugal     a.节约的,节俭的
characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources
parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride
frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant
frugality←→extravagancy

frustrate       v.挫败,使沮丧
a:to balk or defeat in an endeavor
b:to induce feelings of discouragement in
frustrate←→abet

full-bodied       adj. 味道浓郁的
imparting to the palate the general impression of substantial weight and rich texture
full-bodied:flavor=resonant:sound

fungi       n. 菌类,蘑菇
any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms usually classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts
fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist

furnace   n. 火炉,熔炉,磨练
an enclosed structure in which heat is produced
furnace:heat=generator:electricity

furtive   adj. 偷偷的,秘密的
a:done by stealth:SURREPTITIOUS
b:expressive of stealth:SLY
caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied
furtive←→open/forthright/brassy
furtively←→candidly

futility         n. 无用,无益,无价值
the quality or state of being futile:USELESSNESS
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence
interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile

gadfly     n. 虻,牛虻
a person who stimulates or annoys especially by persistent criticism
gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse

gaffe       n. (社交上令人不快的)失言,失态
a social or diplomatic blunder
gaffe:tactless=??
miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum

gainsay   v. 否认
to declare to be untrue or invalid
gainsay←→affirm

gait         n.步态
a manner of walking or moving on foot
gait:walk=parlance:speak

galaxy     n. 银河,星系,一群显赫的人物
an assemblage of brilliant or notable persons or things

galling   a. 使烦恼的,使焦躁的,难堪的
markedly irritating:VEXING
gall←→lull
gall←→calm/assuage
galling←→placating

galvanize       v. 电镀,通电,激励
to stimulate or excite as if by an electric shock
galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush
galvanize←→lull

gamble     vi.vt. 赌博,孤注一掷
to stake something on a contingency:take a chance
adamant:yield=cautious:gamble

gangling         adj.瘦长得难看的
loosely and awkwardly built:LANKY
garble←→elucidate

garble     v. 曲解,窜改
to so alter or distort as to create a wrong impression or change the meaning
correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible
ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity

garish     a. 炫耀的,过分装饰的
clothed in vivid colors
garish:color=??

garment   n.衣服;服装,衣着
an article of clothing
hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet

garner     n. 谷仓,积蓄
a:GRANARY  
b:a grain bin

garrulous       adj.唠叨的,多话的
given to prosy, rambling, or tedious loquacity:pointlessly or annoyingly talkative
garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet

gash         n. 砍得很深的伤口,很深的裂缝
a deep long cut in flesh
cleft:chasm=cut:gash

gasification      n. 气化
conversion into gas;  especially :conversion of coal into natural gas
gasification/vaporization←→solidification

gauche     a. 笨拙的,粗鲁的,无礼的
lacking social experience or grace;  also :not tactful:CRUDE
gaucheness←→polish

gaudy       adj. 俗丽的
ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented
gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak

gauge       n.标准尺寸,标准规格;量针;容量.范围   vt. 精确计量,估计
a measurement (as of linear dimension) according to some standard or system

gauge:pressure=scale:weight
measure:dimensions:calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth

gear         n. 齿轮,工具
a toothed wheel
gear:tooth=screw:thread(螺线)

genealogy       n. 系谱,宗谱,家系
an account of the descent of a person, family, or group from an ancestor or from older forms

generality        n. 概论,概说,大要
the quality or state of being general
ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity

genial     a. 和蔼的,亲切的,友善的
marked by or diffusing sympathy or friendliness
resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality
genial←→dyspeptic
caustic←→palliating/genial
dour←→congenial/genial
mordant←→genial

genteel   adj.有教养的;文雅的
free from vulgarity or rudeness:POLITE
genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear
truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse
genteel←→loutish

genuine   a. 真正的,真实的,诚恳的
ACTUAL, TRUE
genuine:authenticity=honest:trust spurious←→genuine

germane   adj.密切有关的
being at once relevant and appropriate:FITTING
germane←→irrelevant

gesture   n.姿势,手势;姿态
a movement usually of the body or limbs that expresses or emphasizes an idea, sentiment, or attitude   parody:style=mime:gesture

ghastly   a. 可怕的,惊人的,惨白的
intensely unpleasant, disagreeable, or objectionable
ghastly:unpleasant=??

giddy       a. 眼花的,头晕的 ,轻率
lightheartedly silly:FRIVOLOUS
giddiness←→grave
giddy←→serious

ginger     n. 姜,精力,淡赤黄色  vt. 使活泼,使有生气
a thickened pungent aromatic rhizome that is used as a spice and sometimes medicinally
ginger:spice=??

glacier   n.冰河
a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley or spreading outward on a land surface
glacial:slow=??
glacier:ice=sea:water

glamorize     vt.使<人、东西>有魅力 [显眼]  ,浪漫地处理 [美化] <事情>
to look upon or depict as glamorous:ROMANTICIZE

glance     n. 一瞥,闪光,一滑,辉矿类
a quick or cursory look
peck:kiss=glance:look

glaze       n. 釉,,上光,光滑面
to give a smooth glossy surface to
glaze:porcelain=varnish:wood

glib         adj. 流利圆滑的,善辩的
marked by ease and fluency in speaking or writing often to the point of being insincere or deceitful
fluent:glib=humorous:wry
fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky
glib←→labored

glimmer   v. & n. (发出)微弱的光
a:to shine faintly or unsteadily
b:to give off a subdued unsteady reflection

glisten   v. 闪烁,闪耀.
to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection of or as if of a moist or polished surface
dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere

glitch     n. 干扰;误操作,小故障
a usually minor malfunction
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense

gloat       vi. 满足地看,独自暗笑,贪婪地盯
to observe or think about something with triumphant and often malicious satisfaction, gratification, or delight
primp:vain=gloat:smug

gloomy     a. 阴沉的,昏暗的,忧郁的
low in spirits:MELANCHOLY

glorify   vt. 赞美,美化,赞扬,使辉煌
to make glorious by bestowing honor, praise, or admiration
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial  {glorification:merit}

gloss       n. 光彩,假象,注释
a brief explanation (as in the margin or between the lines of a text) of a difficult or obscure word or expression
blurb:notice=gloss:explanation

glossary         n. 字典,辞典,词汇表
a collection of textual glosses or of specialized terms with their meanings
glossary:text=legend:map

glossy     a. 平滑的,有光泽的
having a surface luster or brightness
varnish:glossy=sand:smooth

glut         n. 大量,充斥,吃饱
an excessive quantity:OVERSUPPLY
glut←→dearth

glutinous       adj. 粘的,胶状的
having the quality of glue:GUMMY
etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive
glutinous←→non viscous

glutton   n. 贪吃者
one given habitually to greedy and voracious eating and drinking
avarice:money=gluttony:food
glutton:overindulge=ascetic:self denial

goad         vt. 用刺棒驱赶,激励,煽动,唆使
something that urges or stimulates into action:SPUR
command:entreaty=goad:enticement
gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse

gobble     vt. 狼吞虎咽
to swallow or eat greedily
quaff:sip=gobble:nibble
swill:sip=gobble:nibble

goggle     n. 眼睛睁视,护目镜
to stare with wide or protuberant eyes
goggles:eyes=gloves:hands=earmuff:ear

goldbrick       vi. 称病,欺诈,偷懒
to shirk duty or responsibility
evade:answer=goldbrick:work

gorge       vi. 狼吞虎咽
reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge

gossamer         n.蛛丝,薄纱,adj.轻而薄的
something light, delicate, or insubstantial
gossamer←→substance
gossamer←→ponderous
gossamer←→substance

gourmet   n. 美食家
a connoisseur of food and drink;  broadly :CONNOISSEUR
bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting}
connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine

grandeur         n. 庄严,伟大
the quality or state of being grand:MAGNIFICENCE
grandeur=mean=??

grandiloquent     adj(语言等)夸张的,夸大的
a lofty, extravagantly colorful, pompous, or bombastic style, manner, or quality especially in language
gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak
grandiloquent←→secretive

grandiose       a. 宏伟的,宏大的,堂皇的,铺张的
characterized by affectation of grandeur or splendor or by absurd exaggeration
ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility

grandstand        v. 哗众取宠的表演
to play or act so as to impress onlookers
grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive

grant       vt. 允许,承认,授与
to bestow or transfer formally specifically :to give the possession or title of by a deed
concede←→refuse to grant
withhold←→grant

gratify   vt. 使满足
to be a source of or give pleasure or satisfaction to
gratify:desire=slake:thirsty
aggrieve←→gratify
irk←→gratify

grating   adj.(声音)刺耳的,恼人的
noisily,rasping,harsh
grating:sound=acrid:odor==fetid:smell

gratis     adj.免费的
without charge or recompense:FREE

gratuitous        a. 无缘无故的;免费的
not involving a return benefit, compensation, or consideration
gratuitous←→merited/warranted
having a serious and dignified quality or demeanor
frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion
droll←→grave
giddiness←→grave
grave←→insignificant

gregarious        adj. 群居的,爱社交的
tending to associate with others of one's kind:SOCIAL
poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness
gregarious←→aloof

grievous         adj.严重伤害的,引起痛苦的
causing or characterized by severe pain, suffering, or sorrow
smart:pain=grieve:sorrow
solace:grief=pacification:anger
grievous←→slight

grin         vi.咧着嘴笑
to draw back the lips so as to show the teeth especially in amusement or laughter;  broadly :SMILE
pout←→grin

gripe       v. ①腹部绞痛,②抱怨,诉苦

to complain with grumbling
gripe:discontent=praise:admiration

grisly     adj. 恐怖的,可怕的
inspiring horror or intense fear
grisly:flinch=droll:laugh

groove     a. 开槽的
a long narrow channel or depression
grooved:striated=braided:strand
striated:groove=dappled:spot

grotesque       a. 奇怪的,可笑的
FANCIFUL, BIZARRE
imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy

grovel     vi. 趴,匍匐,卑躬屈膝
to lie or creep with the body prostrate in token of subservience or abasement
minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner

grumble   n. 怨言,满腹牢骚
to mutter in discontent

guarantee       vt. 保证,担保
to engage for the existence, permanence, or nature of:undertake to do or secure    
vouch←→refuse to guarantee

guffaw     vi.vt. 哄笑,狂笑
a loud or boisterous burst of laughter
guile       n. 狡猾,狡计
deceitful cunning:DUPLICITY
acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile
guile:artless=blemish:flawless
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
guile:naif=??
artless←→cunning/guile
manipulate←→guileless

guilt       n. 罪行,内疚
feelings of culpability especially for imagined offenses or from a sense of inadequacy:SELF-REPROACH
narcissism:love=guilt:blame

gullible         a.易受骗的
easily duped or cheated
compliant:servile=trusting:gullible
gullible:artless
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled

gully       n. 小峡谷,排水沟
a trench which was orig. worn in the earth by running water and through which water often runs after rains
gully:erosion=callus:friction

gum           n. 树胶,橡皮,上帝,牙床
any of numerous colloidal polysaccharide substances of plant origin that are gelatinous when moist but harden on drying and are salts of complex organic acids
resin:tree=gum:rubber plant

gush         n. 涌出,滔滔不绝的讲话
a sudden outpouring
blast:whiff=gush:trickle
gush:effusive=rage:irate

gust         n. 突然一阵,风味
a sudden brief rush of wind
gust:wind=cloudburst=rainfall {flare:light}

guzzle     vi.vt. 狂饮,暴食,喝酒化掉(钱)
to drink especially liquor greedily, continually, or habitually
complain:carp=drink:guzzle

habitable       a. 可居住的
capable of being lived in:suitable for habitation
potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling

hack         n.  雇佣文人
a writer who aims solely for commercial success
mercenary:soldier=hack:writer

hackneyed       adj.平凡的;陈腐的
lacking in freshness or originality
windy:concise=hackneyed:original
equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed

halcyon   a. 宁静的,平稳的,翠鸟的  CALM, PEACEFUL
halcyon←→tempestuous

hale         a. 强壮的,健壮的
free from defect, disease, or infirmity:SOUND;  also :retaining exceptional health and vigor
effete←→hale
hale←→infirm
blighted←→hale

hallucination     n. 幻觉,幻想
perception of objects with no reality usually arising from disorder of the nervous system or in response to drugs (as LSD)

halting   a. 跛的,蹒跚的,犹豫的
marked by a lack of sureness or effectiveness
fluent←→halting

hamper     vt.阻碍,使困累,妨碍
to restrict the movement of by bonds or obstacles:IMPEDE
seminal←→hampering further development
hamper←→facilitate

hamstring       vt. 切断腿筋使成跛腿,使残废
to make ineffective or powerless:CRIPPLE
hamstring←→fectiveness

handle     vt. 触摸,运用,操作,处理,买卖
to act, behave, or feel in a certain way when handled or directed
cumbersome←→easy to handle

hangdog   a. 忧愁的,悲哀的,沮丧的,灰心的 鬼鬼祟祟的,卑躬屈膝的,低贱的
SAD, DEJECTED
hangdog←→buoyant

hankering       n. 渴望
to have a strong or persistent desire:YEARN
hankering←→odium

haphazard       n.,adj.&adv.偶然的
marked by lack of plan, order, or direction
methodical←→haphazard
systematic←→haphazard

harangue         n. 长篇演说
to address in a  ranting way
harangue←→speak temperately

harass     v.烦扰
to annoy persistently
haunt:familiar=harass:irritating

harbinger       n. 先驱,预兆
one that presages or foreshadows what is to come
harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify

harbor     n. 港,避难所v. 包庇,隐匿
to give shelter or refuge to
harbor←→evict

hardheaded        a. 冷静的,脚踏实地的,无懈可击的
STUBBORN, WILLFUL

harebrained       a. 轻率的,欠考虑的,粗心的
FOOLISH

harmonious        a. 和睦的,调和的,和谐的,协调的
marked by accord in sentiment or action
acrimonious←→harmonious
harmony←→discord

harp         n. 竖琴
a plucked stringed instrument consisting of a resonator, an arched or angled neck that may be supported by a post, and strings of graded length that are perpendicular to the soundboard
horn:blow=harp:pluck

harry       v. 掠夺,骚扰
to make a pillaging or destructive raid on:ASSAULT
harry←→comfort

harsh       a. 粗糙的,刺耳的,严厉的
a:causing a disagreeable or painful sensory reaction:IRRITATING
b:physically discomforting:PAINFUL
barb:caustic=pan:harsh
encomium←→harsh criticism
mollycoddle←→treat harshly
paean←→harshly lampoon

hasten     vt.催促 vi.赶紧
to move or act quickly
hasten←→slow the progress of
hasten←→check

hasty       a. 匆匆的,轻率的,急忙的
done or made in a hurry
hasty←→characterized by deliberation
hasty←→well considered

haunt       vt. 常到,常去,(思想)萦扰,(鬼魅等)常出没于  n. 常到的地方
to visit often:FREQUENT
haunt:familiar=harass:irritating
persecute:injure=haunt:remember

hauteur   n.傲慢,高傲,自大
ARROGANCE, HAUGHTINESS
fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger
hauteur←→humility

havoc       n.大破坏,浩劫;大混乱,大杂乱
great confusion and disorder
havoc←→serenity

heart       vt. 鼓起勇气,激励
to give heart to:CHEER:HEARTEN
mollify:anger=heart:dejection
dismay←→hearted

hedge       n.修剪过的树篱,限制   vt. 用树篱围,妨碍
a means of protection or defense (as against financial loss)
hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident
safeguard:accident=hedge:loss

heinous   adj.可憎的,十恶不赦的
hatefully or shockingly evil:ABOMINABLE
heinous←→commendable

heirloom         n. 传家宝,相传动产
something of special value handed on from one generation to another
heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator

hem           n. (衣服或裙子的)褶边
a border of a cloth article doubled back and stitched down
hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet

hermit     n. 隐士,隐居者
one that retires from society and lives in solitude especially for religious reasons:RECLUSE
vegetarian:meat=hermit:society

herald     vt. 预报,宣布,传达,欢呼
to give notice of:ANNOUNCE
unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement
unherald←→proclaim

herbicide       n. 除草剂
an agent used to destroy or inhibit plant growth
insect:pesticide=plant:herbicide

hereditary        a. 世袭的,遗传的
a:genetically transmitted or transmittable from parent to offspring
b:characteristic of or fostered by one's predecessors

heresy     n. 异端邪说
an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma
apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy

dogma←→heresy

heretical       a. 异教的,异端的
of, relating to, or characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards:UNORTHODOX
doctrine:heretical=course:errant

herpetologist     n. 爬虫学家
one that a branch of zoology dealing with reptiles and amphibians
salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist

hesitance       n. 踌躇,犹豫
the quality or state of being hesitant:as  a:INDECISION  b:RELUCTANCE
alacrity←→dilatoriness/hesitance
impetuosity←→hesitance/vacillation

hidebound      a. 营养不良的,死板的,量小的
having an inflexible or ultraconservative character
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty

hideous   a. 丑恶的,可憎的,可怕的
offensive to the senses and especially to sight:exceedingly ugly
pulchritude←→ugliness/hideous
affinity←→aversion/hideous

hie           vt. 急忙,疾走,催促
to go quickly:HASTEN
hie←→dawdle

hierarchy       n. 阶级组织,教士政治,僧侣政治
the classification of a group of people according to ability or to economic, social, or professional standing
echelon:hierarchy=

hike         vt. 使高涨,拉起
to rise up;  especially :to work upward out of place
backset←→hike

hinge       n. 铰链,关键,枢纽
a jointed or flexible device on which a door, lid, or other swinging part turn

hint         n. 暗示,提示
a slight indication of the existence, approach, or nature of something:CLUE
nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion

histrionic        a. 演员的,演剧的,有如演戏的
of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater
histrionic:actor=??

hitch       v. 搭便车,套住
to catch or fasten by or as if by a hook or knot

hive         n. 蜂房,闹区,蜜蜂群
a place swarming with activity
tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive

hoard       n./v. 贮藏,秘藏
a supply or fund stored up and often hidden away
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion

hoary       a. 灰白的
extremely old:ANCIENT
hoary:old=??

hodgepodge        n. 混煮,杂菜,混淆
a heterogeneous mixture:JUMBLE
hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:original
items:hodgepodge=people:rabble

homage     n. 尊崇,尊敬,效忠
expression of high regard:RESPECT
counsel:advice=laud:homage
homage←→disrespect

homily     n. 说教,训诫
a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme
parable:story=homily:lecture

homogenize        vt. 使均匀
to blend (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture
stratify←→homogenize

hone         vt. 用磨刀石磨  n. 磨刀石,抱怨,想念
to make more acute, intense, or effective:WHET
hone←→blunt

honorarium        n.酬劳金,谢礼
a payment for a service (as making a speech) on which custom or propriety forbids a price to be set
amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful

horn         n. 角,角质,喇叭
a wind instrument used in a jazz band;  especially :TRUMPET
horn:blow=harp:pluck

hortative       adj. 激励的
giving exhortation:ADVISORY
didactic:teach=hortatory:urge
hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve

horticulture      n. 园艺学
the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants
tree:forestry=flower:horticulture

hovel       n. 小屋,杂物间,家畜小屋
a small, wretched, and often dirty house:HUT
palatial:hovel=city:bucolic

hub           n.车轴,,中心
the central part of a circular object (as a wheel or propeller)
spoke:hub=radius:center

hubris     n. 傲慢,骄傲
exaggerated pride or self-confidence
parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride

humanitarian      n. 人道主义者,博爱者,基督凡人论者
a person promoting human welfare and social reform:PHILANTHROPIST

humble     a. 卑下的,谦逊的,粗陋的
a:ranking low in a hierarchy or scale:INSIGNIFICANT, UNPRETENTIOUS
b:not costly or luxurious
dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness
impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness
supercilious←→humble
bumptious←→(humble)
hauteur←→humility
panache←→humility

humor       vt. 迎合,牵就,顺应
to soothe or content by indulgence
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle

hurdle     n. 障碍,跳栏,临时活动篱笆  vt. 用篱笆围,越过,克服
OVERCOME, SURMOUNT

hurl         vt. 用力投掷,愤慨地说出,丢下
to throw down with violence
scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust}

hurricane       n.飓风
a tropical cyclone with winds of 74 miles (118 kilometers) per hour or greater that occurs especially in the western Atlantic, that is usually accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning, and that sometimes moves into temperate latitudes
tablefire:inferno=storm:hurricane
rain:deluge=wind:hurricane
snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone

husbandry       n.耕种;节用,家政
the control or judicious use of resources:CONSERVATION
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
husband←→squander
husbandry←→prodigality

husky       adj. 声音沙哑的
hoarse with or as if with emotion
husky←→delicate

hybrid     a. 混合的,杂种的,混合语的
something heterogeneous in origin or composition:COMPOSITE
hybrid←→of unmixed extraction

hymn         n.赞美诗,圣歌;赞歌
a song of praise or joy

hypnotic         a. 催眠的,催眠术的,易于催眠的
tending to produce sleep:SOPORIFIC
hypnotic←→conscious
hypnotic←→stimulant

hyperbole       n. 夸张法
extravagant exaggeration anger
tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole
malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole

hypercritical     adj.苛求的,吹毛求疵的
meticulously or excessively critical
authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical
hypercritical←→ingenuous/honest

ichthyologist     n. 鱼类学者,鱼类研究者
one that study a branch of zoology that deals with fishes
salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist

idiosyncratic     a. 特质的,异质的,特殊的
a:a peculiarity of constitution or temperament:an individualizing characteristic or quality
b:individual hypersensitiveness (as to a drug or food)

idolater         n. 偶像崇拜者,崇拜者,皈依者
a person that admires intensely and often blindly one that is not usually a subject of worship
reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe

ignite     vt. 点燃,使灼热,使兴奋
to set afire;  also :KINDLE
ignite←→extinguish

ignominy         n. 羞耻,屈辱
deep personal humiliation and disgrace
ignominious←→lofty
ignominies←→glory, honor; esteem, respect

ignorant         a. 无知识的,不知道的,幼稚的
destitute of knowledge or education
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
subtle:ignore=salient:observe
erudite←→smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered

illiteracy        n. 文盲
the quality or state of being illiterate;  especially :inability to read or write
illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution

illuminati    先觉者; 智者
persons who are or who claim to be unusually enlightened
interpreter:translate=illuminati:instruct

illumination      n. 照明,阐明,启发
one of the decorative features used in the art of illuminating or in decorative lighting
frieze:building=illumination:manuscript
stylus:mark=lamp:illumination
therapeutic:hospital=illuminating:school
obfuscate←→elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly

illusory         a. 产生幻觉的,幻影的,错觉的
based on or producing
illusion:DECEPTIVE
maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory
nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy
squall:commotion=flash:illumination

illustrate        vt. 举例说明,作图解,阐明
to provide with visual features intended to explain or decorate
illustrate:pictures=particularize:details

imbroglio       n. 纷乱,纠葛,纷扰,一团糟
an intricate or complicated situation

imitation       n. 模仿,效法,冒充,赝品
the quality of an object in possessing some of the nature or attributes of a transcendent
idea   exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame

immanent         adj. 普遍存在的,内在的
remaining or operating within a domain of reality or realm of discourse:INHERENT;  specifically :having existence or effect only within the mind or consciousness
immanent←→explicit

immaterial        a. 非物质的,无形的,精神的,不相关的
of no substantial consequence:UNIMPORTANT
immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center
immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness
relevant←→immaterial

immemorial        adj. 太古的,极古的
extending or existing since beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition
immemorial←→recent

imminent         a. 即将来临的,逼近的
ready to take place;  especially :hanging threateningly over one's head

immune     a. 免疫的,免除的,不受影响的
not susceptible or responsive;  especially :having a high degree of resistance to a disease
fertilize:grow=immunize:resist
overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune
soporific:sleep=vaccinating:immunity
vaccination:immune=overexposure:jaded

immure     vt. 监禁,禁闭
a:to enclose within or as if within walls
b:IMPRISON
immure←→release (?liberate)

immutable       a. 不可变的,不变的,不能变的
not capable of or susceptible to change
immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated
transitory:endure=immutable:change
immutable←→variable

imp           n. 顽童
a mischievous child:URCHIN
insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp

impair     vt. 损害,减少,削弱
to damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing in some material respect

impassive       a. 无感情的,冷淡的,不动的,平静的
unsusceptible to or destitute of emotion
impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy
impassive←→emotional

impeccable        adj.无瑕疵的
free from fault or blame:FLAWLESS
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir}
impeccable←→faulty

impecunious       adj. 不名一文的,贫困的
having very little or no money usually habitually:PENNILESS
foolish:discretion=impecunious:money
impecunious←→wealthy/prosperous/affluent

impede     v.妨碍,阻碍
to interfere with or slow the progress of
blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede
abet←→thwart/impede
facilitate←→impeding

impenetrable      a. 不能穿过的,不可理喻的,费解的,顽固的
incapable of being penetrated or pierced
pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable
porous←→impenetrable

impenitent        adj. 不悔悟的
not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses
rueful←→impenitent

imperative        a. 命令式的,急需的,势在必行的,强制的
expressive of a command, entreaty, or exhortation
question:interrogative=order:imperative

imperceptible     a. 不能感知的,不知不觉的,微细的
not perceptible by a sense or by the mind:extremely slight, gradual, or subtle    appreciable←→imperceptible

imperial         a. 帝王的,至尊的,壮丽的
of, relating to, befitting, or suggestive of an empire or an emperor
imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy

imperious       adj. 傲慢的,专横的
marked by arrogant assurance:DOMINEERING
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness
imperious:fawn:swagger:self depreciat
imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy
imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger
imperious←→humble

impertinent       a. 鲁莽的,无礼的,粗鲁的,不恰当的
(1)    not pertinent:IRRELEVANT
(2)   not restrained within due or proper bounds especially of propriety or good taste
impertinence←→respect/relevance
obeisant←→impertinent

imperturbable     a. 沉着的,泰然自若的,镇静的
marked by extreme calm, impassivity, and steadiness:SERENE
restive←→calm/imperturbable
ticklish←→imperturbable

impervious        adj. 不能渗透的,不为所动的
not capable of being damaged or harmed
impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible
impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid
impervious:damaged=indefensible:excused

impetuous       a. 冲动的,猛烈的,轻率的,急躁的
marked by impulsive vehemence or passion
impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness
impetuosity←→hesitance/vacillation
impetuous←→deliberate

impiety   n. 无信仰,无信心,不虔诚,不孝
the quality or state of being impious:IRREVERENCE
impiety←→devoutness

implacable        a. 难宽恕的,难和解的,执拗的
not placable:not capable of being appeased, significantly changed, or mitigated
immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated
implacable:compromise=honest:swindle

implement        n. 工具,器具 vt. 实现,使生效,执行
CARRY OUT, ACCOMPLISH;  especially :to give practical effect to and ensure of actual fulfillment by concrete measures

implicate       vt. 含意,暗示,牵连
to involve as a consequence, corollary, or natural inference:IMPLY

implode   v. 内爆,剧减
to collapse inward as if from external pressure;  also :to become greatly reduced as if from collapsing
collapse:implode=divide:sunder

impromptu       adj. 即席的,即兴的
made, done, or formed on or as if on the spur of the moment:IMPROVISED
ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent

improvident       a. 无远见的,浪费的
not provident:not foreseeing and providing for the future

improvised       adj. 即席而作的,即兴的
to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously
rite←→improvised act

imprudent       a. 轻率的,鲁莽的
not prudent:lacking discretion

impudent         a. 鲁莽的,卑鄙的,厚颜无耻的
marked by contemptuous or cocky boldness or disregard of others:INSOLENT
impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive
impudent←→deferential/respectful

impugn     v. 指责,对…表示怀疑
to assail by words or arguments:oppose or attack as false or lacking integrity
extol←→condemn/impugn/detract
impugn←→champion
impugn←→endorse
impugn←→vindicate

impuissance       n.  无能; 无力; 虚弱
WEAKNESS, POWERLESSNESS
clout←→impuissance

impulsive       adj. 易冲动的,感情用事的
having the power of or actually driving or impelling

impute     a. 可归罪的,使负责的,可嫁祸的
to lay the responsibility or blame for often falsely or unjustly
imputable:nettle

inadvertent       adj. 不注意的,疏忽的
not focusing the mind on a matter:INATTENTIVE

inalienable       a. 不能让与的,不能转售的,不能夺取的,不可分割的
incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred
inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated

inane       a. 空虚的,愚蠢的,空洞的
lacking significance, meaning, or point:SILLY
obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous {inane:clumsy}
inane←→expressive, meaningful, pregnant, significant, weighty

inanimate       adj. 无生命的
not endowed with life or spirit
ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living

inaugurate        v. 举行就职典礼,开创
to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies
inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king
inauguration:official=matriculation:student
cease←→inaugurate/commencement

incendiary        a. 放火的,煽动的,教唆的
of, relating to, or involving a deliberate burning of property

incense   vt. 用香焚,使发怒
to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of
propitiate←→incense

inception       n.开端,开始,取得学位
an act, process, or instance of beginning:COMMENCEMENT
inception:termination=matriculation:graduation

incessant       a. 不断的,不绝的,无尽的
continuing or following without interruption:UNCEASING

inch         vi. 慢慢前进,慢慢移动
to move by small degrees:progress slowly
inch:move=drawl:speak

inchoate         adj.刚开始的,未发展的

being only partly in existence or operation;  especially :imperfectly formed or formulated:FORMLESS
immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized

incipient       a. 起初的,发端的,初期的
beginning to come into being or to become apparent
immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized

incisive         a. 敏锐的,机敏的,锋利的,切入的
impressively direct and decisive (as in manner or presentation)

incite     v  激发,刺激
to move to action:stir up:spur on:urge on
exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite
instigator:incite=bully:browbeat

inclement       adj. (天气)严酷的,严厉的
lacking mildness:as   physically severe:STORMY
inclemency:evade=??
inclement←→balmy

incogitant       adj. 『罕』无思想的; 粗心的; 不体谅的
THOUGHTLESS, INCONSIDERATE
incogitant:thoughtful=restive:calm

incongruent       adj. 不协调的,不和谐的; 不合适的
not superposable so as to be coincident throughout
incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey

inconsequential   a. 不合逻辑的,不合理的,不重要的
of no significance:UNIMPORTANT
crucial←→inconsequential

incontrovertible  a. 无争论余地的,无疑的,明白的
not open to question:INDISPUTABLE
incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{ravenous:satisfied} {intrepid:feared}
controvert←→substantiate

incorrigible      a. 无药可救的,积习难改的,固执的
incapable of being corrected or amended  UNALTERABLE, INVETERATE
tractability←→incorrigibility
tractable←→incorrigible

incriminate       vt. 归罪,使负罪,控告
to charge with or show evidence or proof of involvement in a crime or fault
incrimination←→exoneration

inculcate       vt. 教授,谆谆教诲,教育
to teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions

inculpate       vt. 使负罪,控告,使连累   INCRIMINATE
exonerate←→inculpate
absolve←→inculpate
exculpate←→inculpate

incursion       n.侵犯,入侵
a hostile entrance into a territory:RAID
incursion←→retreat

indecorous        a. 无体的,不合礼节的
not decorous:conflicting with accepted standards of good conduct or good taste

indefatigable     a. 不知疲倦的,有耐性的,不屈不挠的
incapable of being fatigued:UNTIRING

indelible       adj. 擦试不掉的,不可磨灭的
UNFORGETTABLE, MEMORABLE
indelible:forget=astounding:expect
indelibility←→erasability

indelicate        a. 下流的,无教养的,卑鄙的,不雅的
not delicate:
a (1):lacking in or offending against propriety:IMPROPER
  (2):verging on the indecent:COARSE
b:marked by a lack of feeling for the sensibilities of others:TACTLESS

indemnity       n. 赔偿,补偿,保护
security against hurt, loss, or damage
mollification:soothe=indemnity:secure

indict     vt. 起诉,控告,指控
to charge with a crime by the finding or presentment of a jury (as a grand jury) in due form of law
indict:accused=??

indifferent       a. 漠不关心的,无重要性的,中立的
marked by a lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern for something:APATHETIC
embrace:affection=shrug:indifference
avid←→indifferent

indigenous        adj.土产的,本地的
having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment
exotic←→indigenous
indigenous←→ nonnative

indigent         a. 贫乏的,穷困的  
suffering from indigence:IMPOVERISHED
indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability
indigent←→affluent

indigestible      a. 不消化的,难消化的,难理解的
not digestible:not easily digested

indispensability  n. 不可缺少
absolutely necessary:ESSENTIAL
indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability

indoctrinate      v.灌输思想
to instruct especially in fundamentals or rudiments:TEACH
stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate

indolent         adj. 懒惰的,懒洋洋的 (n. indolence)
a:averse to activity, effort, or movement:habitually lazy
b:conducing to or encouraging laziness
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir}

inducement        n.引诱物
a motive or consideration that leads one to action or to additional or more effective actions
inducement←→deterrent

indulgent       a. 纵容的,任性的,放纵的
indulging or characterized by indulgence;  especially :LENIENT
abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate
glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self denial
spartan←→sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious
draconian←→indulgent/mild    
martinet←→indulgent person
indulgent←→ascetic

indurate         vt. 使坚固,变坚固,使硬化 to make hard
indurate←→soften

inedible         a. 不适于食用的,不能吃的
not fit to be eaten

ineluctable       adj.难免的,不能逃避的
not to be avoided, changed, or resisted:INEVITABLE
impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid
ineluctable/inevitable:avoid=untenable:defend
serendipitous:effort=ineluctable:chance

ineptitude        n. 不适当,愚笨,愚昧的言行
the quality or state of being inept;  especially :INCOMPETENCE
finesse←→ineptitude

inert       adj. 惰性的,行动迟钝的
deficient in active properties;  especially :lacking a usual or anticipated chemical or biological action
inertia←→activity
reactant←→inert material
inert←→active
inert←→dynamic

inestimable       a. 无价的,无法估计的
too valuable or excellent to be measured or appreciated

inevitable        a. 不可避免的,必然的
incapable of being avoided or evaded
ineluctable/inevitable:avoid=untenable:defend

inexorable        a. 无情的,冷酷的,不屈不挠的
not to be persuaded or moved by entreaty:RELENTLESS
inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest
inexorable←→relenting

infamy     n. 声名狼藉,出丑
evil reputation brought about by something grossly criminal, shocking, or brutal
infamy←→good repute

infatuate       vt. 使迷恋,使糊涂
to cause to be foolish:deprive of sound judgment
sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation
odium←→infatuation

infer       vt. 推论出,推断
GUESS, SURMISE
tacit:infer=encoded:decode

inferno   n.火海,地狱般的场所
a place or a state that resembles or suggests hell
fire:inferno=storm:hurricane

infinite         a.无穷的
immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive:INEXHAUSTIBLE
infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap
unique:precedent=infinite:end

infirm     a. 弱的,虚弱的,柔弱的
of poor or deteriorated vitality;  especially :feeble from age
hale←→infirm

inflame   v. 使燃烧,激怒(某人)
to excite to excessive or uncontrollable action or feeling
assuage←→inflame    subdue←→inflame

infelicitous      a. 不幸的,不吉的,不适当的
not appropriate in application or expression
happy←→infelicitous

influx     n. 涌入    a coming in
exodus←→influx

infuse     v. 灌输,使…充满 INSPIRE, ANIMATE
inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove
infuse←→drain away/refuse/extract

ingenious       adj. 聪明的,有发明天才的
marked by originality, resourcefulness, and cleverness in conception or execution

ingenuous       adj.纯朴的,单纯的
showing innocent or childlike simplicity and candidness
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub
ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive
pernicious:injure=disingenuous:mislead
ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness
hypercritical←→ingenuous/honest
ingenuous←→cunning

ingrained       adj. 根深蒂固的
to work indelibly into the natural texture or mental or moral constitution
ingrained←→easily to change

ingratiating      a. 逢迎的,迷人的
capable of winning favor:PLEASING
ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive

inimical         adj.为敌的,不友善的
a:having the disposition of an enemy:HOSTILE
b:reflecting or indicating hostility:UNFRIENDLY
inimical←→friendly/amiable/amicable
amenable←→inimical

inimitable        adj. 无法仿效的,不可比拟的
not capable of being imitated:MATCHLESS
inimitable←→commonplace
inimitable←→ordinary

iniquity         n. 邪恶,不公正
gross injustice:WICKEDNESS
iniquity←→rectitude/disinterestedness

initial   a. 开始的,最初的,字首的
placed at the beginning:FIRST
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated
initial←→follow
initiate←→follow up
inveterate←→uninitiated {youthful}

innocent         n. 天真的人,笨蛋
free from guilt or sin especially through lack of knowledge of evil:BLAMELESS    culpable←→innocent

innocuous       adj.(行为,言论等)无害的
not likely to give offense or to arouse strong feelings or hostility:INOFFENSIVE, INSIPID
placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous
placebo:innocuous=venom:toxious
noxious←→wholesome/sanitary/innocuous

innovation        n. 改革,创新
the introduction of something new
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/   innovation/novelty

inquiry   n. 质询,调查
examination into facts or principles:RESEARCH
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory

insatiable        a. 不知足的,贪求无厌的
incapable of being satisfied:QUENCHLESS

insipid   a. 没有味道的,清淡的,难吃的
lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate, or challenge:DULL, FLAT

insolent         adj. 粗野的,无礼的
exhibiting boldness or effrontery:IMPUDENT
perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration
insolent←→polite/courteous {elegant}

insouciant       adj. 漫不经心的; 无忧无虑的
lighthearted unconcern:NONCHALANCE

inspired         adj. 有创见的,有灵感的
outstanding or brilliant in a way or to a degree suggestive of divine inspiration

instigate       vt. 教唆,怂恿,煽动
to goad or urge forward:PROVOKE
quell←→foment/instigate/rouse

instigator        n. 煽动者
to goad or urge forward:PROVOKE
instigator:incite=bully:browbeat

instill   v.滴注,逐渐灌输
to impart gradually

institute       n. 学会,学院   vt. 创立,开始,制定,任命
to originate and get established:ORGANIZE
rescind←→institute
abrogate←→embrace/institute/uphold

insubordinate     adj.不服从的,反抗的
disobedient to authority
tractable←→insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate

insular   a. 岛的,岛民的,保守的,孤立的,岛特有的
characteristic of an isolated people;  especially :being, having, or reflecting a narrow provincial viewpoint
insular←→cosmopolitan

insulate         v. 使绝缘,使隔离
to place in a detached situation:ISOLATE;  especially :to separate from conducting bodies by means of nonconductors so as to prevent transfer of electricity, heat, or sound
insularity←→cosmopolitanism
insulate←→expose

insurgent       adj. 叛乱的,起事的n. 叛乱分子
a person who revolts against civil authority or an established government;  especially :a rebel not recognized as a belligerent
parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent

intangible        a. 难以明了的,无形的
not tangible:IMPALPABLE
corporeal←→intangible

integral         a.组成的;整的
essential to completeness:CONSTITUENT
integral←→superfluous

integrity       n. 正直,诚实,完整
the quality or state of being complete or undivided:COMPLETENESS
ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity      taint:integrity

intelligible     a. 可理解的,易理解的,明了的
capable of being understood or comprehended
correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible
intemperate       adj. 无节制的,放纵的
not temperate especially :given to excessive use of intoxicating liquors
equable←→intemperate
intemperate←→constrained

intensify       vi. 强化
to make intense or more intensive:STRENGTHEN
moderate:intensity=extenuate:seriousness
abate←→intensify/promote
assuage←→intensify

inter       vt. 埋葬,葬,埋
to deposit (a dead body) in the earth or in a tomb
inter:burial=obliterate:removal

intercede       vi. 仲裁,说情,调解  (n. intercession)
to intervene between parties with a view to reconciling differences:MEDIATE    
intercessor:mediate=augur:prediction
intercessor:mediate=translator:interpret

interim   n. 过渡时期adj. 暂时的
an intervening time:INTERVAL
interim←→permanent

interlock       a. 联锁的
to become locked together or interconnected
interlocking←→independent

interloper        n. (非法) 闯入者
one that interlopes:as
a:an illegal or unlicensed trader
b:one that intrudes in a place or sphere of activity

interlude       n. 幕间,幕间时间,过场,穿插,插曲
an intervening or interruptive period, space, or event:INTERVAL

interminable      adj. 无尽头的
having or seeming to have no end;  especially :wearisomely protracted
countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration

intermittent      adj. 断断续续的,间歇的
coming and going at intervals:not continuous
intermittent←→constant

interrogate       vt. 质问,讯问,审问
to question formally and systematically
interrogate:probe
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory
question:interrogative=order:imperative

intervene       vi. 插入,调停,干涉
to interfere usually by force or threat of force in another nation's internal affairs especially to compel or prevent an action

intimate         a. 亲密的,私人的,秘密的  n. 熟友
a friend or confidant marked by very close association, contact, or familiarity
clique:intimates=flock:sheep

intimate         vt. 暗示,通知,告诉
to make known especially publicly or formally:ANNOUNCE

intimate         vt. 暗示,通知,告诉
to make known especially publicly or formally:ANNOUNCE

intimidate        vt. 威胁,恐吓,胁迫
to make timid or fearful:FRIGHTEN;  especially :to compel or deter by or as if by threats
sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation

intransigent      adj.不妥协的,固执的
refusing to compromise or to abandon an extreme position or attitude:UNCOMPROMISING
firm:intransigent=concerned:obsessed
intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend
intransigent←→open to compromise
tractable←→insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate
pliant←→intransigence/intractable

intrepid         adj. 无畏的,刚毅的
characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and endurance
genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract

intricacy        n. 纷乱,复杂,错综
the quality or state of being intricate
chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy

intriguing        adj.引起极大兴趣的
engaging the interest to a marked degree:FASCINATING
interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile
pall←→interest/intrigue

intrinsic       adj. 固有的,内在的
belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing

inure       vt. 使习惯
to accustom to accept something undesirable
inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency

invective       n.痛骂;恶意抨击
of, relating to, or characterized by insult or abuse
exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit
polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive

inveigh   vi. 痛骂,漫骂,臭骂
to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently:RAIL
inveigh←→verbally provide support

inveigle         v. 诱骗,诱使
to win over by wiles:ENTICE
plot:plan=inveigle:interest
inveigle←→request directly

inventory       n. 详细目录,存货清单
an itemized list of current assets:as
(1) :a catalog of the property of an individual or estate
(2) :a list of goods on hand
census:population=inventory:stock
inventory:merchandise=manifest:cargo

investigate       v.调查
to make a systematic examination;  especially :to conduct an official inquiry
cavil:criticize=probe:investigate

inveterate        a. 根深的,成癖的,积习的
firmly established by long persistence
inveterate←→uninitiated {youthful}

invidious       adj.惹人反感的,招人嫉妒的
tending to cause discontent, animosity, or envy
invidious←→beneficial

invigorate        v. 鼓舞,激励
to give life and energy to:ANIMATE;  also :STIMULATE
conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate
tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden
debilitate←→invigorate
enervate←→invigorate
enfeeble←→invigorate

inviolate       a. 未亵渎的,未受侵犯的,无污点的
not violated or profaned;  especially :PURE
pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable
inviolable←→profane/impure

invoice   n. 发票,装货清单
a consignment of merchandise
consignment:invoice=??

invoke     vt. 祈求,恳求,引起,援引,实行
to put into effect or operation:IMPLEMENT
invoke←→ suspend

invulnerable      adj. 无法伤害的
incapable of being wounded, injured, or harmed
euphemism:offend=invulnerable:injure
untenable:defense=invulnerable:injury

irascible       adj. 易发怒的.(ire)
marked by hot temper and easily provoked anger
affable←→irascible

irate       a. 发怒的,生气
arising from anger
gush:effusive=rage:irate

iridescence       n. 彩虹色
a lustrous rainbowlike play of color caused by differential refraction of light waves (as from an oil slick, soap bubble, or fish scales) that tends to change as the angle of view changes
iridescent←→monochromatic

irk            v.使苦恼,厌烦.
to make weary, irritated, or bored
irk←→make someone pleased

ironclad         adj. 坚固的,装铁甲的
so firm or secure as to be unbreakable:as  a:BINDING
jammed:full=ironclad:firm

irreducible       a. 不能复归的,不能削减的不可约的
impossible to transform into or restore to a desired or simpler condition     factorable←→irreducible

irrelevant        a. 不恰当的,无关系的,不相干的
not relevant:INAPPLICABLE
immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center
immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness
germane←→irrelevant
immaterial←→relevant

irresolute        a. 无决断的,优柔寡断的,踌躇不定的
uncertain how to act or proceed:VACILLATING

irreverent        a. 不敬的,不逊的,无礼的  
lacking proper respect or seriousness;  also :SATIRIC
awe←→irreverence

irritate         n. 刺激,烦恼,刺激物
to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in:ANNOY
antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation
haunt:familiar/similarity=harass:irritating
balm←→irritant

issue       n.问题;发行
a matter that is in dispute between two or more parties
debate:issue=bargain:price
repartee:retort=debate:issue {advisement:product  }
issue←→withdraw

issue       vt. 使流出,放出,发给,发布
the act of publishing or officially giving out or making available
stanza:line=volume:issue
issue←→withdraw

isthmus   n.地峡
a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
isthmus:land=strait:water

jabber     v. 快而不清楚地说
to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly
jabber←→speak slowly

jaded       adj.疲惫的,厌倦的
fatigued by overwork:EXHAUSTED
overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune
vaccination:immune=overexposure:jaded

jam           a.   拥塞
fatigued by overwork:EXHAUSTED
jammed:full=ironclad:firm

jape         n/v. 戏言,笑料,嘲弄
to make mocking fun of
revere←→jape at

jar           vi. 震惊,冲突,发刺耳声,不一致
a:to make a harsh or discordant sound
b:to have a harshly disagreeable or disconcerting effect
c:to be out of harmony;  specifically :BICKER

jaundice         n. 黄疸,偏见,乖僻
a state or attitude characterized by satiety, distaste, or hostility

jaunty     adj.愉快的,满足的
sprightly in manner or appearance:LIVELY
staid←→jaunty

jazz         n. 爵士乐,喧闹
American music developed especially from ragtime and blues and characterized by propulsive syncopated rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, varying degrees of improvisation, and often deliberate distortions of pitch and timbre
portrait:painting=jazz:music

jealousy         n. 妒忌,猜忌,羡慕
a jealous disposition, attitude, or feeling

jejune     adj. 空洞的,不成熟的
devoid of significance or interest:DULL
labyrinthine:simplicity=jejune:interest
jejune←→thought  provoking

jerk         vi. 痉挛,急拉,急推
to give a quick suddenly arrested push, pull, or twist to

jest         n./v. 说笑,玩笑
an utterance (as a jeer or quip) intended to be taken as mockery or humor
jest←→solemnity

jingoist         侵略主义者,感情用事的 , [盲目的]爱国主义者
extreme chauvinism or nationalism marked especially by a belligerent foreign policy
dove←→warmonger/jingoist

jitter     vi. 神经过敏,战战兢兢
to be nervous or act in a nervous way
jittery←→resolute

jocund     adj. 快乐的,高兴的
marked by or suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness
jocund←→dreary

jog           n. 轻推,轻撞,漫步
a movement, pace, or instance of jogging (as for exercise)
jog:exercise=barter:trade

joke         n. 笑话,玩笑,笑柄
something said or done to provoke laughter;  especially :a brief oral narrative with a climactic humorous twist
joke:punch line=plot:denouement

jolt         vi. 颠簸而行,震摇
to cause to move with a sudden jerky motion
jolt:move=check:stop

jot           vt. 略记,摘要记载下来
to write briefly or hurriedly:set down in the form of a note
nip:eat=jot:write

jovial     adj. 快活的
markedly good-humored especially as evidenced by jollity and conviviality    
jovial←→mournful
saturnine←→jovial
maudlin←→jovial

jubilant         a. 欢呼的,喜洋洋的
EXULTANT
dolorous←→jubilant

judicious       a. 头脑精明的,贤明的,判断正确的
having, exercising, or characterized by sound judgment:DISCREET
daft←→judicious

juggernaut        n. Krishna 神像
a massive inexorable force, campaign, movement, or object that crushes whatever is in its path
juggernaut:unstoppable=??

jumble     vi. 搀杂,混杂
to mix into a confused or disordered mass
mixture:jumble=??

justify   vt. 替...辩护,证明
to prove or show to be just, right, or reasonable
justify←→argue against

juxtapose       vt. 并置,并列
to place side by side

kangaroo         n. 袋鼠
kangaroo:marsupial=squirrel:rodent

ken           n. 视野范围,知识范围,见地
the range of vision
earshot:hear=ken:see

kindle     vt.点燃 vi.着火
a:to stir up:AROUSE
b:to bring into being:START

kink         n. 纽结,蜷缩,颈
a short tight twist or curl caused by a doubling or winding of something upon itself

kiss         vt. 吻,轻拂
to touch with the lips especially as a mark of affection or greeting
scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust}

knead       vt. 揉,按摩,捏制
to work and press into a mass with or as if with the hands
knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable

knit         vt.vi. 编织,密接,结合
to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles
ravel←→knit

knotty     a. 有结的,多节的,多瘤的,棘手的
marked by or full of knots;  especially :so full of difficulties and               complications as to be likely to defy solution
knotty←→easy
knotty←→simple

labile     adj.易变的,不稳定的
readily or continually undergoing chemical, physical, or biological change or breakdown:UNSTABLE
labile←→stable

labored   <动作、呼吸等> 困难的,痛苦的;缓慢的
lacking ease of expression
glib←→labored

labyrinth       n. 迷宫,难解的事物,迷路
something extremely complex or tortuous in structure, arrangement, or character:INTRICACY, PERPLEXITY
labyrinthine:simplicity=jejune:interest
threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness

laconic   adj. (用字)简洁的
using or involving the use of a minimum of words:concise to the point of seeming rude or mysterious
audacious:trepidation=laconic:aspiration
laconic←→loquacious
laconic←→voluble
laconism←→verbosity
voluble←→taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent

lambaste         vt. 痛打,严责
to attack verbally:CENSURE

lamentable        adj. 令人惋惜的,悔恨的
expressing grief:MOURNFUL
lamentable:pity=responsible?:censure
celebration=lamentful=slight=show respect

laminate         v. 切成薄板(片)
to separate into laminae laminate:divide

lampoon   n.讽刺文章v.讽刺
a harsh satire usually directed against an individual
panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize
paean←→harshly lampoon

landfill         n.垃圾堆
a system of trash and garbage disposal in which the waste is buried between layers of earth to build up low-lying land
cistern:liquids=landfill:refuse

landlord         n. 房东,地主
the owner of property (as land, houses, or apartments) that is leased or rented to another

landslide       n. 山崩
the usually rapid downward movement of a mass of rock, earth, or artificial fill on a slope;  also :the mass that moves down
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide

lane         n. 小路,小巷,车道,跑道
a narrow passageway between fences or hedges

languid   adj. 没精打采的,怠倦的
drooping or flagging from or as if from exhaustion:WEAK
languid←→energetic
vivacious←→languid

languish         v.衰弱,变得消瘦
a:to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated
b:to be or live in a state of depression or decreasing vitality      languish←→thrive

lank         adj. 瘦削的,稀疏的
not well filled out:SLENDER, THIN
lank←→stalwart

lapse       n. 过失,流逝,失效
a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention
lapse:error=misbehavior:criminality
misdemeanor:crime=lapse:error

larder     n. 食物贮藏室,食品橱
a place where food is stored:PANTRY
larder:food=wardrobe:clothes
larder:provisions=vault:valuables

largesse         n.慷慨援助,施舍
liberal giving (as of money) to or as if to an inferior;  also :something so given
largesse←→parsimony

lariat     n. 套索
a long light rope (as of hemp or leather) used with a running noose to catch livestock or with or without the noose to tether grazing animals:LASSO
lariat:wrangler=crook:shepherd

lash      v. 鞭打,抽打,猛击,猛烈甩动,捆扎,绑紧;n. 抽打,鞭挞,猛
to bind with or as if with a line
lash←→unbind

lassitude       n.无力,没精打采
a condition of weariness or debility:FATIGUE
lassitude←→vim/animation

latent     adj.潜伏的,潜在的
present and capable of becoming though not now visible, obvious, or active       latent←→manifest

lathe       n. 车床,陶器,镟床
lathe:shape=clasp:fasten

laudatory       a. 赞美的,赞赏的
of, relating to, or expressing praise
COUNSEL:ADVICE=laud:homage
execrable←→commendable/laudable
pejorative←→laudatory

lavish     a. 浪费的;过度的
a:expended or produced in abundance
b:marked by profusion or excess
excoriate←→extol/praise lavishly
lavish←→mean
lavish←→stint
penurious←→lavish

leaden     a. 铅制的,呆滞的,铅灰色的,沉闷的

a:oppressively heavy
b:SLUGGISH
c:lacking spirit or animation

leaven     vt. 使发酵,影响
to raise (as bread) with a leaven
distill:purity=leaven:volume

lectern   n. 诵经台
a stand used to support a book in a convenient position for a standing reader;  especially :one from which scripture lessons are read in a church service

ledger     n. 分类帐,分户总帐,底帐,横木
a book containing accounts to which debits and credits are posted from books of original entry

legacy     n.遗产,遗留之物
something transmitted by or received from an ancestor or predecessor or from the past
legacy:predecessor=gift:donor

legend     n. 传说,传奇文学,图例
an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart
glossary:text=legend:map

legible   a. 清晰的,易读的
capable of being read or deciphered:PLAIN
legible:decipher

lenient   adj. 宽大的,仁慈的
exerting a soothing or easing influence:relieving pain or stress

lethal     a. 致命的
gravely damaging or destructive:DEVASTATING
disagreeable:hateful=harmful:lethal

lethargy         adj. 嗜眠性
the quality or state of being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent

levee       n. 早朝,大堤
an embankment for preventing flooding
levee:river=cordon:crowd
rampart:invasion=levee:flood

lexicographer     n. 辞典编纂者
an author or editor of a dictionary
cartographer:map=weaver:cloth=lexicographer:dictionary

liability        n. 责任,债务,倾向
something for which one is liable;  especially :pecuniary obligation
exempt:liability:pardon:penalty
asset←→liability

liaison   n. 联络
a:a close bond or connection:INTERRELATIONSHIP
b:an illicit sexual relationship:AFFAIR

liberal   a.心胸宽大的;慷慨的
marked by generosity:OPENHANDED
nefarious:wickedness=generous:liberality
liberal←→parsimonious
liberalist←→enfetterist

libertine       n. 性行为放纵者,浪荡子
a person who is unrestrained by convention or morality;  specifically :one leading a dissolute life
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag
emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandiose}

liberty   n. 自由,特权,随意,冒失
an action going beyond normal limits:as  a:a breach of etiquette or propriety:FAMILIARITY
emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandiose}

licentious        adj. 纵欲的,放肆的
lacking legal or moral restraints;  especially :disregarding sexual restraints
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
voluble:speech=licentious:dissoluteness

lien         n.扣押权,留置权
a charge upon real or personal property for the satisfaction of some debt or duty ordinarily arising by operation of law
lien:claim=subpoena:command

liken       vt.把....比做;把....比拟
(to)    COMPARE
liken:similarity=discriminate:difference

limber     adj. (肌肉)松软的,柔软的
capable of being shaped:FLEXIBLE
limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty

limerick         n. 五行打油诗
a light or humorous verse form of 5 chiefly anapestic verses of which lines 1, 2, and 5 are of 3 feet and lines 3 and 4 are of 2 feet with a rhyme scheme of aabba farce:performance=limerick:poem

limousine       n. 轿车
a large luxurious often chauffeur-driven sedan that sometimes has a glass partition separating the driver's seat from the passenger compartment
mansion:residence=limousine:automobile

limp         v. 跛行adj. 无力的,松软的
lacking firm texture, substance, or structure
limp←→firm

limpid     adj. 清澈的,透明的
marked by transparency:PELLUCID
limpid←→murky
limpid←→unclear
murky←→clear/pellucid/limpid

linen       n. 亚麻布,亚麻制品
cloth made of flax and noted for its strength, coolness, and luster
clay:porcelain=flax:linen
flannel:cloth=linen:fabric

linoleum         n. 油布,油毯
a floor covering made by laying on a burlap or canvas backing a mixture of solidified linseed oil with gums, cork dust or wood flour or both, and usually pigments
varnish:wood=wax:linoleum

misbehave      vt.vi. (使)行为无礼貌,(使)行为不端
castigation:disapproval=misbehave:crime
lapse:error=misbehavior:criminality
reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn

mischievous   adj. 淘气的,有害处的
a:able or tending to cause annoyance, trouble, or minor injury
b:irresponsibly playful
insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp
tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous

misdemeanor   n.不轨的行为,行为失检,品行不端
a crime less serious than a felony
crime:misdemeanor=commitment:decision
misdemeanor:crime=lapse:error

miser   n.守财奴,吝啬鬼
a mean grasping person;  especially :one who is extremely stingy with money
miser:munificent:zealot:blase
miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent
spendthrift←→miser

misfortune     n. 不幸,灾祸,坏运气
a distressing or unfortunate incident or event
boon←→misfortune

misgiving      n.疑虑,担心
a feeling of doubt or suspicion especially concerning a future event      misgiving←→certainty

mishap        n. 不幸,坏运气
an unfortunate accident
catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment

misnomer       n. 用词不当
a:a use of a wrong name
b:a wrong name or designation

misrepresent  vt. 误传,不称职地代表
to give a false or misleading representation of usually with an intent to deceive or be unfair
tamper:adjust=misrepresent:communicate

mite     n. 极小量,小虫
any of numerous small acarid arachnids that often infest animals, plants, and stored foods and include important disease vectors
mite:creature=speck:amount

mitigate       v. 减轻,缓和
to make less severe or painful:ALLEVIATE
mitigate:severe=qualify:general

mnemonics      n. 记忆术
a technique of improving the memory
regiment:health=mnemonics:memory

morbid        a. 不健全的,病态的,疾病的,可怕的
abnormally susceptible to or characterized by gloomy or unwholesome feelings
morbid←→wholesome

mobility       n. 可动性,变动性,情感不定
capable of moving or being moved:MOVABLE
splint:mobility=ballast:instability=purchase:slippery
splint:immobilize=duct:convey

mockery        n. 嘲弄,笑柄,蔑视
a subject of laughter, derision, or sport
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery

moderate       vt. 节制,使稳定,使缓和
to lessen the intensity or extremeness of
exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty
moderate:intensify=extenuate:seriousness

modicum        n. 少量
a small portion:a limited quantity
modicum←→large amount

molding        n.  [常~s] 『建筑』 (装饰墙壁、屋檐或家具等凸出部等用之) 嵌线,线脚,壁带
a decorative plane or curved strip used for ornamentation or finishing
hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet

mollify        v. 安慰,安抚
to soothe in temper or disposition:APPEASE
mollification:soothe=indemnity:secure
mollify:anger=hearted:dejection
mollify←→rouse
vex←→mollify
discommode←→convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify
mollify←→antagonize/ire
pique←→mollify

mollycoddle   vt. 溺爱,娇养
a pampered or effeminate man or boy
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle
mollycoddle←→treat harshly

molt     n. 换毛,脱皮,换毛期
the act or process of  sheding hair, feathers, shell, horns, or an outer layer periodically;  specifically :ECDYSIS
fledging←→molt

momentous      adj. 极重要的,严重的
IMPORTANT, CONSEQUENTIAL
atrocious:bad=momentous:important

momentum      n. 动力,要素
a property of a moving body that the body has by virtue of its mass and motion and that is equal to the product of the body's mass and velocity
oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter

monochromatic a. 单色的,一色的
having or consisting of one color or hue
iridescent←→monochromatic

monopolize     vt. 独占,垄断
to get a monopoly of:assume complete possession or control of

monotone       a. 单调的
having the property either of never increasing or of never decreasing as the values of the independent variable or the subscripts of the terms increase  :MONOTONIC
vociferous←→reticent/monotone

montage        n. 混成画,拼集的照片,蒙太奇
the production of a rapid succession of images in a motion picture to illustrate an association of ideas
montage:images=medley:songs
zigzag:turns=montage:images

morass        n. 沼泽地,困境v. 陷入困境
something that traps, confuses, or impedes
morass:irritating=??

moratorium     n. 延期偿付,延期偿付期间
a legally authorized period of delay in the performance of a legal obligation or the payment of a debt
reprieve:punishment=moratorium:activity
fast:eat=moratorium:act

mordant        adj. 讥讽的,尖酸的
biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style:INCISIVE
mordant←→genial

moribund       adj.即将结束的,垂死的
being in the state of dying:approaching death
moribund←→beginning
moribund←→nascent

morose        adj.脾气坏的,不高兴的
having a sullen and gloomy disposition
morose←→cheerful
sanguine←→morose

mortar        n. 小臼,乳钵
a strong vessel in which material is pounded or rubbed with a pestle
hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar

mosque        n. 清真寺
a building used for public worship by Muslims
spire:church=minaret:mosque

mosquito       n. 蚊子
any of a family (Culicidae) of dipteran flies with females that have a set of slender organs in the proboscis adapted to puncture the skin of animals and to suck their blood and that are in some cases vectors of serious diseases
mosquito:netting=impurity:filter

motile        a. 能动的,有自动力的
exhibiting or capable of movement
motility←→stasis

motivate       v. 促使,激发
to provide with a motive:IMPEL
exculpatory:absolve:=motivational:stir
exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit
fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist

motley        a. 杂色的,斑杂的,杂多的,混杂的
(1)    variegated in color
(2)    composed of diverse often incongruous elements
motley←→colorless
motley←→unique

mottle        vt. 使成杂色
to mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
striated:groove=mottled/dappled:spot
mottle←→blanch
mottled←→homogenous { solidary}

mournful       a. 悲恸的,悲哀的,令人惋惜的
causing sorrow or melancholy:GLOOMY
jovial←→mournful

movement       n. 运动,倾向,乐章
a distinct structural unit or division having its own key, rhythmic structure, and themes and forming part of an extended musical composition
stanza:poem=movement:orchestra

muffle        vt. 围裹,抑制,发低沉的声音
to wrap or pad with something to dull the sound
plangent←→muffled

mulish  a. 骡的,执拗的,杂种的
unreasonably and inflexibly obstinate
despicable:value=mulish:flexible
flexible←→mulish
pliant←→mulish

mull     n. 软薄布,混乱  vi. 深思熟虑
to consider at length:PONDER

mumble  vt.vi. 喃喃而语,咕哝
to utter with a low inarticulate voice
enunciate←→mumble

mundane        a. 尘世的;世俗的
characterized by the practical, transitory, and ordinary:COMMONPLACE

municipality  n. 自治区,市当局,全市民
a primarily urban political unit having corporate status and usually powers of self-government

munificent     adj. 慷慨的,大方的
characterized by great liberality or generosity
miser:munificent:zealot:blase

mural   adj. 墙壁的n. 壁画
a mural work of art (as a painting)
petrography:rock=mural:wall

murky   adj. 黑暗的,朦胧的
characterized by a heavy dimness or obscurity caused by or like that caused by overhanging fog or smoke
limpid←→murky
murky←→clear
pellucid←→murky

murmur        n. 低语,低声的怨言
a low indistinct but often continuous sound
croon:sing=murmur:speak

mushroom       vi. 迅速生长,迅速增加,采蘑菇
to spring up suddenly or multiply rapidly

mute     vt. 减弱...的声音
to muffle, reduce, or eliminate the sound of
mute←→amplify

myopic        a. 近视的
a lack of foresight or discernment:a narrow view of something
myopic←→discerning

myriad        a. 无数的,一万的,种种的
having innumerable aspects or elements
countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration

nadir   n. 最低点,无底
the lowest point
nadir←→summit
nadir←→acme

naive   a. 天真的,纯真的,朴素的
deficient in worldly wisdom or informed judgment;  especially :CREDULOUS
guile:naive=??
worldly←→naive

narcissism     n. 自我陶醉,自恋
love of or sexual desire for one's own body
narcissist:self absorbed=sycophant:obsequious
narcissism:love=guilt:blame

nascent        a. 新生的,诞生中的
coming or having recently come into existence
moribund←→nascent

natty   adj. 整洁的,漂亮的
trimly neat and tidy:SMART

nauseate       v. 使作呕,使厌恶
to feel disgust
vertigo:nauseate=??

naysayer      n. 怀疑者,否定者
one who denies, refuses, opposes, or is skeptical or cynical about something
concur←→naysay

nebulous       adj. 模糊不清的,云状的
INDISTINCT, VAGUE
nebulous←→distinct
nebulous←→clear cut

needy   a. 贫穷的,贫困的,生活艰苦的
being in want:POVERTY-STRICKEN
affluent←→needy

nefarious      adj.违法的,邪恶的
flagrantly wicked or impious:EVIL
nefarious:wickedness=generous:liberality
nefarious←→above reproach/virtuous

negative       n. 底片
a negative photographic image on transparent material used for printing positive pictures

negotiate      vi. 商议,谈判,交涉
to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter
clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations
negotiator:agreement

neophyte       n.初学者,新手
a new convert:PROSELYTE
inexperience:neophyte=irresponsibility:wastrel

nepotism       n.裙带关系
favoritism (as in appointment to a job) based on kinship
nepotism:relative=cronyism:friend

nerve   vt. 鼓起勇气
to give strength or courage to:supply with physical or moral force
appall←→embolden/nerve

nettle        n. 荨麻,v. 烦忧,激恼
to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger imputable:nettle

nibble        v. 一点点地咬,慢慢啃
a:to bite gently
b:to eat or chew in small bits
quaff:sip=gobble:nibble
swill:sip=gobble:nibble

nip        v. 夹,咬 n. 严寒
to take liquor in nips:TIPPLE
nip:eat=jot:write

nitpicking     adj. 挑剔的,吹毛求疵的
minute and usually unjustified criticism
fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky
nitpick:criticize=cavil:object
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil

nocturnal      a. 夜的,夜曲的
of, relating to, or occurring in the night
diurnal←→nocturnal

noisome        adj. 恶臭的,令人不快的
offensive to the senses and especially to the sense of smell
noisome←→appealing
noisome←→beneficial/pleasant/healthy

nominal        a. 名义上的,(指金额)极小的
TRIFLING, INSIGNIFICANT
nominal:significance=disjunctive:unity

nonchalant     adj. 冷漠的,满不在乎的
having an air of easy unconcern or indifference
anonymous:identify=nonchalant:excite

nondescript   adj. 没有特征的,平凡的
lacking distinctive or interesting qualities:DULL, DRAB
nondescript←→conspicuous

nonentity      n. 不存在,非实在,虚无
a person of little consequence or significance
dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence

nonflammable  a. 不燃烧的
not flammable;  specifically :not easily ignited and not burning rapidly if ignited
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible

nonsense       n. 无意义的事,荒谬的言行,荒唐
words or language having no meaning or conveying no intelligible ideas
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast

notch   vt. 刻凹痕,用刻痕计算,得分
to cut or make a notch in
serrated←→without notches/smooth

notwithstanding   prep.尽管,虽然
DESPITE

novelty        n. 新奇,新鲜,新奇的事物
something new or unusual
threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness
ballad:stanza=novel:chapter
banal←→novel
timeworn←→novel

noxious        a.有害的,有毒的;使道德败坏的,讨厌的
physically harmful or destructive to living beings
noxious←→beneficial

nuance  n.细微的差异
a subtle distinction or variation
nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion
nuance←→patent difference

nudge   n.v. 用肘轻推,悄悄推,引起注意
to touch or push gently;  especially :to seek the attention of by a push of the elbow
nudge:push=??

nurture        vt. 养育,给与营养物,教养
(1)to supply with nourishment
(2)EDUCATE
nurture←→withhold sustenance from
nurture←→disregard, ignore, neglect, overlook, pass over, slight

oafish        adj. 呆子的,白痴的
a stupid person:BOOB

obdurate       adj. 固执的,顽固的
resistant to persuasion or softening influences
firmness:obdurate=carefulness:meticulous
energetic:frenetic=firm:obdurate
toward←→obdurate

obeisance      n. 鞠躬,敬礼
a movement of the body made in token of respect or submission:BOW

obfuscate      v. 使困惑,使迷惑
a:DARKEN
b:to make obscure
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
obfuscate←→elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly
obfuscate←→clarify

obedient      a. 服从的,顺从的,孝顺的
submissive to the restraint or command of authority:willing to obey
contumacious←→obedient

obeisance     n. 敬礼,鞠躬,顿首
a movement of the body made in token of respect or submission:BOW
obeisant←→impertinent

obligatory     adj. 强制性的,义务的
binding in law or conscience
elected:obliged=??
discretionary←→obligatory
selective←→obligatory

obliging      a. 亲切的,体贴的,殷勤的,有礼貌的
willing to do favors:ACCOMMODATING
visionary:idealistic=officious:obliging

oblique        a. 斜的,倾斜的,无诚意的,不坦率的
not straightforward:INDIRECT;  also :OBSCURE
oblique←→direct

obliterate     v. 涂掉,擦掉
to remove from existence:destroy utterly all trace, indication, or significance of
inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove
inter:burial=obliterate:removal
obliterate:remove=accomodate:supply { convey:conduct}

oblivious      a. 易忘的,遗忘的,忘却的,健忘的
lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention
erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect
cognizant←→oblivious
oblivious←→vigilant
oblivious←→mindful
vigilant←→oblivious

obscure        vt. 使阴暗,隐藏,使含糊
not clearly seen or easily distinguished:FAINT
celebrity←→obscurity
explicit←→obscure

obsequious     a. 谄媚的,奉承的,顺从的
marked by or exhibiting a fawning attentiveness
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious
narcissist:self absorbed=sycophant:obsequious
obsequious:attentiveness=??
obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield
supercilious←→obsequious

observatory   n. 天文台,气象台,了望台
a building or place given over to or equipped for observation of natural phenomena (as in astronomy);
conservatory:music={seminary:theology }=observatory:astronomy     observatory:astronomy

obsess        vt.迷住;使困窘,使烦扰
to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of
agonized:distress=obsessed:concern
firm:intransigent=concerned:obsessed
obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous

obsolete       a. 荒废的,成废物的,陈旧的
a:no longer in use or no longer useful
b:of a kind or style no longer current:OLD-FASHIONED

obstacle       n. 障碍
something that impedes progress or achievement
blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede

obstinate      adj.固执的,倔强的
perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course in spite of reason, arguments, or persuasion
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend
unflappable:upset=obstinate:persuade
tractable←→insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate

obstreperous  adj.吵闹的,难管束的
stubbornly resistant to control:UNRULY
obstreperous←→disciplined

obstruct       v. 阻塞,截断
to hinder from passage, action, or operation:IMPEDE
obstruct←→facilitate
occluded←→unobstructed
obstructed←→unocclude

obtuse        adj. 愚笨的,不锐利的
lacking sharpness or quickness of sensibility or intellect:INSENSITIVE
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse
restive:calmness=keen:obtuse

obviate        vt. 除去,排除,避免,预防
to anticipate and prevent (as a situation) or make unnecessary (as an action)
emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary

occlude        vt. 使闭塞,封闭,关闭,逐出
to close up or block off:OBSTRUCT
occluded←→unobstructed
obstructed←→unocclude

occult        a. 神秘的,不可思议的,超自然的
not easily apprehended or understood:ABSTRUSE, MYSTERIOUS
occult←→bare/patent/readily fathomable

occurrence     n. 发生,事件,发现
something that occurs
prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence

ode        n. 颂诗,赋
a lyric poem usually marked by exaltation of feeling and style, varying length of line, and complexity of stanza forms
chord:tone=ode:poem

odious        adj. 可憎的,讨厌的
exciting or deserving hatred or repugnance
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
grating:sound=acrid:odor
odious:disgust=menacing:fear
odious:repugnance=menacing:fear   { immovable:stability}
hankering←→odium
odium←→infatuation
odium←→esteem

offbeat        a. 不平常的,离奇的  
ECCENTRIC, UNCONVENTIONAL
offbeat←→conventional

offbeat        n. 弱拍
the unaccented beat of a musical measure

offend        v.冒犯,得罪
to cause dislike, anger, or vexation
deferential:offend=scornful:respect
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
euphemism:offend=invulnerable:injure
euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense
intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend
pliant:influence=ticklish:offend
politic:offend=aloof:associate
remonstrance:offend=syllogism:disprove
peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture

offhand        adj.临时,无准备的;随便,马虎的
without premeditation or preparation:EXTEMPORE
offhand←→premeditated

officious      adj.爱发命令的,好忠告人的
volunteering one's services where they are neither asked nor needed:MEDDLESOME
attentive:officious=refined:snobbish   {absorbed:engrossed }
officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel
visionary:idealistic=officious:obliging
politic←→officious

offish        adj. 冷淡的
somewhat cold and reserved :STANDOFFISH
offish←→sociable

opacity        n. 不透明,暖昧
the quality or state of a body that makes it impervious to the rays of light
opacity:light=impermeability:fluid
opacity←→transparency

opaque        adj. 不透明的,难懂的
exhibiting opacity:blocking the passage of radiant energy and especially light
slack:tension=opaque:translucence
diaphanous←→opaque

opine   vt.vi. 想,以为
to express opinions
augur:predict=pundit:opine

opportune      adj. 合适的,适当的
suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence
opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience
opportune←→inconvenient

oppose        vt.反对;反抗
to place over against something so as to provide resistance, counterbalance, or contrast
oppose:thwart=treat:cure

oppression     n. 压抑,沉闷,压迫手段
unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power
oppression:disagreement

opprobrious   a. 嘴不干净的,无礼的,粗野的
expressive of opprobrium:SCURRILOUS
opprobrious:blameless=??
opprobrious←→irreproachable

optimization  n. 最佳化
an act, process, or methodology of making something (as a design, system, or decision) as fully perfect, functional, or effective as possible;
optimization:improve=??

opulent        adj.富裕的,充足的
amply or plentifully provided or fashioned often to the point of ostentation

oration        n. 演说,致辞,叙述法
an elaborate discourse delivered in a formal and dignified manner

orchestra      n.管弦乐队
a group of musicians including especially string players organized to perform ensemble music
orchestra:musician=pack:wolf
pilot:ship=conductor:orchestra
stanza:poem=movement:orchestra

original       a. 最初的,原始的,有创意的
not secondary, derivative, or imitative
babble:sense=parrot=originality
hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:original

orthodoxy      n. 正统说法,正教,信奉正教
the quality or state of being conforming to established doctrine especially in religion    
religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy
dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group

oscillate     vt. 使振动,使动摇
to swing backward and forward like a pendulum
oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter

ossify        v.硬化,骨化, 变得泥古不化
to become hardened or conventional and opposed to change
depreciation:value=ossification:flexible
ossify←→transcend conventions

ostentatious  a. 装饰表面的,夸示的,华美的
marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious display

ostracism      n. 贝壳流放,放逐,排斥
exclusion by general consent from common privileges or social acceptance
pariah:ostracize=prisoner:confine {traitor:execute}
ostracize←→take in
ostracize←→welcome
ostracize←→include/embrace

outgoing       adj. 友善的,即将离去的
openly friendly and responsive:EXTROVERTED
extrovert:outgoing=perfectionist=exacting

outmaneuver   v. 以策略制胜, 以机动性胜过
outmaneuver←→yield

outmoded      a. 过时的
no longer acceptable, current, or usable
outmoded←→original

overbearing   a. 傲慢的,骄傲自大的,蛮横的
harshly and haughtily arrogant
unassuming←→overbearing

overdose       n. 配药量过多
too great a dose (as of a therapeutic agent)
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention

overexposure  a. 过度暴露
to expose excessively;  especially :to expose (as film) to excessive radiation (as light)
overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune
vaccination:immune=overexposure:jaded

overlap        vt. 重叠,重复
to occupy the same area in part:lap over
infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap

overt   adj.公开的、非秘密的
open to view:MANIFEST
clandestine:secretly=overt:openly
shadowy←→overt

overture       n. 前奏曲、序曲,提议,提案,初步交涉
a:an initiative toward agreement or action:PROPOSAL
b:something introductory:PRELUDE
veto:prohibitive=overture:introductory
overture:introductory=caveat:warning

overwhelm      vt. 淹没,受打击,制服,压倒
to overcome by superior force or numbers
usurp:take=overwhelm:defeat

overwrought   a. 过度紧张[兴奋]的
extremely excited:AGITATED

oxymoron       n. 矛盾修饰法
a combination of contradictory or incongruous words
apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox

pacify        vt. 使平静,安慰,绥靖
to allay the anger or agitation of:SOOTHE  
solace:grief=pacification:anger    
rankle←→pacify
tantrum←→pacify
vex←→pacify/appease/soothe
discommode←→convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify

pack     n. 包裹,一群,包装,背包,一副
a group of often predatory animals of the same kind ,WOLF PACK
orchestra:musician=pack:wolf

pact     n. 契约,协定,条约
COMPACT;  especially :an international treaty

padding        n. 垫充,垫塞,填料
material with which something is padded
padding:damage=disguise:recognition

paean   n. 欢乐歌,赞美歌
a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph;  broadly :ENCOMIUM, TRIBUTE
paean←→harshly lampoon

painstaking   a. 辛苦的,勤勉的,小心的
taking pains:expending, showing, or involving diligent care and effort
cursory←→painstakingly thorough

palatable      adj.美味的,愉快的
agreeable to the palate or taste
palatable:savory=discernible:manifest

palatial       adj.宫殿般的,宏伟的
of, relating to, or being a palace
palatial:hovel=city:bucolic

palette        n. 调色板,颜料
a particular range, quality, or use of color
palette:color=repertoire:play

pall     v. 覆盖,使平淡无味
to lose in interest or attraction
pall←→interest/intrigue

palliate       v. 减轻(痛苦),掩饰(罪行)
to reduce the violence of (a disease):ABATE
pain:analgesic=symptom:palliative
caustic←→palliating/genial
palliate←→exacerbate

pallor        n. 苍白
deficiency of color especially of the face:PALENESS

palmy   a. 棕榈的,多棕榈的,繁荣的
marked by prosperity:FLOURISHING
palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity

palpable       adj. 明显的,易觉察的
easily perceptible by the mind:MANIFEST
elliptical←→palpable
palpable←→subtle

palter        vi. 含糊其词,马虎处理,讨价还价,敷衍了事
to act insincerely or deceitfully:EQUIVOCATE
palter:candor=diehard:budge
palter←→candor

paltry        a.无价值的,微不足道的
INFERIOR, TRASHY,TRIVIAL
paltry←→significant/important

pan        v. 严厉批评
to criticize severely
barb:caustic=pan:harsh
rave←→pan

panache        n. 羽饰,夸示,假威风,炫耀
dash or flamboyance in style and action:VERVE
panache←→humility
panache←→unremarkable behavior

pander        v.迎合
to act as a pander;  especially :to provide gratification for others' desires

panegyric      n. 赞扬,夸大的颂词,推崇备至
a eulogistic oration or writing;  also :formal or elaborate praise
panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize
panegyric:praise:valediction:farewell
panegyric←→anathema

panorama       n. 全景,全貌,概论
an unobstructed or complete view of an area in every direction

pantechnicon  n. 家具仓库,家具搬运车
a usually enclosed wagon or motortruck used for transportation of goods or animals
pantechnicon:furniture=??

pantry        n.食品柜,餐具室
a room (as in a hotel or hospital) for preparation of foods on order
pantry:food=armory:weapons
pantry:food=closet (wardrobe):clothes

parable        n. 寓言,比喻
EXAMPLE;  specifically :a usually short fictitious story that illustrates a moral attitude or a religious principle
parable:story=homily:lecture

parabola       n. 抛物线
a plane curve generated by a point moving so that its distance from a fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed line:the intersection of a right circular cone with a plane parallel to an element of the cone

paradigmatic  adj. 作为示范的,典范的
EXAMPLE, PATTERN;  especially :an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype

paradox        n. 似非而是的论点,自相矛盾的话
a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is     perhaps true
apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox
paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise

paragon        n. 模范,典型
a model of excellence or perfection
paragon:admire=pariah:contempt
travesty←→paragon

parallel      a. 平行的,相似的
extending in the same direction, everywhere equidistant, and not meeting

paramount      adj. 最重要的,最高权力的
superior to all others:SUPREME
painful:agonizing=important:paramount

paranoia       n. 偏执狂
a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational suspiciousness and distrustfulness of others
enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia

paraphrase     vt. 释义
to make a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form
paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise

parch   vi. 烤干,焦干
to dry or shrivel with cold
steep←→parch

pariah        n. 贱民,被社会遗弃者
a member of a low caste of southern India
paragon:admire=pariah:contempt
pariah:ostracize=prisoner:confine {traitor:execute}

parity        n. 同等,同格,同位,平价
the quality or state of being equal or equivalent
parity←→inequality

parlance       n. 说法,语法,语调
manner or mode of speech:IDIOM
gait:walk=parlance:speak

parochial      a. 教区的,地方性的,狭小的
confined or restricted as if within the borders of a parish:limited in range or scope (as to a narrow area or region):PROVINCIAL, NARROW

parody        n.嘲弄文章,拙劣的模仿
a literary or musical work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule
parody:style=mime:gesture
spoof:parody=??

parquetry      n. 镶木地板艺术或图案
work in the form of usually geometrically patterned wood laid or inlaid especially for floors
fresco:wall=parquetry:floor

parrel        n. 亦作 parral.『航海』绳环
a rope loop or sliding collar by which a yard or spar is held to a mast in such a way that it may be hoisted or lowered

parrot        n.鹦鹉  vt. 学舌
to repeat by rote
babble:sense=parrot=originality

parry   v. 挡开,避开(武器,问题等)
to evade especially by an adroit answer
duty:shirk=question:parry

parse   n./v. 从语法上分析
to resolve (as a sentence) into component parts of speech and describe them grammatically
scan:metrical=parse:grammatical
specimen:dissect=sentence:parse

parsimony      n. 过度节俭,吝啬
a:the quality of being careful with money or resources:THRIFT
b:the quality or state of being stingy
craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift
curt:words=parsimonious:resource
miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal
parsimonious:save=prodigal:spend
parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk
parsimonious:spend:peremptory:fawn
parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent
parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride
tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous
largesse←→parsimony
liberal←→parsimonious
parsimonious←→wasteful
profligate←→parsimonious
parsimonious←→prodigal

partiality     n. 偏袒,偏心
the quality or state of being partial:BIAS

particularize vt.vi. 详细说明,列举,大书特书
to state in detail:SPECIFY
illustrate:pictures=particularize:details

partisan       n. 党羽,同党的人,游击队员
a firm adherent to a party, faction, cause, or person;  especially:one exhibiting blind, prejudiced, and unreasoning allegiance
authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans
patriot:country=partisan:course

passionate     adj.多情的,热烈的
a:capable of, affected by, or expressing intense feeling
b:ENTHUSIASTIC, ARDENT

pastiche       n. 模仿 (的手法) ; 混成 [拼凑]
a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous work;
pastiche←→original work

patent        a. 专利的,显著的,新奇的
readily visible or intelligible:OBVIOUS
abstruse←→accessible/patent
nuance←→patent difference
occult←→bare/patent
patent←→not evident
recondite←→patent

pathology      n. 病理学,病理,病状
something abnormal,deviation from propriety or from an assumed normal state of something nonliving or nonmaterial
pathological←→normal

patina        n. 绿锈,光亮的外表
a superficial covering or exterior
patina←→essential quality

patriot        n.爱国者,爱国主义者
one who loves his or her country and supports its authority and interests
patriot:country=partisan:course

patronize      vt. 保护,支援,惠顾,庇护,赞助
to adopt an air of condescension toward:treat haughtily or coolly
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery

paucity        n. 少数,少量,缺乏
smallness of number:FEWNESS
paucity←→slew
profusion←→paucity

paunchy        a. 大肚子的
having an enlarged, swollen, or protruding abdomen
svelte←→paunchy and awkward

pauper        n. 贫民,被救济者,穷人
a person destitute of means except such as are derived from charity;  specifically:one who receives aid from funds designated for the poor

pebble        n. 小圆石,小鹅卵石
a small usually rounded stone especially when worn by the action of water
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide

peccadillo     n.小过失
a slight offense
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense
peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation
peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture

peck     n. 啄痕,啄食,许多 a quick light kiss
peck:kiss=glance:look      {  peck:kiss=peep:sound   }

pedagogue      n. 教师,教育者,爱假装博学者
TEACHER, SCHOOLMASTER;  especially :a dull, formal, or pedantic teacher
stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate

pedant        n. 炫学者,自夸学者的人,空谈家
one who makes a show of knowledge
martinet:discipline=pedant:learning
mawkish/maudlin:sentiment=pedantic:scholarship
scholarly:pedantic=modest:prudish
moralistic:principled=pedantic:learned

pedestrian     adj.徒步的,缺乏想像的  n.行人
COMMONPLACE, UNIMAGINATIVE
pedestrian←→imaginative
pedestrian←→uncommon

peep     n. 瞥见,偷看,初现
to utter the slightest sound    
{peck:kiss=peep:sound}

peeve   v. 气恼,怨恨
to make peevish or resentful:ANNOY
mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy
placate←→peeve

pejorative     adj.带有轻蔑意义的,贬低的
having negative connotations;  especially :tending to disparage or belittle:DEPRECIATORY
pejorative←→laudatory

pellucid       adj.清晰的,清澈的
easy to understand
venial:excuse=pellucid:understand
pellucid←→murky
murky←→clear/pellucid/limpid

penalty        n. 刑罚,罚款,报应
the suffering in person, rights, or property that is annexed by law or judicial decision to the commission of a crime or public offense
exempt:liability:pardon:penalty

penchant      n. [对…的]强烈嗜好,偏好; 倾向[for]
a strong and continued inclination;  broadly :LIKING
penchant←→aversion
penchant←→dislike

penetrate      vt. 穿透,渗透,看穿
a:to pass into or through
b:to enter by overcoming resistance:PIERCE
c:to gain entrance to
impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid
knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable

pensive        a. 沉思的,哀思的,忧沉的
musingly or dreamily thoughtful

penury        n.贫穷
a cramping and oppressive lack of resources (as money);  especially :severe  poverty
incognizance:knowledgeable=penury:wealthy
penury←→affluence
penurious←→lavish

perceptible   a. 可察觉的,能感觉得到的,看得见的
capable of being perceived especially by the senses
relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious

peremptory     adj. 专横的,不容反抗的
characterized by often imperious or arrogant self-assurance
parsimonious:spend=peremptory:fawn
peremptory←→open to challenge

perfidy        n. 不诚实,背信
the quality or state of being faithless or disloyal:TREACHERY
exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty
perfidious←→faithful/loyal

perfunctorily ad. 敷衍地,潦草地,表面地
lacking in interest or enthusiasm
perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration

perimeter     n. 周长,周界
the boundary of a closed plane figure
country:border=circle:perimeter

peripatetic   adj. 巡游的
moving or traveling from place to place:ITINERANT
peripatetic←→rooted

peripheral     adj.边缘的,周边的
of, relating to, involving, or forming a periphery or surface part
immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center
crux←→peripheral element
periphery←→central

perjury        n. 伪誓,伪证
the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to do what has been promised under
oath:false swearing=perjury:deposition
calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony
perjure←→depose

permanence     n.永久,持久
the quality or state of being permanent:DURABILITY
evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency
heroic:craven=erratic:permanent
opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience
ephemeral←→permanent/perpetual
extinction←→perpetuation
interim←→permanent
transience←→permanence

permeable      a. 有浸透性的,能透过的
capable of being permeated:PENETRABLE;  especially :having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through
knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable
opacity:light=impermeability:fluid
waterproof←→permeable

permissivist  n. 极端纵容者
granting or tending to grant permission:TOLERANT
deficient in firmness or control:INDULGENT, LAX

pernicious     a. 有害的,有毒的,致命的  
highly injurious or destructive:DEADLY
pernicious:injure=disingenuous:mislead

perpetual      a. 永久的,不断的
continuing forever:EVERLASTING
ephemeral←→permanent/perpetual
extinction←→perpetuation

persecute      vt. 迫害,虐待,困扰
to harass in a manner designed to injure, grieve, or afflict;  specifically :to cause to suffer because of belief
persecute:injure=haunt:remember

persevere      vi. 坚持不懈;不屈不挠
to persist in a state, enterprise, or undertaking in spite of counter influences, opposition, or discouragement
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend
persevere←→give up

persiflage     n. 挖苦,嘲弄
frivolous bantering talk:light raillery
exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite

personable     a. 风度好的,优雅的,貌美的
pleasant or amiable in person:ATTRACTIVE
personable←→unattractive

perspective   n. 远景,看法,透视
an optical glass (as a telescope)

perspicacious adj. 独具慧眼的
of acute mental vision or discernment:KEEN
perspicacious←→obtuse/undiscerned

perspicuity   n. 明晰,明了,简明
plain to the understanding especially because of clarity and precision of presentation    
perspicuous←→dull

pertinacious  adj. 顽固的
stubbornly unyielding or tenacious
pertinacious←→tractable
pertinacity←→vacillation

pertinent     a. 相关的,中肯的,切题的
having a clear decisive relevance to the matter in hand
pertinent:relevance=redundant:superfluity
immaterial←→pertinent/relevant
pertinent←→irrelevant

perturb        vt.使担忧
to disturb greatly in mind:DISQUIET
impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy
stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy

pervade        vt. 弥漫,遍及,充满,渗透,漫延
to become diffused throughout every part of

pessimism      n. 悲观,悲观主义
an inclination to emphasize adverse aspects, conditions, and possibilities or to expect the worst possible outcome

pesticide      n. 杀虫剂  
an agent used to destroy pests
insect:pesticide=plant:herbicide

pestle        n. 杵,乳钵槌
a usually club-shaped implement for pounding or grinding substances in a mortar
hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar
pestle:grind=flint stone:sharpen/spice:flavor/whetstone:sharpen/spoon:stir
awl:pierce=pestle:hash

petition       vt.vi. 请求,恳求,请愿
to make a request to:SOLICIT
minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner

petrography   n. 岩石记述学
the description and systematic classification of rocks
petrography:rock=mural:wall

petulance     n.  发脾气,生气,易怒,暴躁,性急
the quality or state of being petulant:PEEVISHNESS

philanthropic a. 博爱的
of, relating to, or characterized by philanthropy:HUMANITARIAN
philanthropist:beneficence=comedian:humor
resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality
philanthropist:eleemosynary==??

philistine     n. 庸人,市侩
a person who is guided by materialism and is usually disdainful of intellectual or artistic values
philistine←→aesthete

philosophical  a. 哲学的,冷静的,哲学上的

characterized by the attitude of a philosopher;  specifically :calm or unflinching in face of trouble, defeat, or loss

phlegmatic     adj. 冷静的,冷淡的,冷漠的,无活力的
having or showing a slow and stolid temperament
phlegmatic:arouse=??
phlegmatic←→spirited
phlegmatic←→vivacious

piddling       a. 无用的,琐屑的  
TRIVIAL, PALTRY
restive:calmness=piddling:considerable

pigment        n.天然色素,干粉颜料
a coloring matter in animals and plants especially in a cell or tissue;
albino:pigment=prairie:tree

pilfer        vt.vi. 盗,偷,窃
STEAL;  especially :to steal stealthily in small amounts and often again and again
abscond:depart=pilfer:take

pillar        n. 柱子,栋梁,重要的支持者
a firm upright support for a superstructure:POST
colonnade:pillar=queue:person
stockade:enclosure=pillar:support
derelict←→pillar of society

pillory        n.颈手枷,示众,嘲弄
to expose to public contempt, ridicule, or scorn
admonish:denounce=punish:pillory{persuade:convince}
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle
pillory←→exalt

pilot   n. 飞行员,领航员,领导人,响导,航船者
one employed to steer a ship:HELMSMAN
pilot:ship=conductor:orchestra

pine     vi. 消瘦,憔悴,渴望
to yearn intensely and persistently especially for something unattainable
longing:pine=remorse:rue

pinnacle       n. 小尖塔,尖峰,高峰
an upright architectural member generally ending in a small spire and used especially in Gothic construction to give weight especially to a buttress

pinpoint       n. 极小之物,针尖  vt.精确地找到
extremely fine or precise

piquant        adj.辛辣的,开胃的
agreeably stimulating to the palate;  especially :SPICY
pique←→mollify

pithy   a. 有髓的,有力的,含蓄的
having substance and point:tersely cogent
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature
pithy←→prolix

pitiless       a. 无情的,冷酷的,无怜悯心的
devoid of pity:MERCILESS

pittance       n. 配给的食物,施舍少量的钱,少量
a small portion, amount, or allowance;  also :a meager wage or remuneration
cornucopia←→lack/pittance

placate        vt.安抚;和解
to soothe or mollify especially by concessions:APPEASE
inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated
galling←→placating
placate←→peeve
placate←→antagonize

placebo        n.安慰剂
an inert or innocuous substance used especially in controlled experiments testing the efficacy of another substance (as a drug)
placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous
placebo:painkiller=backdrop:vista
placebo:innocuous=venom:toxious

plagiarize     vt.vi. 剽窃,抄袭
to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own:use (another's production) without crediting the source
plagiarism:ideas=forgery:documents
plagiarism:ideas=rustling:cattle

plangent       adj.如泣如诉的,悲哀的
having a loud reverberating sound
plangent←→muffled

plantation     n. 耕地,森林,殖民
a usually large group of plants and especially trees under cultivation
plantation:tobacco=media:bacteria

plateau        n. 高地,高原
a region of little or no change in a graphic representation
plateau:change=respite:activity
plateau:slope

platitude     n. 单调,平凡,陈腐
a banal, trite, or stale remark
equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal

platonic      a. 柏拉图哲学的,柏拉图主义的,唯心的
of, relating to, or being a relationship marked by the absence of romance or sex

plausible      a. 似真实的,似合理的,说得煞有其事的    ]
superficially fair, reasonable, or valuable but often specious
rationalize:plausible=??

plethora       n. 过量,过剩
EXCESS, SUPERFLUITY;  also :PROFUSION, ABUNDANCE
plethora←→dearth

pliable        a. 易曲折的,柔软的,圆滑的
supple enough to bend freely or repeatedly without breaking
static:move=pliable:inflexible
pliable←→rigid

pliant        adj.易受影响的,易弯的
easily influenced:YIELDING
pliant:influence=ticklish:offend
pliant←→mulish
pliant←→intransigence/intractable

plight        n. 境况,誓约,困境
to put or give in pledge:ENGAGE
plight←→favorable condition

plodding       a. 沉重缓慢的,单调乏味的
working laboriously and monotonously:DRUDGE
meteoric←→plodding

plot     vi. 密谋,策划n. 小块土地,地区图,情节,阴谋
a secret plan for accomplishing a usually evil or unlawful end:INTRIGUE
cabal:association=plot:plan
joke:punch line=plot:denouement
plot:plan=inveigle:interest

plot     vi. 密谋,策划n. 小块土地,地区图,情节,阴谋
the plan or main story of a literary work
choreography:dance=plot:story
joke:punch line=plot:denouement

pluck   n. 勇气,猛拉,动物内脏
courageous readiness to fight or continue against odds:dogged resolution      
pluck←→cowardice

pluck   n. 勇气,猛拉,动物内脏, 弹奏
to play by sounding the strings with the fingers or a pick
horn:blow=harp:pluck

plumb   vt.铅锤测定是否垂直或深度
to measure the depth of with a plumb
assess:value=plumb:depth
measure:dimensions=calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth
plumb←→examine curiously

plummet        v. 垂直或突然地堕下
to drop sharply and abruptly
fall descend:plummet=move:dart
plummet:ascend=??

plump   a.丰满的;鼓起的,直率的
having a full rounded usually pleasing form
a plump woman
svelte←→plump

plump   vt. 突然放下,支持,使丰满,使鼓起
to drop, sink, or come in contact suddenly or heavily

plurality      n. 复数,较大数,许多,兼职
a:the state of being plural
b:the state of being numerous
c:a large number or quantity

polemic        n. 争论,论战
the art or practice of disputation or controversy
polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive

polish        a. 擦亮的,精练的,优美的
highly developed, finished, or refined  PERFECT
rustic←→polished
untutored←→polished
gaucheness←→polish

politic        a. 精明的,圆滑的,慎重的,策略的
characterized by shrewdness in managing, contriving, or dealing
politic:offend=aloof:associate
politic←→unsophisticated
politic←→officious

pollster       n. 民意测验家
one that conducts a poll or compiles data obtained by a poll
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass

pompous        a. 傲慢的,自大的,夸大的,豪华的
having or exhibiting self-importance:ARROGANT
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless

ponderous      adj. 笨重的,笨拙的
of very great weight
ponderous←→ethereal/gossamer/lively
slight←→ponderous
ponderous←→lively/vibrant/briskly

pontificate   v. 自大武断地做,装模作样的说话
to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
pontificate:speak=strut:walk
pontificate:speak=swagger:walk
strut:walk=pontificate:speak
pontificate←→comment tentatively

porcelain      n.瓷,瓷器
a hard, fine-grained, sonorous, nonporous, and usually translucent and white ceramic ware that consists essentially of kaolin, quartz, and feldspar and is fired at high temperatures
clay:porcelain=flax:linen
glaze:porcelain=vanish:wood

pore     n.毛孔,气孔,细孔
a minute opening especially in an animal or plant;  especially :one by which matter passes through a membrane
pore:membrane=door:room

porous        adj. 可渗透的,多孔的
capable of being penetrated fragile:break=porous:penetrate
porous←→impenetrable

portentous     a. 前兆的,不吉的,自大的,奇怪的
eliciting amazement or wonder:PRODIGIOUS
portentous←→regular

portrait       n.肖像,人像,半身像,人物描写
PICTURE;  especially :a pictorial representation (as a painting) of a person usually showing the face
portrait:painting=jazz:music
portrait:person=seascape:ocean

poseur        n. 装模作样的人
a person who pretends to be what he or she is not:an affected or insincere person
poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness
poseur←→sincere person

posit   v.假定,认为  
to assume or affirm the existence of:POSTULATE
posit←→deny as false

posterity      n.后代
the offspring of one progenitor to the furthest generation

postulate      v.假定,要求
to assume or claim as true, existent, or necessary:depend upon or start from the postulate of
postulate←→deny as false

posture        vi. 作姿势
to assume an artificial or pretended attitude:ATTITUDINIZE
posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant
posture←→behave naturally

potable        adj. 适于饮用的
suitable for drinking
potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling

potentate      n. 有权的人,有势力的人,统治者
RULER, SOVEREIGN;  broadly :one who wields great power or sway
virtuoso:skill=potentate:power
potentate←→subject

potentiate     n. 统治者,当权者  vt. 赋与力量,加强
to make effective or active or more effective or more active;  also :to augment the activity of (as a drug) synergistically
deactivate←→potentiate

pout     vt.vi. 撅嘴,绷脸
to show displeasure by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression
wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt
pout←→grin

prairie        n. 大草原,牧场
a large area of level or rolling land in the Mississippi valley that in its natural uncultivated state usually has deep fertile soil, a cover of tall coarse grasses, and few trees
albino:pigment=prairie:tree

prate   vi. 唠唠叨叨的讲,闲聊,空谈
to talk long and idly:CHATTER
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
prate:speak=saunter:walk

preach        vt.vi. 传道,讲道,鼓吹,宣讲,说教
to deliver a sermon
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil

precarious     a.不稳定的
characterized by a lack of security or stability that threatens with danger
precarious:stability=spent:efficacy
precarious←→secure/stable

precedent      n. 先例,前例
prior in time, order, arrangement, or significance
preempt:precedence=acquire:possession
unexceptionable:oppose=unique:precedent
unique:precedent=infinite:end

precipice      n. 悬崖
a very steep or overhanging place
precipice:steepness=defile:narrowness
precipitous←→level

precipitate   v. 加速,促成adj. 匆忙的,鲁莽的
to bring about especially abruptly
precipitate←→retard/dilatory

precipitation n.急躁,降雨(量)
something precipitated:as a deposit on the earth of hail, mist, rain, sleet, or snow
snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone

precipitous   adj. 陡峭的,仓促的
very steep, perpendicular, or overhanging in rise or fall
precipitous←→gradually sloping

precursor      n. 先驱者,前导,先进者
one that precedes and indicates the approach of another
precursory←→derivative

predecessor   n. 前任,先辈,以前的东西
one that precedes;  especially :a person who has previously occupied a position or office to which another has succeeded
legacy:predecessor=gift:donor

preeminent    a. 优秀的,超群的,卓越的
having paramount rank, dignity, or importance:OUTSTANDING
preeminence:importance=preponderance:weight

preempt        v. 以先买权取得,取代
to replace with something considered to be of greater value or priority:take precedence over
preempt:precedence=acquire:possession

preen   v. 整理羽毛,(人)打扮修饰
to dress or smooth (oneself) up:PRIMP
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
preen←→ruffle

preface        n. 序文,绪言,前言
the introductory remarks of a speaker or author
preface←→epilogue
prefatory←→conclusive

pregnant      a. 怀孕的,充满的,含蓄的
abounding in fancy, wit, or resourcefulness:INVENTIVE
inane←→expressive, meaningful, pregnant, significant, weighty

preliminary   a. 初步的,开始的,预备的
coming before and usually forming a necessary prelude to something else

premeditated  a. 预先想过的,预谋的,有计划的
characterized by fully conscious willful intent and a measure of forethought and planning
offhand←→premeditated
spontaneous←→premeditate

preponderant  a. 以重胜的,优势的,压倒性的
having superior weight, force, or influence
preeminence:importance=preponderance:weight
preponderant←→commensurate

prepossessing a. 讨人欢喜的,有魅力的,给人好感的
tending to create a favorable impression:ATTRACTIVE
unprepossessing←→entrancing/winsome

preposterous  adj. 荒谬的,可笑的
contrary to nature, reason, or common sense:ABSURD
preposterous←→commonsensical

presage       vt. 成为...的前兆,预示,预言
FORETELL, PREDICT
harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify

prescription  n. 处方,命令,指示
a written direction for a therapeutic or corrective agent;  specifically :one for the preparation and use of a medicine
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention

presentiment  n. 预感,预觉
a feeling that something will or is about to happen:PREMONITION

preservative  n. 预防法,预防药,防腐剂
something that preserves or has the power of preserving;  specifically:an additive used to protect against decay, discoloration, or spoilage
censorship:communication=preservative:decay

presumptuous  a. 放肆的,冒昧的,冒失的
overstepping due bounds (as of propriety or courtesy):taking liberties    
transgression:morality=:presumption:propriety       presumptuous:unruly

pretense       n. 借口,虚假,伪装
an inadequate or insincere attempt to attain a certain condition or quality  
pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove
pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove

prevail        vi.胜,优胜;流行
to gain ascendancy through strength or superiority:TRIUMPH

prevalent      adj.流行的,普遍的
generally or widely accepted, practiced, or favored:WIDESPREAD
prevalent←→unusual

prevaricate   vi. 支吾其辞,搪塞,撒谎
to deviate from the truth:EQUIVOCATE
blandishment:coax=prevarication:deceive
equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth

prime   n. 最佳部分,初期
the earliest stage
prime←→uninitial

primordial     a. 原始的;初发的
existing in or persisting from the beginning
primordial←→most recent

primp   vt.vi. 打扮,装饰
to dress, adorn, or arrange in a careful or finicky manner
primp:vain=gloat:smug

principal      a. 主要的,重要的,首要的
most important, consequential, or influential:CHIEF
principal←→subordinate

prissy        a. 谨小慎微的,神经质的,为小事挂虑的
being prim and precise:FINICKY

pristine       a. 原来的,古时的,原始的,纯净的,无垢的
not spoiled, corrupted, or polluted (as by civilization):PURE
pristine:decay=stable:fluctuation
squalid←→pristine
pristine←→taint

privilege      n.特权,优惠
a right or immunity granted as a peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor:PREROGATIVE;  especially :such a right or immunity attached specifically to a position or an office

probe   v.探索,探测
to make a searching exploratory investigation
cavil:criticize=probe:investigate

probity        n. 刚直,正直
adherence to the highest principles and ideals:UPRIGHTNESS
probity←→unscrupulousness

procrastinate v. 耽搁,拖延
to put off intentionally the doing of something that should be done
dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
procrastination←→diligence

procure        vt. 获得,取得,促成
to get possession of:obtain by particular care and effort
procure←→relinquish

prod     vt. 戳,刺,刺激
to incite to action:STIR
rein←→prod

prodigal       a. 浪费的,挥霍的,放荡的
characterized by wasteful expenditure:LAVISH
mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance
miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal
parsimonious:save=prodigal:spend
husbandry←→prodigality
parsimonious←→prodigal

prodigy        n. 惊人的事物,不凡的人,神童
a:an extraordinary, marvelous, or unusual accomplishment, deed, or event
b:a highly talented child or youth
prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence
prodigious←→slight

profane        v. 亵渎,玷污
to treat (something sacred) with abuse, irreverence, or contempt:DESECRATE
pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable
inviolable←→profane/impure

proffer        v. 献出,赠送,n. 提议,建议
to present for acceptance:TENDER, OFFER
proffer←→retain

profligate     adj. 挥金如土的,n. 挥霍者
wildly extravagant:PRODIGAL
profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed
querulous:words=profligate:money
loquacious:word=profligate:money
profligate←→parsimonious
provident←→profligate
barren←→profligate
proliferate←→dwindle

profusion      n.丰富、大量、浪费
great quantity:lavish display or supply
profusion←→paucity
profuse←→scanty

prolix        adj.罗嗦的,冗长的
marked by or using an excess of words
pithy←→prolix
prolixity←→succinctness
taciturn←→prolix

prolong        vt. 延长,拖延,拖长
to lengthen in extent, scope, or range
prolong←→truncate

prominent      a. 卓越的,显著的,凸出的,突起的
a:readily noticeable:CONSPICUOUS
b:widely and popularly known:LEADING

promote        vt. 促进,升迁,创办
to contribute to the growth or prosperity of:FURTHER
abate←→intensify/promote
subside←→promote

propagate      vt.繁殖;传播,普及
to cause to spread out and affect a greater number or greater area:EXTEND
propagate←→check

propensity     n. 习性;倾向
an often intense natural inclination or preference
propensity←→aversion

prosperous    a. 成功的,繁盛的,顺利的,幸运的
marked by success or economic well-being
prosperous←→depressed

prophetic      a. 预言的,先知的,预示的
foretelling events:PREDICTIVE

propitiate     vt. 慰抚,安抚,和解( a. propitiatory)
to gain or regain the favor or goodwill of:APPEASE, CONCILIATE
immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated
inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated
propitiate←→incense
propitiate←→antagonize

propitious     a. 顺利的,适合的,吉祥的,慈悲的
favorably disposed:BENEVOLENT

proposal       n.提案,建议
an act of putting forward or stating something for consideration

prosaic        a.单调的,无趣的
DULL, UNIMAGINATIVE,EVERYDAY, ORDINARY
prosaic←→exceptional/imaginary/exciting

proscribe      v. (当作危险物而) 禁止<习惯等>,排斥
to condemn or forbid as harmful or unlawful:PROHIBIT
proscribed←→permitted

prosecution   n. 实行,经营,起诉
the act or process of prosecuting;  specifically :the institution and continuance of a criminal suit involving the process of pursuing formal charges against an offender to final judgment
mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction

proselytize   vi. 劝诱改宗
to recruit or convert especially to a new faith, institution, or cause
hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert

prosperous     a. 成功的,繁盛的,顺利的,幸运的
a:marked by success or economic well-being
b:enjoying vigorous and healthy growth:FLOURISHING
palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity
impecunious←→wealthy/prosperous/affluent

prostrate      a. 拜倒的,降伏的,伏地的,沮丧的,衰竭的
stretched out with face on the ground in adoration or submission;  also :lying flat
prostrate←→erect

protagonist   n. 主演,主角,主唱者
a:the principal character in a literary work (as a drama or story)
b:a leading actor, character, or participant in a literary work or real event

protean        a.千变万化的,变化不定的
displaying great diversity or variety:VERSATILE
circular:asymmetrical:protean:rigid
protean←→static

protest       vt.vi. 反对,抗议,拒付,主张,断言
to execute or have executed a formal protest against (as a bill or note)
protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat

protocol       n. 外交礼节,协议
a code prescribing strict adherence to correct etiquette and precedence
protocol:blunder=bumper:damage

protract       v.延长,拖长
to prolong in time or space:CONTINUE
protract:length=throng:number
protract←→curtail

protuberant   a. 突起的,凸出的,显著的
thrusting out from a surrounding or adjacent surface often as a rounded mass:PROMINENT    
protuberant←→depressed

provident      adj. 深谋远虑的,节俭的
FRUGAL, SAVING
provident←→profligate

provincial     a. 省的,地方的,偏狭的
limited in outlook:NARROW
bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination}

provisional   a. 暂时的,暂定的,临时的
serving for the time being:TEMPORARY
definitive←→provisional

provisory      a. 有附文的,有附带条件的,暂时的
containing or subject to a proviso:CONDITIONAL
provisory←→unconditional

provoke        vt. 激怒,惹起,驱使
to call forth (as a feeling or action):EVOKE
choleric←→difficult to provoke
jejune←→thought  provoking

prowess       n. 英勇,勇敢,超凡技术
distinguished bravery;  especially :military valor and skill
prowess←→timid

prude   n. 装成规矩的女人,过分正经的女人
a person who is excessively or priggishly attentive to propriety or decorum;  especially :a woman who shows or affects extreme modesty
fanatic:devoted=prude:proper

prudent        a. 审慎的,三思而后行的,精明的,节俭的
marked by circumspection:DISCREET
prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton
fool←→prudent

prudish        a. 装淑女样子的,装规矩的,过分规矩的
marked by prudery:PRIGGISH
scholarly:pedantic=modest:prudish
prune   n. 干梅子,梅干,深紫红色,傻瓜
a plum dried or capable of drying without fermentation
prune:plum=raisin:grape

pry        v.刺探,打听,撬开
to look closely or inquisitively;  also :to make a nosy or presumptuous inquiry

psychology     n. 心理学,心理状态
the study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity
fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist

puckish       adj. 爱恶作剧的精灵似的; 爱恶作剧的,淘气的,顽皮的
IMPISH, WHIMSICAL
puckish←→sober
puckish←→grave

puerile        adj. 幼稚的,儿童的
CHILDISH, SILLY
puerile←→sagacious

pulchritude   n. 美丽
physical comeliness
pulchritude←→ugliness ,hideous

pullet        n. 小母鸡,小姑娘
a young hen;  specifically :a hen of the domestic chicken less than a year old    filly:horse=pullet:chicken

punch line    n. 结论,点睛之笔
the sentence, statement, or phrase (as in a joke) that makes the point
joke:punch line=plot:denouement

punctilious   a. 精密细心的,一丝不苟的,拘泥形式的
marked by or concerned about precise accordance with the details of codes or conventions
punctilious←→remiss

pundit        n.权威人士,专家
one who gives opinions in an authoritative manner:CRITIC
augur:predict=pundit:opine
authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
pundit:opinion=augur:prediction

pungent        a. 苦痛的,刺激性的,严厉的
causing a sharp or irritating sensation;  especially :ACRID
pungency←→blandness

puny     a. 微小的,弱小的,微不足道的
slight or inferior in power, size, or importance:WEAK
measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly

purgatory      n. 灵魂的净化,涤罪,炼狱
an intermediate state after death for expiatory purification;  specifically :a place or state of punishment wherein according to Roman Catholic doctrine the souls of those who die in God's grace may make satisfaction for past sins and so become fit for heaven

purity        n. 杂质,不洁,不纯
the quality or state of being pure
mosquito:netting=impurity:filter
stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration
synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity
winnow:chaff=filter:impurities
winnow:grain=purify:water
distill:purity=leaven:volume
inviolable←→profane/impure

purlieu        n. 森林边缘地,常去的地方,范围,界限
a frequently visited place:HAUNT
taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu

purloin        vt.vi. 偷窃,盗取
to appropriate wrongfully and often by a breach of trust
lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate/abscond:depart

pursue        vt. 追赶,追踪,追捕,追随,追求,
to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, or defeat

purvey        v. (大量)供给,供应
to supply (as provisions) usually as a matter of business
vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate

pusillanimous adj. 懦弱的,胆小的
lacking courage and resolution:marked by contemptible timidity
dauntless←→pusillanimous
pusillanimous←→stouthearted
temerity←→pusillanimity/circumspection
valiance←→pusillanimous

quaff   vt.vi. 一口气喝干,大口地喝
to drink (a beverage) deeply
quaff:sip=stride:mince
quaff:sip=delve:skim

quail   vi. 胆怯,畏缩
to recoil in dread or terror:COWER
quail←→become resolute

quaint        a. 古雅的,离奇有趣的,奇怪的
unusual or different in character or appearance:ODD

qualified      a.合格的,受限制的
limited or modified in some way
mitigate:severe=qualify:general
absolute←→qualified
categorical←→qualified/conditional

quarantine     n. 隔离检疫期,隔离
to isolate from normal relations or communication
embargo:commerce=quarantine:contact
hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident

quarry        n. 采石场,猎物,追求物,出处
an open excavation usually for obtaining building stone, slate, or limestone
mine:ore=quarry:rock

quarry        n. 采石场,猎物,追求物,出处
one that is sought or pursued:PREY
hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert

quash   v. 取消,拒绝接受,撤销
to suppress or extinguish summarily and completely
quash←→engender

quell   vt. 压制,平息,减轻
to thoroughly overwhelm and reduce to submission or passivity
quell←→foment/instigate/rouse

quench  vt. 熄灭,结束,冷浸,淬火
to cool (as heated metal) suddenly by immersion (as in oil or water)
tint:suffuse:damp:quench

querulous      adj. 抱怨的,多牢骚的
habitually complaining
querulous:words=profligate:money

questionnaire n. 调查表,问卷,调查表
set of questions for obtaining statistically useful or personal information from individuals

queue   vi.排长队 n.一行
a waiting line especially of persons or vehicles
colonnade:pillar=queue:person
queue:people=chain:link=colonnade:pillar

quibble        n. 遁辞,谬论,双关话  v. 推托,诡辩,说模棱两可的话
to evade the point of an argument by caviling about words
encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil

quiescent      a. 静止的,不活动的,寂静的
marked by inactivity or repose:tranquilly at rest
tumult←→quietude/quiescence

quip     n. 名言,讽刺语 v. 讽刺,嘲弄
a:a clever usually taunting remark:GIBE
b:a witty or funny observation or response usually made on the spur of the moment

quixotic       adj. 不切实际的,空想的
foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals;  especially :marked by rash lofty romantic ideas or extravagantly chivalrous action
quixotic←→displaying consistently practical behavior

quotidian      adj.每日的,平凡的
COMMONPLACE, ORDINARY
quotidian←→remarkable
quotidian←→striking

rabble        n. 乌合之众,暴民,下等人
a disorganized or disorderly crowd of people:MOB
items:hodgepodge=people:rabble

rabid   a. 猛烈的,热烈的,急进的,疯狂的,固执的,狂怒的
extremely violent:FURIOUS     rabid←→logical

racketeer      n. 敲诈者,获取不正当钱财的人
one who obtains money by an illegal enterprise usually involving intimidation

raconteur      n.善于讲故事的人 '
a person who excels in telling anecdotes
raconteur:storytelling=wordsmith:writing

racy     a. 保持原味的,活泼的,生动的
a:full of zest or vigor
b:having a strongly marked quality:PIQUANT
tame←→racy

raffish        a. 名誉不好的,无赖的,卑鄙的,艳俗的
marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub

raffle        n. 抽彩售货,废物
a lottery in which the prize is won by one of numerous persons buying chances    lottery:raffle=ticket:admission

rafter        n. 椽,椽架屋顶,筏夫
any of the parallel beams that support a roof
roof:rafter=table:leg

rage     n. 愤怒,情绪激动,狂暴
violent and uncontrolled anger  bigot=dedication=rage:anger
gush:effusive=rage:irate

ragged        a. 衣衫褴褛的,参差的,刺耳的,粗糙的,不协调的
torn or worn to tatters
cloth:ragged=furniture:rickety

rail     vi. 责骂,抱怨,n. 横杆,围栏,栏杆,秧鸡,扶手
to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language

ramble        vi. 漫步,漫谈,漫游,蔓延
to move aimlessly from place to place
draw:doodle=travel:ramble

rambunctious  a. 粗暴的,难控制的,骚乱的
marked by uncontrollable exuberance:UNRULY

rampart        n. 垒,壁垒,城墙
a protective barrier:BULWARK
tower:edifice=rampart:barrier

ramshackle     adj. 摇摇欲坠的
appearing ready to collapse:RICKETY
ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity

rancid        a. 腐臭的
offensive in odor or flavor:RANK

rancor        n.深仇,怨恨
bitter deep-seated ill will
rancor←→goodwill
rancor←→charitableness

range   n. 排,行,山脉,射程,行列
a series of things in a line:ROW
a series of mountains
range:mountain=chain:link {archipelago:island }

ranger        n. 守林人,骑警,徘徊者
the keeper of a British royal park or forest
ranger:forest=curator:museum

rank     a. 繁茂的,恶臭的,讨厌的,下流的
offensive in odor or flavor;  especially :RANCID

rankle        v. (怨恨,失望等)难以释怀
to cause anger, irritation, or deep bitterness
rankle←→pacify
rankle←→calm

rant     vt.vi. 咆哮,激昂地说
to scold vehemently
fear:cower=anger:rant

rapacious      a. 强夺的,贪欲的,贪婪的
excessively grasping or covetous
troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious

rapport        n.和睦,意见一致
RELATION;  especially :relation marked by harmony, conformity, accord, or affinity

rapprochement n. (尤指国与国之间的) 建立或恢复友谊或和睦关系
establishment of or state of having cordial relations
estrangement←→rapprochement

rapt      a.  全神贯注的,入迷的,出神的
wholly absorbed:ENGROSSED
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract
rapt←→distracted

rash     a.轻率的;鲁莽的
marked by or proceeding from undue haste or lack of deliberation or caution
obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous
loquacious:talkative=rash:adventurous

raisin        n. 葡萄干
a grape of any of several varieties that has been dried in the sun or by artificial heat
prune:plum=raisin:grape

raspy   a. 刺耳的,粗糙的,易怒的
HARSH, GRATING
mellifluous←→raspy

ratify        vt. 认可;批准
to approve and sanction formally:CONFIRM
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification

ratiocination n. 推理,推论
the process of exact thinking:REASONING
ratiocination:thinking=articulate:talking

ration        n. 定额,定量,配给
a food allowance for one day
dose:medicine=ration:food
rationalize:plausible=

raucous        a. 沙哑的,粗声的,刺耳的
disagreeably harsh or strident:HOARSE

ravel        vi. 散开,解除
to separate or undo the texture of:UNRAVEL
ravel←→knit

ravenous       a. 贪婪的,饿极的,渴望的,狼吞虎咽的
very eager or greedy for food, satisfaction, or gratification
incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{ravenous:satisfied}
rave←→pan

raze     vt.摧毁,破坏,抹去,消除
to destroy to the ground:DEMOLISH
raze←→build

reactant       n. 反应物
a substance that enters into and is altered in the course of a chemical reaction    
reactant←→inert material

reactionary   adj.反动的
relating to, marked by, or favoring reaction;  especially :ultraconservative in politics
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty
recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change

ream     n. 令,大量的纸
a quantity of paper being 20 quires or variously 480, 500, or 516 sheets
ream:paper=cord:wood

reaper        n. 收割者,收割机
one that reaps;  especially :any of various machines for reaping grain
scythe:reaper=axe:woodcutter

reassure       v. 使安心,安慰
to restore to confidence
feed:hunger=reassure:uneasiness

rebuff        vt. 严厉拒绝
to reject or criticize sharply:SNUB
rebuff←→approve

rebus   n. 谜,画谜
a representation of words or syllables by pictures of objects or by symbols whose names resemble the intended words or syllables in sound;  also :a riddle made up of such pictures or symbols
rebus:dissimulation=??

recalcitrant  adj.固执的,顽抗的
obstinately defiant of authority or restraint
incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey
recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change

recant        vi. 放弃信仰,撤消声明,公开认错
to withdraw or repudiate (a statement or belief) formally and publicly:RENOUNCE
apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy
recant:declare=??
recant←→reaffirm

recant        vi. 放弃信仰,撤消声明,公开认错
to make an open confession of error
recantation:error=confession:crime recant←→reaffirm

receipt        n. 收据,收入,收到
a writing acknowledging the receiving of goods or money

recessive      a. 退行的,逆行的,后退的,隐性的
producing little or no phenotypic effect when occurring in heterozygous condition with a contrasting allele
dominant←→recessive

recidivism     n. 累犯,重犯 '
a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior;  especially :relapse into criminal behavior
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce

reciprocate   vi. 往复运动,互换,酬答
to move forward and backward alternately
reciprocating←→moving unidirectional

reckless       a. 不注意的,大意的,卤莽的,不顾后果的
marked by lack of proper caution:careless of consequences
circumspect←→audacious/reckless

reclaim        v. 要求收回,要求恢复,开垦,填筑
a:to recall from wrong or improper conduct:REFORM
b:TAME, SUBDUE

recluse        n. 隐遁者,遁世者
a person who leads a secluded or solitary life
poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness
recluse:communicate=??
roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw
turncoat:consistency:recluse:compassion

recoil        vi. 退却,畏缩,弹回,报应,反冲,撤退
to fall back under pressure
recoil:advanced

reconcile      vt. 使和解,调停,使和谐,使听从,使顺从,使一致
to make consistent or congruous
rift←→reconciliation

recondite      adj. 深奥的,难解的
difficult or impossible for one of ordinary understanding or knowledge to comprehend:DEEP
recondite←→widely understood
recondite←→patent
recondite←→self explain

reconnoiter   vi. 侦察,勘查,勘测; 观察,探究
to make a reconnaissance of
reconnoiter:information=??

reconstitute  vt. 重新组成,重新设立
to constitute again or anew;  especially :to restore to a former condition by adding water
reconstitute←→dehydrate

rectify        v. 改正,调正
to correct by removing errors:ADJUST
rectify:treaty=confirm:hypothesis

rectitude      n. 诚实,正直
moral integrity:RIGHTEOUSNESS
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir}
inequity←→rectitude

redolent       adj. 芬芳的芳香的 exuding fragrance:AROMATIC
redolent←→unscented

redoubtable   adj.可敬畏的,可怕的,厉害的,著名的
ILLUSTRIOUS, EMINENT;  broadly :worthy of respect
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard

redress        n./v. 改正,修正, 赔偿,救济,矫正
to set right:REMEDY

redundant      a. 多余的,过多的,冗长的
exceeding what is necessary or normal:SUPERFLUOUS
indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability

reel     n. 卷轴,一卷,蹒跚,旋转,纺车
a revolvable device on which something flexible is wound
reel:winging=die:shaping

refectory      n. 餐厅,休息室
a dining hall (as in a monastery or college)

refinery       n.精炼厂,提炼厂
a building and equipment for refining or processing (as oil or sugar)
refinery:petroleum=mill:grain
crass←→refined
refine←→reduce purity

reflective     a. 反射的,反映的,熟虑的
marked by reflection:THOUGHTFUL, DELIBERATIVE

refractory     adj.难驾驭的,(病)难治的
resisting control or authority:STUBBORN, UNMANAGEABLE
adamant:flexibility=refractory:control
recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change
refractory←→responsive

refresh       vt. 使清新,使恢复,使生气蓬勃
to restore strength and animation to:REVIVE
disgruntle←→refresh

refugee       n. 难民,流亡者
one that flees;  especially :a person who flees to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution
refugee:asylum=??

refuse        vt.拒绝 vt.拒绝n. 废物
TRASH, GARBAGE

refute        vt. 驳倒,反驳
to prove wrong by argument or evidence:show to be false or erroneous        
refutation←→verification

regard        n. 关心,注意,问候,关系,尊敬
a feeling of respect and affection:ESTEEM
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard
flout:disregard=taunt:challenge
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard

regenerate     a. 新生的,再生的
restored to a better, higher, or more worthy state
truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse

regimen        n. 养生法,生活规则
a systematic plan (as of diet, therapy, or medication) especially when designed to improve and maintain the health of a patient
regimen:health=mnemonics:memory
regimen:health=budget:solvency

regression     n. 复原,逆行,退步
a trend or shift toward a lower or less perfect state
regressive←→forward

rehabilitation    n. 复原
a:to restore to a former state (as of efficiency, good management, or solvency)
b:to restore or bring to a condition of health or useful and constructive activity
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce
recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition

reign   n. 执政,君主统治,统治,支配
royal authority:SOVEREIGNTY
coronation:reign=wedding:marriage

rein     n.缰绳 vi.驾驭,控制
to check or stop by or as if by a pull at the reins
rein←→prod

reiterate      v. 重申,反复地说
to state or do over again or repeatedly sometimes with wearying effect
digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant

relapse        vi. 故态复萌,再陷邪道,再度堕落
to slip or fall back into a former worse state
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce

release        vt. 释放,解放,放松,豁免,免除
to set free from restraint, confinement, or servitude
constrain←→release
immure←→release

relentless     a. 无情的,冷酷的,残酷的
showing or promising no abatement of severity, intensity, strength, or pace:UNRELENTING
inexorable←→relenting

relevant       a. 有关联的,中肯的,有关系的,适当的
having significant and demonstrable bearing on the matter at hand
immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center
immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness
relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious
relevant←→immaterial

religion       n. 宗教,信仰
a cause, principle, or system of beliefs held to with ardor and faith religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy

relinquish     vt. 放弃,撤回,让与,放手
a:to stop holding physically:RELEASE
b:to give over possession or control of:YIELD
procure←→relinquish
relinquish←→cling to
relinquish←→cooperate/reward/procure

relish        n. 滋味,风味,美味,爱好,食欲
characteristic flavor;  especially :pleasing or zestful flavor

remiss        adj. 疏忽的,不留心的
showing neglect or inattention:LAX
assiduous←→remiss
punctilious←→remiss

remnant        n. 残余物,零头布料
a usually small part, member, or trace remaining
shred:remnant=??

remodel        vt. 改造,改型,改变
to alter the structure of:REMAKE
construct:remodel=compose:edit

remonstrance  n.抗议,抱怨
an earnest presentation of reasons for opposition or grievance;  especially :a document formally stating such points
remonstrance:offend=syllogism:disprove
remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure
remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal
remonstrance:dissuade=syllogism:disprove

remorse        n. 懊悔,悔恨
a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt for past wrongs:SELF-REPROACH
longing:pine=remorse:rue
truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse

remunerate     vt. 给与报酬,赔偿,酬劳
to pay an equivalent to for a service, loss, or expense:RECOMPENSE
remuneration:service=retaliation:injury
remunerative←→unrequited

rend     v.撕裂,猛拉
to split or tear apart or in pieces by violence
rend←→unite/mend
rend←→repair

renounce       vi. 垫牌,放弃权利
to give up, refuse, or resign usually by formal declaration
claim←→renounce

renovate       vt. 更新,革新,恢复,修复,刷新
to restore to a former better state (as by cleaning, repairing, or rebuilding)
renovate←→cause to decay

repartee       n. 机灵的回答
a succession or interchange of clever retorts:amusing and usually light sparring with words
repartee:retort=debate:issue {advisement:product}

repatriate     v. (自异国)遣返
to restore or return to the country of origin, allegiance, or citizenship
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification

repeal        v. 废除(法律)
to rescind or annul by authoritative act;  especially :to revoke or abrogate by legislative enactment
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification

repel   vt. 逐退,抵制,使厌恶,抗据
a:to drive back:REPULSE
b:to drive away:DISCOURAGE
court←→repel intentionally
entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore

repellent      adj. 令人厌恶的
serving or tending to drive away or ward off
repellent:attract=ephemeral:endure

repertoire     n. 全部剧目,保留剧目,全部技能
the complete list or supply of dramas, operas, or musical works available for performance
palette:color=repertoire:play
repertoire:performance=manifest:cargo=agenda:meeting

replete        adj. 饱满的,塞满的
fully or abundantly provided or filled
repletion←→want

repose        n. 休息,睡眠,静止
to take a rest
guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose

reprehensible a. 应斥责的,应该谴责的
worthy of or deserving reprehension:CULPABLE
lamentable:pity=reprehensible:censure
remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure
censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible

repressed     adj. 被压抑的,被抑制的
characterized by restraint
unrepressed←→restrained

reprieve       n. 缓刑,缓刑令,暂缓
to delay the punishment of (as a condemned prisoner)
reprieve:punishment=moratorium:activity

reprimand      n./v. 训诫,谴责
to reprove sharply or censure formally usually from a position of authority

reprisal       n.(政治或军事的)报复
a:the act or practice in international law of resorting to force short of war in retaliation for damage or loss suffered
b:an instance of such action

reproach       n. 责备,耻辱
an expression of rebuke or disapproval
nefarious←→above reproach/virtuous
scurvy←→above reproach
opprobrious←→irreproachable

reprobate      v. 谴责,指责 n./adj. 堕落的(人)
to condemn strongly as unworthy, unacceptable, or evil
reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn
reprobate←→righteous individual

reproof        n. 斥责,责备
criticism for a fault:REBUKE
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial/glorification:merit

reprove        v. 责骂,申斥
to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent
pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove
reprove:reprimand=blame:censure

repudiate      vt. 离婚,抛弃,拒绝履行,拒付
a:to refuse to accept;  especially :to reject as unauthorized or as having no binding force
b:to reject as untrue or unjust

repugnant      adj. 令人厌恶的
exciting distaste or aversion
odious:repugnance=menacing:fear
cogent:convince=repugnant:repel

repulse        v./n. 驱逐,击退,厌恶
to drive or beat back:REPEL
captivate←→repulse
court←→repulse intentionally
entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore

rescind        v.废除,取消  (n. rescission)
to make void (as an act) by action of the enacting authority or a superior authority:REPEAL
rescind←→institute
rescission←→enactment

resentment     n. 怨恨,愤恨
a feeling of indignant displeasure or persistent ill will at something regarded as a wrong, insult, or injury

reserved       adj. 说话不多的,隐讳的,缄默的,冷淡的,性格孤独的
restrained in words and actions
expansive←→reserved/diffident

resign        v.辞(职);放弃
to give up one's office or position:QUIT
abdicate:throne=resign:office

resin   n.树脂,松脂
any of various solid or semisolid amorphous fusible flammable natural organic substances that are usually transparent or translucent and yellowish to brown, are formed especially in plant secretions, are soluble in organic solvents (as ether) but not in water, are electrical nonconductors, and are used chiefly in varnishes, printing inks, plastics, and sizes and in medicine
resin:tree=gum:rubber plant

resolute       坚决的,刚毅的,毅然的
marked by firm determination:RESOLVED
malleable:shape=irresolute:opinion
daunt←→make resolute
jittery←→resolute

resonant      adj. (声音)洪亮的,共鸣的
full-bodied:flavor=resonant:sound

resourceful    a. 策略的,机智的,资源丰富的
able to meet situations:capable of devising ways and means
resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality

respite        n. 休息,中止,暂缓
a period of temporary delay;  especially :REPRIEVE
fast:eat=respite:labor
plateau:change=respite:activity

resplendent    adj.华丽的,辉煌的
shining brilliantly:characterized by a glowing splendor
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence
bravura:performance=resplendent:appearance
resplendent←→dull

responsive     a. 回答的,应答的,易感应的
quick to respond or react appropriately or sympathetically:SENSITIVE
dispassionate←→responsive

restive        adj. 不安静的,不安宁的倔强, 难以驾御
marked by impatience:FIDGETY
incogitant:thoughtful=restive:calm
restive:calmness=piddling:considerable
restive:calmness=keen:obtuse   restive←→calm/imperturbable
restiveness←→contentment

restore        vt. 回复,恢复,修复,修补
to put or bring back into existence or use
dilapidated←→restored

restrain       vt.抑制,制止,遏制
to limit, restrict, or keep under control
temperate:restrain=tenacious:persist
bridled←→without restraint
fervid←→restrained
unrepressed←→restrained

resurgence     n. 再起,复活,再现
a rising again into life, activity, or prominence:RENASCENCE

resuscitate     v.使复活,使苏醒
to revive from apparent death or from unconsciousness;  also:REVITALIZE
extinct←→resuscitated
resuscitation←→enervation

retainer       n. 家臣,扈从,保持者
a person attached or owing service to a household;  especially :SERVANT
retainer:retinue=witch:coven

retaliate       v. 报复,反击
to repay (as an injury) in kind
remuneration:service=retaliation:injury

retard         vt. 妨碍,延迟,迟缓
to slow up especially by preventing or hindering advance or accomplishment:IMPEDE    
divert:shunt=retard:brake
catalyze←→retard
expedite←→retard
precipitate←→retard/dilatory

reticent       adj.沉默不语的
restrained in expression, presentation, or appearance
reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge
reticent:voluble=??
reticent←→loquacious
vociferous←→reticent/monotone
voluble←→taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent

retinue        n. 侍从,随员
a group of retainers or attendants
retainer:retinue=witch:coven

retort         vi. 反驳,回嘴,反击
to pay or hurl back:RETURN
repartee:retort=debate:issue {advisement:product}
retort:response=??

retouch       vt. vi. 润饰,修正
to alter (as a photographic negative) to produce a more desirable appearance
revise:manuscript=retouch:picture

retract        vt. vi. 缩回,收回,取消,撤消
TAKE BACK, WITHDRAW
misunderstood:clarify=erroneous:retract
foster←→retract

retreat        n. 休息寓所,撤退,避难所,退避,隐居
the usually forced withdrawal of troops from an enemy or from an advanced position    
incursion←→retreat

retrench       v. 节省,削减
a:CUT DOWN, REDUCE
b:to cut out:EXCISE
retrench←→enlarge

retrospective   adj. 追想的,回顾的
affecting things past:RETROACTIVE
retrospective←→anticipatory

revenge        n. 报仇,复仇,报复
to inflict injury in return for
mercenary:money=vindictive:revenge

revere         v.尊崇,尊敬
to show devoted deferential honor to:regard as worthy of great honor
reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm
reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe
venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn
elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence
revere←→jape at

revise         vt. 校订,修正,校正
to make a new, amended, improved, or up-to-date version of
revise:manuscript=retouch:picture

revive         vi. 苏醒,复活,复兴,恢复精神
to return to consciousness or life:become active or flourishing again
wither←→revive
lull←→revive

revue         n. 时事讽刺剧
a theatrical production consisting typically of brief loosely connected often satirical skits, songs, and dances

rewarding     a. 有益的,有所得的,有报酬的
yielding or likely to yield a reward:VALUABLE, SATISFYING
drudgery←→rewarding work
relinquish←→cooperate/reward/procure

ribald         a. 说话猥亵的,下流的,卑贱的
CRUDE, OFFENSIVE
ribald←→seemly

rickety        a. 患佝偻病的,驼背的,摇摆的
lacking stability or firmness:SHAKY
cloth:ragged=furniture:rickety

rider         n. 骑士,附件,扶手
a clause appended to a legislative bill to secure a usually distinct object    rider:bill=endorsement:policy

ridicule       n .v. 嘲笑,愚弄,笑柄
the act of exposing to laughter:DERISION, MOCKERY
satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow
ridicule:derision=??
sublime←→base/ridiculous

rife           a. 流行的,盛传的,非常多的
copiously supplied:ABOUNDING
sparse←→rife

rift          n.裂缝,隙缝
BREACH, ESTRANGEMENT
rift←→reconciliation

rigid         adj.硬性的
a:inflexibly set in opinion
b:strictly observed
circular:asymmetrical:protean:rigid
pliable←→rigid

rigorous      a. 严厉的,严酷的,严格的,精确的
a:marked by extremes of temperature or climate
b:HARSH, SEVERE

rile          vt. 搅浑浊,惹怒,使焦急
to make agitated and angry:UPSET
appease←→rile

risible       adj.可笑的,引人发笑的
arousing or provoking laughter; especially:LAUGHABLE

rite          n.宗教仪式
a prescribed form or manner governing the words or actions for a ceremony
rite←→improvised act

rival        n. 对手,竞争者
one of two or more striving to reach or obtain something that only one can possess

rive         vt. 撕开,使沮丧
to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces:REND
rive←→unite

rodent       n.啮齿类动物(如鼠等)
any of an order (Rodentia) of relatively small gnawing mammals (as a mouse, a squirrel, or a beaver) that have in both jaws a single pair of incisors with a chisel-shaped edge
kangaroo:marsupial=squirrel:rodent

roil         v.搅浑,激怒
a:to make turbid by stirring up the sediment or dregs of
b:to stir up:DISTURB, DISORDER
roil←→clarify/appease/settle

roisterer      n. 作威作福者, 闹饮者
to engage in noisy revelry:CAROUSE
roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw

riot          vi. 参加暴动,纵情,放荡
to indulge in revelry or wantonness
sedate←→riot

roster        n.值勤表,花名册
a roll or list of personnel
roster:personnel=slate:candidate

rosy         a. 美好的;乐观的;玫瑰色的
characterized by or tending to promote optimism

rouse       vt. 激起,使振奋,唤起,唤醒
a:to stir up:EXCITE
b:to arouse from or as if from sleep or repose:AWAKEN
mollify←→rouse
quell←→foment/instigate/rouse

rubicund     a. 红润的,透红的
having a healthy reddish color
rubicund←→pale

rudder       n. 舵,方向舵,指导原则
a flat piece or structure of wood or metal attached upright to the stern of a boat or ship so that it can be turned causing the vessel's head to turn in the same direction

rue          n.后悔,遗憾.
to feel penitence, remorse, or regret for
longing:pine=remorse:rue
rue:satisfaction  rueful←→impenitent

ruffian       n. 恶棍,歹徒. adj. 残暴的
a brutal person:BULLY

ruffle        n. 皱褶,波纹,生气,轻擂
a strip of fabric gathered or pleated on one edge
hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet
preen←→ruffle

ruminate     vt. vi. 反刍,沉思
to go over in the mind repeatedly and often casually or slowly
ruminate:decide

rumple       n. 皱纹,皱褶
FOLD, WRINKLE
rumple:shirt

run          n. 一个完整的表演或放映程序
an unbroken course of performances or showings
journal:entries=run:performance

rupture      n. 破裂,断裂,敌对,决裂,裂开
breach of peace or concord;  specifically :open hostility or war between nations

rustic        a. 乡村的,纯朴的,手工粗糙的
of, relating to, or suitable for the country:RURAL
rustic←→polished
urbane←→rude/rustic

rustling      n. ((美口语))偷牛[马]
to steal cattle
plagiarism:ideas=rustling:cattle

rostrum      n. 讲坛,演讲坛
a stage for public speaking
rostrum:orator=bench:judge

sabbatical     a. 安息日的,周期性休息的
of or relating to the break or change from a normal routine
sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation

sabotage      vt. 妨害,破坏
destructive or obstructive action carried on by a civilian or enemy agent to hinder a nation's war effort
saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend

saccharine     adj. <态度> 娇媚的;  <说话声> 娇滴滴的
overly or sickishly sweet

sacrifice       n. 牺牲,供俸,祭品
an act of offering to a deity something precious;  especially :the killing of a victim on an altar
worship:sacrifice=prediction:augury

sacrilege       n. 亵渎圣物,冒渎,悖理逆天的行为
a technical and not necessarily intrinsically outrageous violation (as improper reception of a sacrament) of what is sacred because consecrated to God

safeguard      n.保护措施;护照
a technical contrivance to prevent accident
hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident
safeguard:accident=hedge:loss

sagacious      adj.聪明的,睿智的
of keen and farsighted penetration and judgment:DISCERNING
prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton
turncoat:constancy=simpleton:sagacity  folly←→sagacious
puerile←→sagacious
sagacious←→without wisdom
sagacity←→folly

salient        adj.显著的,突出的
standing out conspicuously:PROMINENT;  especially :of notable significance
salient:ignore=incomprehensible:understand
subtle:ignore=salient:observe
salient←→unconspicuous

salmon       n. 大麻哈鱼,鲜肉色
a large anadromous salmonid fish (Salmo salar) of the No. Atlantic noted as a game and food fish
salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist

salubrious    adj . 有益健康的
favorable to or promoting health or well-being
virulent←→salubrious
deleterious←→salutary/salubrious
insalubrious←→wholesome

salutary      adj 的益的,有益健康的
producing a beneficial effect:REMEDIAL
deleterious←→salutary/salubrious

salvage       n./v. (从灾难中)抢救,海上救助
to rescue or save especially from wreckage or ruin

salve         n. 药膏,v. 减轻,缓和
an unctuous adhesive substance for application to wounds or sores
placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous

sanctify      vt. 使神圣,奉献给神,使成为神圣之物
to set apart to a sacred purpose or to religious use:CONSECRATE
desecrate←→sanctify/revere

sanctimonious  a. 假装神圣的,假装虔诚的,假装诚实的
affecting piousness:hypocritically devout;  also :indicative of affected piousness

sand         v. 磨光
to smooth or dress by grinding or rubbing with an abrasive (as sandpaper)          varnish:glossy=sand:smooth

sanguine      adj. 充满希望的,乐观的, 血红色的
CONFIDENT, OPTIMISTIC
sanguine←→despondent
sanguine←→morose

sanitation     n. (公共)卫生
the promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease by maintenance of sanitary conditions
censorship:information=sanitation:disease
noxious←→wholesome/sanitary/innocuous

sapient       a. 装聪明样的,聪明的,伶俐的,有见识的
possessing or expressing great sagacity
sapient←→foolish

sarcastic      a. 讽刺的,讥讽的,辛辣的
given to the use of sarcasm:CAUSTIC

sartorial      a. 裁缝匠的,缝工的,裁缝的
of or relating to a tailor or tailored clothes;  broadly:of or relating to clothes
tonsorial:hair=sartorial:apparel

satiated       adj. 1 充分满足的  2 [对…]厌倦的,生腻的[with]
to satisfy (as a need or desire) fully or to excess
satiated:food=saturated:moisture

satire         n.讽剌(作品)
a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn
panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize
satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow

saturated      a. 饱和的,渗透的,深颜色的
full of moisture:made thoroughly wet
satiated:food=saturated:moisture
small:minuscule=moist:saturated

saturnine      adj. 忧郁的,沉默寡言的,阴沉的,感染铅毒的
of a gloomy or surly disposition
saturnine←→jovial

saunter        n./v. 闲逛,漫步
to walk about in an idle or leisurely manner:STROLL
prate:speak=saunter:walk

savanna        n. 大草原
a tropical or subtropical grassland containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth
savanna←→slope

savory         a. 风味极佳的,可口的,味香的
pleasing to the sense of taste especially by reason of effective seasoning

savvy          n./v. 理解能力,机智,悟性
practical know-how
savvy←→simplicity

scale          n. 天平,秤盘,秤
an instrument or machine for weighing
gauge:pressure=scale:weight
scale:weight=yardstick:length=gauge:pressure

scalpel         n.外科手术刀,解剖刀
a small straight thin-bladed knife used especially in surgery
scalpel:surgeon=telescope:astronomer

scan           vt. 细看,浏览,分析韵律,详细调查,扫描
to read or mark so as to show metrical structure
scan:metrical=parse:grammatical

scanty         a. 缺乏的,仅有的,节省的,狭小的,不够的
limited or less than sufficient in degree, quantity, or extent
scant:considerable=
voluminous←→scanty/scarce
profuse←→scanty

scarp          n.悬崖,陡坡
a line of cliffs produced by faulting or erosion

scathing        a. 伤害的,损伤的,足致伤害的
bitterly severe
scathing←→politely  {cooperative}

schematic       a. 概要的,图解的
of or relating to a scheme or schema

scintillating     adj.才气横溢的,闪闪发光的; 闪烁的
brilliantly lively, stimulating, or witty

scoff           v. ①嘲笑,②狼吞虎咽
to show contempt by derisive acts or language
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless

scooter         n. 滑行车,踏板车
child's foot-operated vehicle consisting of a narrow footboard mounted between two wheels tandem with an upright steering handle attached to the front wheel
oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter

score           n.乐谱
the copy of a musical composition in written or printed notation
director:script=conductor:score
score:instrument
script:drama=score:music

scorn          vt. 轻蔑,不屑做
to treat with scorn:reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy
deferential:offend=scornful:respect
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn  
adulate←→scorn

scour           vt. 擦亮,洗涤,冲洗,急速穿过,冲刷成,清洗
to rub hard especially with a rough material for cleansing
scour:wash

scowl           vi. 皱眉头,做出不高兴的脸
to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure
scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust}

scrappy         adj. 好斗的,生气勃勃的a. 杂凑的,不连贯的,爱打架的,斗志旺盛的
scrappy←→timorous

screw   n. 螺旋,螺杆,螺孔,吝啬鬼,螺旋桨,螺丝钉  vt. 调节,扭紧,旋,拧,加强,鼓舞,勒索,压榨
a nail-shaped or rod-shaped piece with a spiral groove and a slotted or recessed head designed to be inserted into material by rotating
gear:tooth=screw:thread

scribble        vt. vi. 潦草地书写,乱写,滥写
to write hastily or carelessly without regard to legibility or form
tinker:adjust=scribble:write

script          n. 手迹,手稿,副本
the written text of a stage play, screenplay, or broadcast;  specifically :the one     used in production or performance
director:script=conductor:score
script:drama=score:music

scrupulous     a. 小心谨慎的,细心的
having moral integrity:acting in strict regard for what is considered right or proper
probity←→unscrupulousness

scrutable      adj. 通过细看和细查可以理解的
capable of being deciphered:COMPREHENSIBLE
mysterious←→scrutable

scrutiny       n. 细看,仔细检查,监视,选票的复查
a searching study, inquiry, or inspection:EXAMINATION
scrutinize=gloss=delve:skim

scuff          n./v.  拖着脚走,磨损
to scratch, gouge, or wear away the surface of
scuff:abrasion=heat:vaporization

sculptor       n. 雕刻家
an artist who makes sculptures
canvas:painter=marble:sculptor

scurvy        a. 下流的,卑鄙的,无礼的
disgustingly mean or contemptible:DESPICABLE
scurvy←→above reproach

scythe        n. 长柄的大镰刀,战车镰
an implement used for mowing (as grass) and composed of a long curving blade fastened at an angle to a long handle
scythe:reaper=axe:woodcutter

secrete       vt. 隐秘,隐藏,隐匿,分泌
to form and give off (a secretion)
secrete←→absorb

sedate        a. 沉着的,镇静的,安静的 vt. 给...服镇静剂
to dose with sedatives
sedate←→riot

sedentary      adj. 久坐的,固定不动的
not migratory:SETTLED
migratory←→sedentary

seduce         vt. 怂恿,瞒骗,引诱,诱奸
to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty

sedulous       adj. 聚精会神的、勤勉的
involving or accomplished with careful perseverance

seemly        a. 适当的,恰当的,合适的,好看的
conventionally proper:DECOROUS
seemly←→uncouth
ribald←→seemly

seminal        adj. 有创意的,种子的,生殖的
containing or contributing the seeds of later development
seminal←→hampering further development

seminary       n. 学校,学院,发源地
an institution of secondary or higher education
conservatory:music={seminary:theology}=observatory:astronomy

sensation       n.感觉,知觉;轰动
a mental process (as seeing, hearing, or smelling) due to immediate bodily stimulation often as distinguished from awareness of the
analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation
numb:sensation=stiff:suppleness
numb:insensible:burnish:lustrous
pain:analgesic:sensation:anesthetic
sensation←→anesthesia

sensitive       a. 敏感的,易感的,灵敏的,感光的
highly responsive or susceptible
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend
insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp
sensitive←→numb

sentinel        n.哨兵,看守
SENTRY:GUARD, WATCH; especially:a soldier standing guard at a point of passage (as a gate)
sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating

sepulchral      adj. 坟墓的,阴深的
suited to or suggestive of a sepulchre:FUNEREAL, MORTUARY
sepulchral←→merry

sequester       vt. 使隐退,使隔绝,扣押,没收
to place (property) in custody especially in sequestration
sequester←→permit to mingle

sere           adj.干枯的,凋萎的
being dried and withered
sere←→lush/damp

serendipity     n. 善于发掘新奇事物的天赋
the faculty or phenomenon of finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for
serendipitous:effort=ineluctable:chance

serenity        n. 宁静,沉着,晴朗
the quality or state of being shining bright and steady
havoc←→serenity

sermon        n. 说教,训诫,布道
a religious discourse delivered in public usually by a clergyman as a part of a worship service
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil

serrate         a. 锯齿状的
notched or toothed on the edge;  specifically :having marginal teeth pointing forward or toward the apex
serrated←→without notches/smooth

serried         a. 密集的,林立的,重重叠叠罗列的
crowded or pressed together:COMPACT
serried←→widely separated

servile         adj.奴隶的;卑屈的
meanly or cravenly submissive:ABJECT
compliant:servile=trusting:gullible
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable
bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination}

severe         a. 严格的,凶猛的,严肃的,朴素的
rigorous in restraint, punishment, or requirement:STRINGENT, RESTRICTIVE
mitigate:severe=qualify:general
palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity

shackle        vt. 加桎梏,加枷锁,束缚
to deprive of freedom especially of action by means of restrictions or handicaps:IMPEDE
emancipate←→shackle
shackle←→loose

shadow        vt. 遮蔽,使朦胧,预示,尾随
to follow especially secretly:TRAIL
follow:shadow=leave:abscond
shadowy←→overt

shale          n. 页岩,泥板岩
a fissile rock that is formed by the consolidation of clay, mud, or silt, has a finely stratified or laminated structure, and is composed of minerals essentially unaltered since deposition
shale:lode=well:aquifer

shard         n.(陶瓷器、瓦等的) 破片,碎片
fragments of pottery vessels found on sites and in refuse deposits where pottery-making peoples have lived
shard:pottery=fragment:bone

shelter        vt. 庇护,保护,隐匿
to constitute or provide a shelter for:PROTECT
conspicuous:sheltered=??

shiftless       a. 无计谋的,偷懒的,不中用的,无能的
lacking in ambition or incentive:LAZY

shirk         v.逃避,规避
to evade the performance of an obligation
duty:shirk=question:parry
parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk

shod          v.  adj. ((文语))穿鞋的
furnished or equipped with a shoe

shopworn      a. 陈旧的
stale from excessive use or familiarity

shred          n. 碎片,碎条
a long narrow strip cut or torn off    shred:remnant

shrewd         a. 精明的,锐利的,厉害的,机灵的
marked by clever discerning awareness and hardheaded acumen

shrink         n. 收缩,萎缩,畏缩
to recoil instinctively

shrug          vt. vi. 耸肩
to raise or draw in the shoulders especially to express aloofness, indifference, or     uncertainty
embrace:affection=shrug:indifference

shunt          v. 使(火车)转到另一轨道,转移方向 
to switch (as a train) from one track to another
divert:shunt=retard:brake

shuttle         vt. vi.(使)穿梭移动,往返运送
to cause to move or travel back and forth frequently

sidereal        adj. 恒星的
of, relating to, or expressed in relation to stars or constellations:ASTRAL
arboreal:trees=sidereal:stars

signal          a. 作为信号的,显著的
distinguished from the ordinary
signal←→unremarkable

simpleton      n. 笨蛋,傻子
a person lacking in common sense
prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton
turncoat:constancy=simpleton:precedent

simplicity      n.简单,简易;朴素
freedom from pretense or guile:CANDOR

simulate       vt. 模拟,假装,模仿
to give or assume the appearance or effect of often with the intent to deceive:IMITATE
simulation←→authentic article

sin            n. 罪,犯罪,失礼,过失,犯法
an offense against religious or moral law
peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation

sincere         a. 诚实的,正直的,真挚的,纯净的
a:free of dissimulation:HONEST
b:free from adulteration:PURE
authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical
poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness
poseur←→sincere person

sinew          n. 肌肉,精力,腱,原动力,体力
solid resilient strength:POWER
tendinous:sinewy=
sinew←→weakness

singular        a. 异常的,单一的  
distinguished by superiority:EXCEPTIONAL
worldly←→singular

sinister        adj. 不吉祥的,险恶的
singularly evil or productive of evil

sinuous        a. 弯弯曲曲的,迂回的,乖僻的
a:of a serpentine or wavy form:WINDING
b:marked by strong lithe movements

sip            vi. 啜饮
to drink in small quantities
sip:drink=mince:walk
swill:sip=gobble:nibble
quaff:sip=stride:mince
quaff:sip=gobble:nibble
swill←→sip

siren          n.汽笛,警报器
a device often electrically operated for producing a penetrating warning sound

skeptic        n. 怀疑者,怀疑论者,无神论者
a person disposed to skepticism especially regarding religion or religious principles
votary←→skeptic

sketchy        a. 写生的,写生风格的,概略的
wanting in completeness, clearness, or substance:SLIGHT, SUPERFICIAL
fawn:imperiousness=elaborate:sketchy

skimpy        adj.吝啬的;太少的
deficient in supply or execution especially through skimping:SCANTY
parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk

skirt          vt. 位于...边缘,装边于,回避
to avoid especially because of difficulty or fear of controversy
skirt←→seek
skirt←→face

skit           n.滑稽短剧
a brief burlesque or comic sketch included in a dramatic performance (as a revue)    skit:revue=??
vignette:scene=skit:drama

skittish        adj. <马等>容易受惊的,容易惊恐的
a:lively or frisky in action:CAPRICIOUS
b:VARIABLE, FLUCTUATING

slake          vt. 消除,平息,熄灭
SATISFY, QUENCH
gratify:desire=slake:thirsty

slate          n. 石板,竞选提名
a list of candidates for nomination or election
roster:personnel=slate:candidate

slew          v.(使)旋转,n. 大量,许多
a large number
paucity←→slew

slight         a.细长的;轻微的
small of its kind or in amount:SCANTY, MEAGER
grievous←→slight
prodigious←→slight
slight←→ponderous

slight         n. 轻蔑,怠慢
to treat with disdain or indifference
celebration=lamentful=slight=show respect
cosset←→slight
slight←→show respect to

slink         v. 偷偷走动
to go or move stealthily or furtively (as in fear or shame):STEAL

slippery      a.滑的,使人滑跤的
causing or tending to cause something to slide or fall
dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere
splint:mobility=ballast:instability=purchase:slippery

slipshod      adj. 粗心的,邋遢的
a:wearing loose shoes or slippers
b:down at the heel:SHABBY

slogan       n. 呐喊声,标语,口号
a brief attention-getting phrase used in advertising or promotion

sloppy       adj.邋遢的,不整洁的
a:wet so as to spatter easily:SLUSHY
b:wet or smeared with or as if with something slopped over

sloth        n. 怠惰,懒惰
a:disinclination to action or labor:INDOLENCE
b:spiritual apathy and inactivity

slouch       n. 没精打采的样子,耷拉,笨人
to walk, stand, or sit with a gait or posture characterized by an ungainly stooping of the head and shoulders or excessive relaxation of body muscles:DROOP
slouch←→stand erect

sloven       adj. 不修边幅的,邋遢的,懒散的
untidy especially in personal appearance:slovenly
sloven←→tidy

slumber     n. 睡眠,沉睡状态
a:to be in a torpid, slothful, or negligent state
b:to lie dormant or latent

slur         n. 连音符,诽谤,耻辱,印刷模糊
a:an insulting or disparaging remark or innuendo:ASPERSION
b:a shaming or degrading effect:STAIN, STIGMA

sly          adj. 狡猾的,诡密的,淘气的,偷偷摸摸的
lacking in straightforwardness and candor:DISSEMBLING
sly←→artless

smart       vi. 刺痛
a smarting pain;  especially :a stinging local pain
smart:pain=grieve:sorrow

smart       a. 聪明的,漂亮的,敏捷的,潇洒的,伶俐的
a:NEAT, TRIM
b:stylish or elegant in dress or appearance
tatty←→smart

smattering   n. 一知半解,浅薄的知识; 少量[of]
superficial piecemeal knowledge
erudite←→smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered

smirk       v.假笑,得意地笑
to smile in an affected or smug manner:SIMPER
smirk:smugness=sneer:derision

smother     vt. 窒息,扼杀,抑制,忍住,覆盖,笼罩
to be overcome or killed through or as if through lack of air
smother:choke=??

smug       n. 装模做样, 矫矜
highly self-satisfied
smirk:smugness=sneer:derision
primp:vain=gloat:smug

smuggle     v. 走私,私运
to convey or introduce surreptitiously
collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey
smuggle←→transport openly

snag        n.意外的障碍
a tree or branch embedded in a lake or stream bed and constituting a hazard to navigation
snarl   n./v. 纠缠,混乱
to cause to become knotted and intertwined:TANGLE
disentangle←→snarl

sneer       n.冷笑,嘲笑 vt.轻蔑
to smile or laugh with facial contortions that express scorn or contempt
smirk:smugness=sneer:derision
wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt

snob       n. 势利的人,假内行
one who has an offensive air of superiority in matters of knowledge or taste    attentive:officious=refined:snobbish {absorbed:engrossed}

snub       v. 冷落,不理睬
to treat with contempt or neglect
dissemble:honesty=snub:politeness
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub
snub:disdain=double cross:disloyalty   court←→snub

soak       v. 浸泡,渗透
to lie immersed in liquid (as water):become saturated by or as if by immersion

sober      a. 清醒的,稳重的,节制的,严肃的,朴素的,合理的,不夸大的
marked by sedate or gravely or earnestly thoughtful character or demeanor
puckish←→sober
sumptuous←→sobriety

sodden     a. 浑身湿透的,不成样子的,浸过酒的
heavy with or as if with moisture or water
marsh:sodden=desert:arid

soggy      a. 浸水的,沉闷的
saturated or heavy with water or moisture:as

solace      n. 安慰. 慰藉
alleviation of grief or anxiety
solace:grief=pacification:anger

solder      v. 焊接,焊合 to unite or make whole by solder
breach←→solder
solder←→breach

solemn     n. 严肃,一本正经
marked by grave sedateness and earnest sobriety
jest←→solemnity

solicitous   adj. 热切的,挂念的
full of concern or fears:APPREHENSIVE
solicitous←→unconcerned

solvent     a. 有偿付能力的,有溶解力的   n. 溶剂
1:able to pay all legal debts
2:that dissolves or can dissolve
coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve
profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed
regimen:health=budget:solvency

somber        a. 昏暗的,阴天的,阴森的,忧郁的
a:of a serious mien:GRAVE
b:of a dismal or depressing character:MELANCHOLY
c:conveying gloomy suggestions or ideas
cherubic←→somber

somnolence    n. 想睡; 瞌睡; 嗜睡
the quality or state of being drowsy:SLEEPINESS

sonata  n. 奏鸣曲
an instrumental musical composition typically of three or four movements in contrasting forms and keys
dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata

sonnet  n. 十四行诗
a fixed verse form of Italian origin consisting of fourteen lines that are typically five-foot iambics rhyming according to a prescribed scheme;  also :a poem in this pattern
sonnet:poet=symphony:composer
sonnet:verse monger=

soothe        vt. 缓和,使安静,安慰,奉承
to please by or as if by attention or concern:PLACATE,RELIEVE, ALLEVIATE
vex←→pacify/appease/soothe

sop        n.有安慰作用的东西, 面包片,湿透的东西,懦夫
a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture
sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive

sophism        n.诡辩
an argument apparently correct in form but actually invalid;  especially :such an argument used to deceive
sophism:reasoning=counterfeit:money

sophistication    n. 诡辩,强词夺理,久经世故,精明
the process or result of becoming cultured, knowledgeable, or disillusioned;  especially :CULTIVATION, URBANITY
ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness
callow←→behaving with adult sophistication  
politic←→unsophisticated

sophomoric     adj.大学二年级学生的, 一知半解的,傲慢的
conceited and overconfident of knowledge but poorly informed and immature

soporific      adj. 催眠的,n. 安眠药
a:causing or tending to cause sleep
b:tending to dull awareness or alertness
soporific:sleep=vaccinating:immunity
soporific←→stimulant
soporific←→provocative

sordid        a. 肮脏的,不干净的,卑鄙的,暗淡的
marked by baseness or grossness:VILE

sound   adj. 稳固的, 健全的,可靠的,合理的,有效的,彻底的
(1)SOLID, FIRM;  also :STABLE
(2)free from error, fallacy, or misapprehension
ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity
tenable←→unjustified/unsound

sparse        a. 稀疏的,稀稀落落的,薄的
of few and scattered elements;  especially :not thickly grown or settled
copious←→sparse
sparse←→rife

spartan        adj. 简朴的,刻苦的
marked by simplicity, frugality, or avoidance of luxury and comfort
spartan←→sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious
voluptuous←→spartan
spartan←→sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious

spate   n. 泛滥,洪水,一阵,大量
a large number or amount
spate←→dearth

specialist    n. 专门医师,专家
one who specializes in a particular occupation, practice, or branch of learning
dabbler←→specialist

specificity   n. 特性; 特征
the condition of being peculiar to a particular individual or group of organisms

specious       adj.似是而非的,华而不实的
having a false look of truth or genuineness:SOPHISTIC
specious←→valid

speck   n. 小点,斑点,少量
a very small amount:BIT
mite:creature=speck:amount

spectator      n. 观众,目击者,旁观者
one who looks on or watches
epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching

speculate      vi. 深思,推测,投机
to meditate on or ponder a subject:REFLECT
conjecture←→restrain from the speculation

spendthrift   n. 浪费的人
a person who spends improvidently or wastefully
craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift
miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal
spendthrift←→miser

spent   a.用尽的,精疲力竭的
drained of energy or effectiveness:EXHAUSTED
precarious:stability=spent:efficacy

spindly        adj.细长的,纤弱的
of a disproportionately tall or long and thin appearance that often suggests physical weakness
limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty

spiny   a. 多针的,尽是尖刺的,棘手的,麻烦的,尖刺状的
abounding with difficulties, obstacles, or annoyances:THORNY

spire   n. 尖塔,尖顶,旋涡,螺旋
a tapering roof or analogous pyramidal construction surmounting a tower
spire:church=minaret:mosque

spleen        n.脾;脾气,怒气
feelings of anger or ill will often suppressed
spleen←→good will

splint  n. (  固定断骨的)夹板,托板
material or a device used to protect and immobilize a body part (as a broken arm)
splint:mobility=ballast:instability=purchase:slippery
splint:immobilize=duct:convey

spoil   vt. 损坏,破坏,溺爱
to pamper excessively:CODDLE
cosseted←→unspoiled

spoke   n.(车轮上)幅条,阻碍物
any of the small radiating bars inserted in the hub of a wheel to support the rim
spoke:hub=radius:center

spontaneous   a.自发的;本能的
arising from a momentary impulse
spontaneous←→premeditate

spoof   n. 诳骗,愚弄,戏弄
a light humorous parody  spoof:parody

sporadic       a. 偶尔发生的,零星发生的,分散的
occurring occasionally, singly, or in scattered instances
chronic←→sporadic

sprain        n. 扭伤,扭筋
a sudden or violent twist or wrench of a joint with stretching or tearing of ligaments    sprain:injure=cold:contagion

sprightly      adj. 愉快的,活泼的
marked by a gay lightness and vivacity:SPIRITED
dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly

spur     vt. 刺激,激励,用马刺刺
to incite to action or accelerated growth or development:STIMULATE
deter←→spur

spurious       adj. 假的,伪造的
outwardly similar or corresponding to something without having its genuine qualities:FALSE
spurious←→genuine

spurn   v. 拒绝,摈弃
to reject with disdain or contempt:SCORN
spurn←→welcome willingly
spurn←→court, crave, embrace

squabble       n. 争吵,口角
a noisy altercation or quarrel usually over trifles
squabble:dispute=foible:failing
tiff:squabble=foible:failing

squalid        adj. 污秽的,肮脏的
marked by filthiness and degradation from neglect or poverty
squalid←→pristine
splendor←→squalor

squall        n.小骚乱 狂风,暴风雪,哇哇叫声
a short-lived commotion
squall:commotion=flash:illumination

squander       vt. 浪费,使分散
to spend extravagantly or foolishly:DISSIPATE
husband←→squander
conserve←→waste/squander/exhaust

squelch        n./v. 压制,镇压
to completely suppress:QUELL
squelch←→foment

stagnant       a. 不流动的,停滞的,不景气的
not advancing or developing
stagnant←→flowing

staid   adj. 稳重的,沉着的
marked by settled sedateness and often prim self-restraint:SOBER, GRAVE    
staid←→jaunty

stalemate      n. 和棋局面,僵局
a drawn contest:DEADLOCK
clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations

stalwart       adj.健壮的,坚定的
marked by outstanding strength and vigor of body, mind, or spirit
lank←→stalwart

stammer        v.口吃,结巴
to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking:HALT
falter:act=stammer:speak

stanza  n.(诗)节,段
a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines arranged together in a usually recurring pattern of meter and rhyme:STROPHE
ballad:stanza=novel:chapter
stanza:line=volume:issue
stanza:poem=movement:orchestra

stark   a.(外表)僵硬的,刻板的,完全的
a:rigid in or as if in death
b:rigidly conforming (as to a pattern or doctrine):ABSOLUTE

startle        vt.使大吃一惊 n.吃惊
to frighten or surprise suddenly and usually not seriously
startle←→lull

static        a. 静态的,静电的
characterized by a lack of movement, animation, or progression
static:move=pliable:inflexible
motility←→stasis

steadfast      a. 坚定的,踏实的,固定的,不变的
a:firmly fixed in place:IMMOVABLE
b:not subject to change
capricious←→steadfast

stealth        n. 秘密行动,秘密,鬼祟
the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly
caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied

steep   vt.vi. 浸,泡
to saturate with or subject thoroughly to
steep←→parch

stench        n.臭气,恶臭
to emit a strong offensive odor :STINK
stench:nose=din:ear

stentorian     adj.(指声音)极响亮的
extremely loud
audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious
stentorian←→faint

sterile        a. 不毛的,不孕的,无菌的,枯燥的,无效的,贫瘠的
free from living organisms and especially microorganisms
verdant←→sterile

stickler       n.坚持细节之人
one who insists on exactness or completeness in the observance of something    
stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration
stickler:exacting=martinet:discipline
stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate

stiff   a.硬的;僵直的
a:not easily bent:RIGID
b:lacking in suppleness or responsiveness   numb:sensation=stiff:suppleness

stifle        vt.使不能呼吸,窒息,抑制
DETER, DISCOURAGE
foment←→stifle

stigma        n. 耻辱,污名,烙印
a mark of shame or discredit:STAIN
stigma←→mark of esteem

stilted       adj.  夸张的,夸大的, 踩高跷的
a:POMPOUS, LOFTY
b:FORMAL, STIFF

stint   v. 吝惜,节省
to be sparing or frugal
lavish←→stint

stingy        a. 小气的,吝啬的,缺乏的,有刺的
not generous or liberal:sparing or scant in giving or spending
generosity←→stinginess

stipple       v.点画,点描.
to engrave by means of dots and flicks
stipple:dot=striate:band

stock   n.血统,原料 adj.  存货的,常备的,平凡的
a store or supply accumulated;  especially :the inventory of goods of a merchant or manufacturer
census:population=inventory:stock
stock←→unique

stockade       n. 栅栏,围栏
a:an enclosure or pen made with posts and stakes
b:an enclosure in which prisoners are kept
stockade:enclosure=pillar:support

stodgy        a. 不易消化的,塞满的,笨重的
BORING, DULL
stodgy←→exciting

stoic   adj. 禁欲的,冷静的
not affected by or showing passion or feeling;  especially :firmly restraining response to pain or distress
stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy
stoic:flinch

stolid        adj. 无动于衷的,感情麻木的
having or expressing little or no sensibility:UNEMOTIONAL

stouthearted  a. 刚毅的,大胆的
having a stout heart or spirit:
a:COURAGEOUS
b:STUBBORN
pusillanimous←→stouthearted

straggle       vi. 迷路,落伍,蔓延
to wander from the direct course or way:ROVE, STRAY

strait        n. 海峡,困难
a comparatively narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water
isthmus:land=strait:water

stratify       v. (使)层化
a:to divide or arrange into classes, castes, or social strata
b:to divide into a series of graded statuses
stratify←→homogenize

stray   a. 迷途的,偶然的
having strayed or escaped from a proper or intended place
digressive:topic/subject=stray:group
stray:group=digress:subject

strength       n. 力量,强度,抵抗力,浓度
degree of potency of effect or of concentration
slacken:tautness=dilute:strength

striate        vt. 加条纹
to mark with striations or striate
grooved:striated=braided:stranded
stipple:dot=striate:band
striated:groove=dappled:spot

stricture      n. 狭窄,苛评,束缚
a:an abnormal narrowing of a bodily passage;  also :the narrowed part
b:a constriction of the breath passage in the production of a speech sound

stride        vi.vt. 迈大步走,跨过,跨
to move with or as if with long steps
quaff:sip=stride:mince

strident       a. 刺耳的,吱吱尖叫的,尖锐的
characterized by harsh, insistent, and discordant sound
stridency:sound=acridity:odor

strike        vi. 打,打击,抓,罢工,搏动
to aim and usually deliver a blow, stroke, or thrust (as with the hand, a weapon, or a tool)
strike:medal=mint:coin

stringent       a. 迫切的,严厉的,银根紧的
TIGHT, CONSTRICTED
stringent←→lax

strip   vt.剥;夺去 n.条带
to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from
bedeck←→strip

strut   v. 昂首阔步地走
a:to walk with a proud gait  '
b:to walk with a pompous and affected air
pontificate:speak=strut:walk
strut:walk=pontificate:speak

strut   n. 支柱,抗压材
a structural piece designed to resist pressure in the direction of its length
strut:wing=buttress:wall

stubborn       a. 顽固的,不听话的,执拗的,棘手的
(1):unreasonably or perversely unyielding:MULISH
(2):justifiably unyielding:RESOLUTE

studio        n. 工作室,画室,演播室
the working place of a painter, sculptor, or photographer
studio:artist=laboratory:scientist

stultify       vt.使显得愚蠢;使无效,使无价值
to cause to appear or be stupid, foolish, or absurdly illogical
stultify←→stir/excite
stultifying←→exciting/stirring

stun     vt. 使晕倒,使惊吓,打晕
to make senseless, groggy, or dizzy by or as if by a blow:DAZE

stunt   v.阻碍   n. 特技,绝技,花招,噱头,矮小物,发育迟缓,手腕
to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of

sturdy        a. 强健的,健全的
marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor

stylus        n. 铁笔,尖笔,唱针
an instrument for writing, marking, or incising
stylus:mark=lamp:illumination

stymie        v. 阻碍
to present an obstacle to:stand in the way of
stymie←→abet

subdue        vt. 使服从,压制,克制,抑制
to conquer and bring into subjection:VANQUISH  impervious:
damaged=indomitable:subdued
subdue←→inflame
subdued←→unruly
flamboyant←→subdued
burgeon←→subdue

subject        n. 受隶属、受支配的人
one that is placed under authority or control
potentate←→subject

subjugate      vt. 征服,使服从,抑制,克制
to bring under control and governance as a subject:CONQUER
subjugation←→liberation

sublime        a. 壮观的,卓越的
lofty, grand, or exalted in thought, expression, or manner
sublime←→base/ridiculous

submerge       vt.浸没 vi.潜入水中
to put under water
bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble

submissive     a. 服从的,顺从的,柔顺的
submitting to others

subordinate   a. 下级的,次要的,附属的
placed in or occupying a lower class, rank, or position:INFERIOR
principal←→subordinate
tractable←→insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate

subpoena       n. (法律)传票,v. 传讯
a writ commanding a person designated in it to appear in court under a penalty for failure
lien:claim=subpoena:command

subside        v. (建筑物等)下陷,(天气等)平息,平静
to tend downward:DESCEND;  especially :to flatten out so as to form a depression    
subside←→promote

subsidiary     n. 子公司,附加物,辅助者
furnishing aid or support:AUXILIARY

subsidy        n. 补助金,津贴
a grant by a government to a private person or company to assist an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public
sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive

substantial   a. 实质上的,物质的,有内容的
a:consisting of or relating to substance
b:not imaginary or illusory:REAL, TRUE
c:IMPORTANT, ESSENTIAL
diaphanous←→substantial
substantive←→trivial
vaporous ←→substantial

substantiate  vt. 证实;证明...有根据
to establish by proof or competent evidence:VERIFY
substantiate←→disapprove
unsubstantiated←→verified

substantiate  vt. 使实体化,证实
to establish by proof or competent evidence
controvert←→substantiate

subterfuge    n. 遁辞,借口,托辞
deception by artifice or stratagem in order to conceal, escape, or evade
subterfuge:deceive=decant:pour

subtle        a.微妙的;精巧的
difficult to understand or perceive:OBSCURE
subtle:ignore=salient:observe
subtle:overlook=tractable:lead
palpable←→subtle
blatant←→subtle

succinct       adj.简明的;简洁的
marked by compact precise expression without wasted words
loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly
babble←→express succinctly
prolixity←→succinctness
verbosity←→succinctness
voluble←→taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent

succor        vt. 救援,援助
to go to the aid of:RELIEVE
succor:relief=caution:warning
succor←→aggravate

suffuse        v.(色彩等)弥漫,染遍
to spread over or through in the manner of fluid or light:FLUSH, FILL
tint:suffuse:damp:quench

suite   n. 随员,套房,一组
RETINUE;  especially :the personal staff accompanying a ruler, diplomat, or dignitary on official business

summary        n. 摘要,概要
an abstract, abridgment, or compendium especially of a preceding discourse
compendium:summary=anthology:collection

summit        n. 顶点,最高阶层
TOP, APEX;  especially :the highest point:PEAK
crest:wave=summit/peak:mountain
roof:room=summit:mountain
nadir←→summit

summon        vt.召唤;鼓起(勇气)
to command by service of a summons to appear in court
command:request=summon:invite
summons:citation  
summon←→dismiss

sumptuous      adj. 豪华的,奢侈的,华丽的
extremely costly, rich, luxurious, or magnificent
sumptuous←→sobriety

sunder        v. 分裂,分离 (asunder)
to break apart or in two:separate by or as if by violence or by intervening time or space
collapse:implode=divide:sunder
sunder←→connect
sunder←→link
sunder←→combine/yoke/bond

supercilious  adj.目中无人的,高傲的
coolly and patronizingly haughty
supercilious←→obsequious
supercilious←→humble

superficial   a.表面的;肤浅的  
of or relating to a surface
superficial←→central

superfluous   a. 多余的,过剩的
exceeding what is sufficient or necessary:EXTRA
pertinent:relevance=redundant:superfluity
integral←→superfluous

supple        n. 易弯曲,柔软,顺从
easy and fluent without stiffness or awkwardness
numb:sensation=stiff:suppleness

supplement     n. 补充物,增刊,补充
something that completes or makes an addition

supplicate     v. 恳求,乞求
to make a humble entreaty;  especially :to pray to God
protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat
supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious
supplicate←→demand

suppress       vt.防止,阻止;抑制
to put down by authority or force:SUBDUE
surfeit        n. (食物)过量,过度
an overabundant supply:EXCESS
surfeit←→deficiency
deprivation←→surfeit

surgeon        n. 外科医生,军医,船上的医生
a medical specialist who practices surgery
scalpel:surgeon=telescope:astronomer

surrender      n./v. 交出,放弃,投降
to yield to the power, control, or possession of another upon compulsion or demand
inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated

surrender      n./v. 交出,放弃,投降
to give (oneself) over to something (as an influence)
appropriate←→surrender

surreptitious adj. 鬼鬼祟祟的,保密的
done, made, or acquired by stealth:CLANDESTINE
surreptitious←→barefaced/aboveboard

surrogate      n. 代理,代理人,代用品
to put in the place of another:
a:to appoint as successor, deputy, or substitute for oneself
b:SUBSTITUTE

suspend        vi. 暂停,中止,悬浮,宣布破产
to cause to stop temporarily
suspend←→erect
invoke←→ suspend

suspicion      n. 怀疑,觉察,嫌疑
a state of mental uneasiness and uncertainty:DOUBT
enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia

suture        n. 缝合,缝合处,缝合用的线
the act or process of sewing with sutures to unite, close, or secure with sutures
suture←→incision

svelte        adj. (女人)体态苗条的
SLENDER, LITHE
svelte←→plump
svelte←→paunchy and awkward

swagger        v. 大摇大摆地走
to conduct oneself in an arrogant or superciliously pompous manner;  especially :to walk with an air of overbearing
blustering:speak=swaggering:walk
fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger
imperious:fawn:swagger:self depreciate
pontificate:speak=swagger:walk
imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger

swamp   n. 沼泽,湿地
a wetland often partially or intermittently covered with water;  especially :one dominated by woody vegetation

sweltering     adj. 酷热的
oppressively hot
sweltering←→frigid

swerve        v. 转向,突然改变方向
to turn aside abruptly from a straight line or course:DEVIATE
swerve←→maintain direction

swill   v.冲洗,痛饮
to drink great drafts of:GUZZLE
swill:sip=gobble:nibble
swill←→sip

swindle        vt.vi. 骗取,诈取
to obtain money or property by fraud or deceit
implacable:compromise=honest:swindle

swing   n. 摇摆,振幅,音律,节奏,涨落,自由活动,旋转,秋千
omething that swings freely from or on a support;  especially :a seat suspended by a rope or chains for swinging to and fro on for pleasure
oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter

sybarite      n. ((文语))沉于奢侈逸乐者,爱奢侈享乐的人
VOLUPTUARY, SENSUALIST
spartan←→sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious
sybarite←→ascetic

sycophant      n.马屁精
a servile self-seeking flatterer
libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
narcissist:self absorbed=sycophant:obsequious
reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn
sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation
frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant

syllogism      n. 三段论法,推论法,演绎
a deductive scheme of a formal argument consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion
remonstrance:offend=syllogism:disprove

symphony       n. 交响乐,交响曲
a symphony orchestra concert
instrumentalist:symphony=dancer:ballet
sonnet:poet=symphony:composer

synergic       adj. 协作的,合作的
working together:COOPERATING
synergic←→antagonistic

synopsis       n. 摘要,概要
a condensed statement or outline (as of a narrative or treatise):ABSTRACT
synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity
synopsis←→protracted

synthesis      n.综合,合成
the composition or combination of parts or elements so as to form a whole
synthesis←→analysis

taciturn       adj. 沉默寡言的
temperamentally disinclined to talk
tacit:infer=encoded:decode
loquacious←→taciturn
tacit:infer=encoded:decode
taciturn←→prolix
volubility←→taciturnity
voluble←→taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent
windbag←→taciturnity
expansive←→taciturn/withdrawn/limited

tackle        n.  滑车,v. 解决(问题)
an assemblage of ropes and pulleys arranged to gain mechanical advantage for hoisting and pulling
bolster:support=tackle:hoist

tactile        a. 触觉的,有触觉的,能触知的
perceptible by touch:TANGIBLE
tactile:touch=affective:emotion

tactless       a. 无机智的,不机敏的,不得体的
marked by lack of  a keen sense of what to do or say in order to maintain good relations     with others or avoid offense
chicanery:clever=tactlessness:truthful
gaffe:tactless=??
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend

taint   vt. 污染,使腐败,沾染,腐蚀
to contaminate morally:CORRUPT
taint:integrity=??
tainted←→unspoiled/wholesome
pristine←→taint
taint←→integrity

tame     v.驯养,制报
lacking spirit, zest, interest, or the capacity to excite:INSIPID
tame:tractable=??
tame←→racy

tamper        vi. 干预,玩弄,贿赂,窜改,削弱,损害
to interfere so as to weaken or change for the worse
tamper:adjust=misrepresent:communicate

tangent       a. 接触的,切线的,相切的,离题的
diverging from an original purpose of course:IRRELEVANT
tangent←→essential

tangy   a. 强烈的,扑鼻的
having or suggestive of a tang
tangy←→bland

tantalize      v. 挑惹,挑逗
to tease or torment by or as if by presenting something desirable to the view but continually keeping it out of reach
tease:tantalize=??
tantalize←→comfort, console, solace; alleviate, assuage, ease, relieve

tantamount     adj. 与…相等的
equivalent in value, significance, or effect
tantamount←→incommensurate

tantrum        n. 勃然大怒,脾气发作
a fit of bad temper
tantrum←→pacify

taper   n.细小的蜡烛;微光vi.vt.(使)逐渐变小,(使)逐渐减少
progressively narrowed toward one end

tapestry       n. 挂毯,丰富多采的画面
a heavy handwoven reversible textile used for hangings, curtains, and upholstery and characterized by complicated pictorial designs
chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy { filigree:delicacy}

tardy   adj. 缓慢的,迟缓的
delayed beyond the expected or proper time:LATE

tarnish        n./v. 失去光泽,晦暗
something that tarnishes;  especially :a film of chemically altered material on the surface of a metal (as silver)
silver:tarnish=iron:rust
tarnish:dull=vitrify:smooth

tarpaulin     n. 涂油防水布,防水衣,防水帽
a piece of material (as durable plastic) used for protecting exposed objects or areas
tarpaulin:protect=??

tasty        a. 好吃的,可口的
a:having a marked and appetizing flavor
b:strikingly attractive or interesting
tasty←→uninteresting

tatty   adj.不整洁的,简陋的
rather worn, frayed, or dilapidated:SHABBY
tatty←→smart

taunt   v. 嘲笑,讥笑
to reproach or challenge in a mocking or insulting manner:jeer at
flout:disregard=taunt:challenge

taut     a. 拉紧的,绷紧的,紧张的
having no give or slack:tightly drawn
slacken:tautness=dilute:strength
taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu
slacken←→tauten
taut←→slack
tauten←→loosen/slacken

taxing        a. 繁重的,费力的
ONEROUS, WEARING
taxing←→light

tease   vt.逗乐,戏弄;强求
to tantalize especially by arousing desire or curiosity without intending to satisfy it
tease:tantalize=??

tedious        a.乏味的
tiresome because of length or dullness:BORING
tedious:energy=disturbing:composure        
tedious←→entertaining

tedious        a. 沉闷的,冗长乏味的
tiresome because of length or dullness:BORING

teeter        a. 摇摆,摇摇欲坠,踌躇,犹豫不决
a:to move unsteadily:WOBBLE
b:WAVER, VACILLATE
tear←→tether
teeter←→stabilize

telling        a. 有效的,显著的,生动的
carrying great weight and producing a marked effect:EFFECTIVE, EXPRESSIVE
telling←→not effective

temerity       n.鲁莽,大胆
unreasonable or foolhardy contempt of danger or opposition:RASHNESS, RECKLESSNESS
temerity←→circumspection
temerity←→pusillanimity
temerity←→cautious approach

temperate      a. 温和的,适度的,有节制的
marked by moderation
temperate:restrain=tenacious:persist    
harangue←→speak temperately

tenable        adj. 站得住脚的,无懈可击的
capable of being held, maintained, or defended:DEFENSIBLE, REASONABLE
ineluctable/inevitable:avoid=untenable:defend
tenable←→unjustified/unsound

tenacious      a. 固执的,不屈不挠的,抓住不放的
persistent in maintaining or adhering to something valued or habitual
beneficent:harm=tenacious:yield
temperate:restrain=tenacious:persist

tendentious   a. 有支持某种立场的,有倾向的
marked by a tendency in favor of a particular point of view:BIASED
tendencious:objective=??

tendinous     a. 腱的
consisting of tendons:SINEWY
tendinous:sinewy=??

tepid   a. 微温的,温热的,不太热心的
moderately warm:LUKEWARM
tepid←→fever

terminus       n. 终点,界标,终点站
either end of a transportation line or travel route;  also :the station, town, or city at such a place:TERMINAL
inception:termination=matriculation:graduation
terminus:stop=epilogue:story

terror        n. 恐怖,可怕的人
a state of intense fear  apprehension:terror=affection:adoration
terror:fear=craving:desire

testator      n. 立遗嘱之人
a person who dies leaving a will or testament in force
heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator

testimony      n. 证言,证据,声明
a solemn declaration usually made orally by a witness under oath in response to interrogation by a lawyer or authorized public official
calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony

testy   adj. 性急的,暴躁的
easily annoyed:IRRITABLE
testy:annoy=tractable:control

tether        vt.用绳拴 n. 系绳,系链,界限,范围
to fasten or restrain by
tether←→detach
tether←→loose
tear←→tether

theatrical     a. 剧场的,夸张的,戏剧性的
marked by pretense or artificiality of emotion
theatrical←→natural
theatrical←→professional

theology       n.神学,宗教
the study of religious faith, practice, and experience;  especially :the study of God and of God's relation to the world
conservatory:music={seminary:theology}=observatory:astronomy

therapeutic   a. 治疗的,治疗学的
of or relating to the treatment of disease or disorders by remedial agents or methods
therapeutic:hospital=illuminating:school

thorny        a. 多刺的,痛苦的
full of difficulties or controversial points:TICKLISH
thorny←→smooth

threadbare     adj. 磨破的,陈腐的
exhausted of interest or freshness
threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness

thrive        vi. 繁荣,兴旺,茁壮成长
to grow vigorously:FLOURISH
languish←→thrive
wizened←→thrive

throng        vi. 群集,蜂拥
to crowd together in great numbers
protract:length=throng:number

thwart        v. 阻挠,使…受挫
to oppose successfully:defeat the hopes or aspirations of
oppose:thwart=treat:cure
abet←→thwart/impede
thwart←→support/aid

ticklish       adj. 怕痒的,问题棘手的
a:TOUCHY, OVERSENSITIVE
b:easily overturned
pliant:influence=ticklish:offend
ticklish←→imperturbable

tidy     a. 整齐的,精简的  n. 椅子的背罩,装杂碎的容器
neat and orderly in appearance or habits:well ordered and cared for
sloven←→tidy

tiff     n./v. 小争吵,生气
a petty quarrel
tiff:squabble=foible:failing

tightfisted   a. 吝啬的
reluctant to part with money
tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous

timeworn       a. 陈旧的,老朽的
HACKNEYED, STALE
threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness
timeworn←→novel

timid   a. 胆小的,羞怯的
lacking in courage or self-confidence
self-confident:timid=open:shy

timorous       adj. 胆小的,胆怯的
of a timid disposition:FEARFUL
scrappy←→timorous

tinge   vt. 染,使带气息
to color with a slight shade or stain:TINT
tinged←→colorless

tinker        n.(流动的)补锅工人; v.做拙劣修补
to repair, adjust, or work with something in an unskilled or experimental manner:FIDDLE
tinker:adjust=scribble:write

tint     n. 色彩,浅色
a variation of a color produced by adding white to it and characterized by a low saturation with relatively high lightness
tint:suffuse=damp:quench

tirade        n. 长篇的攻击性演说
a protracted speech usually marked by intemperate, vituperative, or harshly censorious language
anger:tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole

toady   n. 谄媚者,拍马屁的人
one who flatters in the hope of gaining favors:SYCOPHANT
toady:flatter=??

tolerance      n. 容许量,公差,容忍,忍受
sympathy or indulgence for beliefs or practices differing from or conflicting with one's own
bigot:tolerance=turncoat:constancy
inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency
posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant
bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination}

tonic   n. 增进健康之物,补品
increasing or restoring physical or mental tone:REFRESHING
conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate
tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden
tonic←→enfeebling

tonsorial     a. 理发师的,理发的
of or relating to a barber or the work of a barber
tonsorial:hair=sartorial:apparel

topsy-turvy    adj. 颠倒的,相反的 , 乱七八糟的,混乱的
topsy-turvy←→tranquil

torpid        adj. 懒散的,死气沉沉的
sluggish in functioning or acting
torpid←→responsive

torpor        n. 迟钝;麻木
a state of mental and motor inactivity with partial or total
insensibility:extreme sluggishness or stagnation of function
torpor:iciness=??
torpor←→zeal
torpor←→animation

torrid        adj. 酷热的
giving off intense heat:SCORCHING
torrid←→arctic

tortuous       adj.弯曲的;歪曲的
marked by repeated twists, bends, or turns:WINDING
tortuous←→direct/straightforward

tractable      adj. 易于驾御的,温顺的
capable of being easily led, taught, or controlled:DOCILE
complaisance:intractable=adeptness:maladroit
subtle:overlook=tractable:lead
testy:annoy=tractable:control
tame:tractable=??
balky←→tractable
pertinacious←→tractable
tractability←→incorrigibility
tractable←→incorrigible
tractable←→insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate
pliant←→intransigence/intractable

trait   n. 显著特点,特性
a distinguishing quality (as of personal character):PECULIARITY

transcend      vt. 超越,胜过
to rise above or go beyond the limits of  , to triumph over the negative or restrictive aspects of:OVERCOME
ossify←→transcend conventions

transgress     vt. 违反,犯罪,逸出
to go beyond limits set or prescribed by:VIOLATE
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse
transgression:morality=:presumption:propriety

transient      a. 短暂的,易变的,瞬变的,路过的
passing especially quickly into and out of existence:TRANSITORY
opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience
convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience
transience←→permanence
transient←→lasting

transitory     adj. 短暂的(=transient)
tending to pass away:not persistent
transitory:endure=immutable:change
transitory←→enduring
transient←→protracted

translucent   a. 半透明的,透明的
permitting the passage of light:CLEAR, TRANSPARENT
slack:tension=opaque:translucence

transparent   a. 透明的,显然的,明晰的
a:free from pretense or deceit:FRANK
b:easily detected or seen through:OBVIOUS
c:readily understood
conspicuous:see=transparent:understand
manifest/lucid:perceive=transparent:understand
opacity←→transparency
transparent←→deceitful
transparent←→delusive

traverse       vt.横越,横切,横断
to go or travel across or over
diverge:apart=traverse:across

travesty       n. 滑稽化的作品,漫画,滑稽模仿
a debased, distorted, or grossly inferior imitation
travesty←→paragon

treacherous   adj.阴险的,危险的
characterized by or manifesting treachery:PERFIDIOUS
treacherousness←→faithfulness

treaty        n. 条约,谈判
an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation
rectify:treaty=confirm:hypothesis

tremendous     adj.惊人的,巨大的
a:notable by reason of extreme size, power, greatness, or excellence
b:unusually large:HUGE

tremulous      a. 发抖的,战栗的,胆小的
such as is or might be caused by nervousness or shakiness

trenchant      a. 锐利的,尖刻的,苛刻的,清晰的,分明的
vigorously effective and articulate
trenchant←→vague/dull

trendsetter   n.  创造新流行的人,新风尚 [潮流] 开创者
one that sets a trend

trepidation   n. 恐惧,惶恐
timorous uncertain agitation:APPREHENSION
audacious:trepidation=laconic:aspiration
dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment

trespass       vi. 侵夺,犯罪,冒犯,打扰
to enter unlawfully upon the land of another
trespass←→undo
trespass←→without to intrude

tribute        n.贡物;颂词
a payment by one ruler or nation to another in acknowledgment of submission or as the price of protection;  also :the tax levied for such a payment

trickle        v.一滴滴地流,徐徐地流
a:to issue or fall in drops
b:to flow in a thin gentle stream    blast:whiff=gush:trickle

trite   a.陈腐的,陈词滥调的
hackneyed or boring from much use:not fresh or original
trite←→unbanal

triumph        n. 凯旋,胜利,欢欣
a:a victory or conquest by or as if by military force
b:a notable success

trivial        a. 细小的;不重要的
of little worth or importance
substantive←→trivial
trivial←→massive

trophy        n.奖品,战利品
something gained or given in victory or conquest especially when preserved or mounted as a memorial
trophy:contestant=honors:student

truant        n.逃学,逃学者 adj.    偷懒的,旷课的,游荡的
one who shirks duty;  especially :one who stays out of school without permission
truant:dutiful=??

truculent      adj. 残暴的,凶狠的
feeling or displaying ferocity:CRUEL, SAVAGE
truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse
truculent←→gentle

trudge        vt.跋涉;吃力地走
to walk or march steadily and usually laboriously
lug:carry=trudge:walk

truncate       v. 把(某物)截短,去尾
to shorten by or as if by cutting off
prolong←→truncate
truculent←→pacific

tumbler        n. 杯子,一杯量,打滚的人,翻斤斗者
one that performs tumbling feats:ACROBAT

tumult        n.骚动,暴动,吵闹
disorderly agitation or milling about of a crowd usually with uproar and confusion of voices:COMMOTION
tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive
tumult←→quietude/quiescence

turbid        adj. 混浊的,紊乱的
deficient in clarity or purity:FOUL, MUDDY

turbulent      a.骚动的,骚乱的
causing unrest, violence, or disturbance
maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory

turgid        adj. 浮肿的,浮夸的
excessively embellished in style or language:BOMBASTIC, POMPOUS
turgid←→simple

turmoil        n. 骚动,混乱
a state or condition of extreme confusion, agitation, or commotion

turncoat       n. 背叛者,变节者
one who switches to an opposing side or party;  specifically :TRAITOR  
bigot:tolerance=turncoat:constancy
turncoat:constancy=simpleton:sagacity
turncoat:consistency=recluse:compassion

tutor   n. 家庭教师,导师,助教,监护人
a person charged with the instruction and guidance of another

tuxedo        n. 男士无尾半正式晚礼服
a single-breasted or double-breasted usually black or blackish blue jacket

typo     n. 打字错误
an error (as of spelling) in typed or typeset material
typo:text=

ugly     a. 丑陋的,邪恶的,险恶的,不祥的
offensive to the sight:HIDEOUS
pulchritude←→ugliness ,hideous

unavailing     a. 无益的,无用的,无效的,徒劳的
not availing:FUTILE, USELESS

unconventional    a. 非传统的
not conventional:not bound by or in accordance with convention:being out of the ordinary
hero:admirable=eccentric:unconventional

uncouth        a. 粗俗的,怪异的
awkward and uncultivated in appearance, manner, or behavior
seemly←→uncouth

unctuous       adj. 油腔滑调的
smooth and greasy in texture or appearance
placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous

underscore    n. 下划线
line drawn under a word or line especially for emphasis or to indicate intent to italicize
underscore:emphasis=brand:ownership

underdog       n. 牺牲者,受害者,输家
a loser or predicted loser in a struggle or contest
underdog←→bully

unexceptionable   a. 无懈可击的,极好的,完全的
not open to objection or criticism:beyond reproach:UNIMPEACHABLE
unexceptionable:oppose=unique:precedent

unexceptional adj. 非例外的,普通的,平凡的
not out of the ordinary:COMMONPLACE

unflappable   adj.镇定的,从容不迫的
marked by assurance and self-control
unflappable:upset=obstinate:persuade
unflappable←→disturbed

ungainly       adj.笨拙的,不雅的
lacking in smoothness or dexterity:CLUMSY
loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly
lissome←→ungainly
adroit←→ungainly

unimpeachable adj.无可指摘的,无可置疑的
not impeachable:not to be called in question:not liable to accusation:IRREPROACHABLE, BLAMELESS

unkempt        adj.(衣服,头发)不整洁的
deficient in order or neatness
unkempt←→dapper

unlettered     a. 无教育的,无学问的,文盲的
a:lacking facility in reading and writing and ignorant of the knowledge to be gained from books
b:ILLITERATE
erudite←→smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered

unpalatable   a. 不适口的,味道差的,不好吃的
not palatable:DISTASTEFUL

unpretentious adj. 不炫耀的,含蓄的,谦虚的
free from ostentation, elegance, or affectation:MODEST
bombastic←→unpretentious

unrequited     a. 无报答的,不受报酬影响
not requited:not reciprocated or returned in kind
remunerative←→unrequited

unruly  a. 难控制的,无法无天的,任性的
not readily ruled, disciplined, or managed    presumptuous:unruly
subdued←→unruly

untenable      a.难以防守的,站不住脚的
not able to be defended
untenable:defense=invulnerable:injury
incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{intrepid:feared}

untold        a.无数的,数不清的
too great or numerous to count:INCALCULABLE, VAST
countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration
untold←→able to quantify/quantifiable/calculable

untoward       adj. 不幸的,(坏事)没料到的
not favorable:ADVERSE, UNPROPITIOUS
untoward←→favorable
untoward←→fortunate
toward←→obdurate

untutored      a. 未受教育的,粗野的,幼稚的
a:having no formal learning or training
b:NAIVE, UNSOPHISTICATED
untutored←→polished

unwonted       a. 不习惯的,不寻常的,非习常的
not accustomed by experience
habit←→unwonted behavior
unwonted←→usual

upbraid       vt. 谴责,责骂,申斥
to reproach severely:scold vehemently
upbraid←→laud/extol

uphold        vt. 支撑,赞成,坚持,举起,鼓励
to support against an opponent
abrogate←→embrace/institute/uphold

uproar        n. 喧嚣,骚动
a state of commotion, excitement, or violent disturbance

upset   a. 烦乱的,不高兴
to trouble mentally or emotionally:disturb the poise of
unflappable:upset=obstinate:persuade

urbane        adj. 温文尔雅的,懂礼的
notably polite or finished in manner:POLISHED
urbane←→rude/rustic

urge     vi. 强烈要求
to present, advocate, or demand earnestly or pressingly
didactic:teach=hortatory:urge   { risible:ridicule}

usurp   vt. 篡夺,做霸占行为,夺取
to take the place of by or as if by force:SUPPLANT
usurp:take=overwhelm:defeat

vaccinate      vt.vi. 预防接种
to inoculate (a person) with cowpox virus in order to produce immunity to smallpox
overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune
soporific:sleep=vaccinating:immunity
vaccination:immune=overexposure:jaded

vacillate      adj. 亦作 vacillatory  摇动的; 摇摆的; 犹豫不决的
to sway through lack of equilibrium:FLUCTUATE, OSCILLATE
impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness
adamant←→vacillatory
impetuosity←→hesitance/vacillation
pertinacity←→vacillation
equipoise←→vacillate

vacuous        adj.发呆的,无意义的,空的,空虚的,心灵空虚的
marked by lack of ideas or intelligence:STUPID, INANE
vacuous←→intelligent

vagary        n. 奇想,异想天开
an erratic, unpredictable, or extravagant manifestation, action, or notion
vagary:predict=impossibility:execute

vagrant        n. 流浪汉,漂泊者,无赖
one who has no established residence and wanders idly from place to place without lawful or visible means of support

vague   a.模糊的
not thinking or expressing one's thoughts clearly or precisely
trenchant←→vague
vague←→well defined

valediction   n.告别演说,告别词
an act of bidding farewell
panegyric:praise:valediction:farewell
valediction←→greeting

valiant        a.英勇的
possessing or acting with bravery or boldness:COURAGEOUS
valiance←→pusillanimous

valid   a. 有确实根据的,有效的,正当的
logically correct
specious←→valid

vanquish       vt. 打败,征服,克服
to defeat in a conflict or contest
dominate:vanquished=??

vapid   adj. 索然无味的
lacking liveliness, tang, briskness, or force:FLAT, DULL
bracing←→vapid
vapid←→zeal

vaporize       vt.vi. (使)蒸发
to convert (as by the application of heat or by spraying) into vapor
scuff:abrasion=heat:vaporization
gasification/vaporization←→solidification
vaporization←→solidification
vaporous ←→substantial

variance       n. 分岐;差异
the fact, quality, or state of being variable or variant:DIFFERENCE, VARIATION
immutable←→variable
variance←→congruity

varnish        n. 清漆,v. 涂上清漆
to apply varnish to  
glaze:porcelain=varnish:wood
varnish:glossy=sand:smooth
varnish:wood=wax:linoleum

vault   n. 窖,地下室,撑竿跳,圆顶
a room or compartment for the safekeeping of valuables
larder:provisions=vault:valuables

vaunt   vt.vi. 自夸
to make a vain display of one's own worth or attainments:BRAG
vaunt←→deprecate
vaunting←→meek

veer     v.转向,改变(话题等)
to change direction or course
veer:direction=convert:belief
veer←→maintain constant

vehement       adj.猛烈的;激烈的
marked by forceful energy:POWERFUL

venom   n. 毒液,恶意
poisonous matter normally secreted by some animals (as snakes, scorpions, or bees) and transmitted to prey or an enemy chiefly by biting or stinging
placebo:innocuous=venom:toxious

venal   adj. 唯利是图的,贪脏枉法的
capable of being bought or obtained for money or other valuable consideration:PURCHASABLE;  especially :open to corrupt influence and especially bribery:MERCENARY
venal←→unsusceptible of bribery

vendor        n. 小贩,卖主,自动售货机
one that sell especially as a hawker or peddler
vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate

veneer        n. (镶于劣质东西上的)镶面板,外表
a layer of wood of superior value or excellent grain to be glued to an inferior wood
foil:metal=veneer:wood
veneer:furniture=baseboard:wall

venerate       vt.敬拜;崇拜  (a. venerable  令人尊敬的;神圣庄严的)
to regard with reverential respect or with admiring deference
perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration
venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn
veneration←→derision

vengeful       a. 复仇心重的,报复的
REVENGEFUL:as    
a:seeking to avenge
b:serving to gain vengeance

venial        adj. (错误等)轻微的,可原谅的
of a kind that can be remitted:FORGIVABLE, PARDONABLE;  also :meriting no particular censure or notice:EXCUSABLE
venial:excuse=pellucid:understand

ventilate      vt. 使空气流通,使通风,宣布,公开
a:to examine, discuss, or investigate freely and openly:EXPOSE
b:to make public:UTTER

veracious      adj.诚实的,说真话的
TRUTHFUL, HONEST
veracious←→mendacious

verbatim       a. 逐字的,照字面的
being in or following the exact words:WORD-FOR-WORD
paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise
argot←→standard language/common verbalism

verbose        a. 用字多的,冗长,累赘的
containing more words than necessary:WORDY
laconism←→verbosity
verbosity←→succinctness

verdant        a. 翠绿的,青翠的,生疏的,不老练的
green with growing plants
verdant←→sterile

verdict        n. 裁决,判决,结论,定论,判断
the finding or decision of a jury on the matter submitted to it in trial

verify        vt. 查证,证实,检验
to establish the truth, accuracy, or reality of
refutation←→verification
unsubstantiated←→verified

vermin        n. 害虫,歹徒
an offensive person

vernacular     a. 地方的,用地方语写成的
using a language or dialect native to a region or country rather than a literary, cultured, or foreign language

versatile      a.多方面的;通用的
having many uses or applications
versatile←→having limited application

verse monger  n. 拙劣诗人
sonnet:verse monger=??

vertigo        n. 眩晕
a disordered state in which the individual or the individual's surroundings seem to whirl dizzily
vertigo:nauseate=??

vessel        n. 船,容器,脉管
a tube or canal (as an artery) in which a body fluid is contained and conveyed or circulated
aqueduct:water=pipeline:gas=vessel:blood

vestigial      a. 痕迹的,遗迹的,退化的
a bodily part or organ that is small and degenerate or imperfectly developed in comparison to one more fully developed in an earlier stage of the individual, in a past generation, or in closely related forms
vestigial←→fully developed

veteran        n. 老手,退伍军人,老兵,老树
a person of long experience in some occupation or skill (as politics or the arts)

veto     v.,n.否决(权)
an authoritative prohibition:INTERDICTION
veto:prohibitive=overture:introductory      
veto←→consent

vex        vt.使烦恼,使恼火
to bring trouble, distress, or agitation to
conciliate←→vex
vex←→pacify/appease/soothe
vex←→conciliation
vex←→mollify

viable        a. 能养活的,能生育的

capable of living;  especially :capable of surviving outside the mother's womb without artificial support
elastic:expand=viable:live
viability←→inability to live

vibrant        adj. 振动的,明快的,生气勃勃
(1)oscillating or pulsating rapidly
(2)pulsating with life, vigor, or activity
flagging←→vibrant
ponderous←→lively/vibrant/briskly

vicarious      a. 代理的,担任代理的,替身的
performed or suffered by one person as a substitute for another or to the benefit or advantage of another:SUBSTITUTIONARY

vicious        a. 邪恶的,堕落的,品性不端的
having the nature or quality of vice or immorality:DEPRAVED

vicissitude   n. 变化,变迁,荣枯,盛衰
natural change or mutation visible in nature or in human affairs       vicissitudinous←→unchanging

victim        n. 受害人,牺牲者,牺牲品
a living being sacrificed to a deity or in the performance of a religious rite

vigilant       adj.警惕着的,清醒的
alertly watchful especially to avoid danger
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled
oblivious←→vigilant
vigilant←→oblivious
vigilant←→unalert
vigilant←→negligible

vignette       n.  小巧可爱的插 图或照片
a:a short descriptive literary sketch
b:a brief incident or scene (as in a play or movie)
vignette:scene=skit:drama

vigor   n. 精力,活力
active bodily or mental strength or force
decrepit←→vigorous

vim        n. 精力,活力
robust energy and enthusiasm
lassitude←→vim/animation

vindicate      n. 为…平反,证明…正确
to free from allegation or blame
(1) CONFIRM, SUBSTANTIATE
(2) to provide justification or defense for:JUSTIFY
calumniate←→vindicate
impugn←→vindicate

vindictive     adj.报复性的
a:disposed to seek revenge:VENGEFUL
b:intended for or involving revenge  
mercenary:money=vindictive:revenge

violate        vt. 违犯,亵渎,干扰,妨碍,侵犯
to do harm to the person or especially the chastity of;  specifically :RAPE

virility       n.雄劲,丈夫气
the quality or state of being virile:
a:MANHOOD  
b:manly vigor:MASCULINITY

virtuoso       n. 演艺精湛的人,大师
an experimenter or investigator especially in the arts and sciences:SAVANT
virtuoso:skill=potentate:power
virtuosity←→mediocrity

virtuous       a. 有品德的,善良的,贞洁的,有效力的
morally excellent:RIGHTEOUS  
doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue
base←→virtuous
nefarious←→above reproach/virtuous

virulent       adj. 剧毒的,恶毒的
marked by a rapid, severe, and malignant course
virulent←→salubrious

viscous        a.粘滞的,粘性的
having a glutinous consistency:VISCID
glutinous←→non viscous

visionary     a. 幻影的,幻想的,梦想的
a:of the nature of a vision:ILLUSORY
b:incapable of being realized or achieved:UTOPIAN
visionary:idealistic=officious:obliging

vista   n. 街景,展望,回想
a distant view through or along an avenue or opening:PROSPECT
placebo :painkiller=backdrop:vista

vitality       n. 活力,生命力
capacity to live and develop;  also :physical or mental vigor especially when highly developed
attenuate:thickness=enervate:vitality
dehydrate:water=wither:vitality
enervation:vitality=debase:value
arrest←→vitalize

vitiate        v.使腐败,败坏
to make faulty or defective:IMPAIR
vitiate←→fortify/strengthen

vitrify        vi. 变成玻璃,成为玻璃状
to convert into glass or a glassy substance by heat and fusion
tarnish:dull=vitrify:smooth

vituperative  adj. 辱骂的,责骂的
uttering or given to censure:containing or characterized by verbal abuse
vituperative←→complimentary

vivacious      adj. 活泼的,快活的
lively in temper, conduct, or spirit:SPRIGHTLY
phlegmatic←→vivacious
vivacious←→languid

vociferous     adj. 喧哗的,大叫大嚷的
marked by or given to vehement insistent outcry
vociferous←→reticent/monotone

vogue   n. 时尚,时髦,流行
a:popular acceptation or favor:POPULARITY
b:a period of popularity

volatile       adj. 反复无常的,挥发性的
characterized by or subject to rapid or unexpected change
craven:heroic=volatile:constant
volatile:temper=ready:wit
volatile←→constant

volition       n. 自决,自主
an act of making a choice or decision;  also :a choice or decision made
volition←→inability to choose

voluble        a. 流利的,健谈的,易旋转的,缠绕的
characterized by ready or rapid speech:GLIB, FLUENT
voluble:speech=licentious:dissoluteness
maladroit:deft=voluble:verse
volubility←→taciturnity
laconic←→voluble
voluble←→taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent

voluminous     a. 卷数多的,大部分的,著书多的,长篇的,庞大的,盘绕的
a:having or marked by great volume or bulk:LARGE   also :FULL
b:NUMEROUS
voluminous←→scanty/scarce

voluptuous     adj.撩人的,沉溺酒色的
given to or spent in enjoyments of luxury, pleasure, or sensual gratifications
voluptuary←→ascetic
spartan←→sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious
voluptuous←→spartan
voluptuous←→self contained/self denying

vomit   n. 呕吐,呕吐物,催吐剂
an act or instance of disgorging the contents of the stomach through the mouth;  also :the disgorged matter

voracious      a. 狼吞虎咽的,贪婪的
excessively eager:INSATIABLE
impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy
voracity←→lack of appetite

votary        n. 崇拜者,热心支持者
a:a devout or zealous worshiper
b:a staunch believer or advocate
votary←→skeptic

vouch   vi. 担保,保证,证明,确定
to summon into court to warrant or defend a title
vouch←→refuse to guarantee

vulgar        a. 粗俗的,庸俗的,本土的,通俗的,普通的
lacking in cultivation, perception, or taste:COARSE
genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear

waffle        vi. 闲聊,胡扯
to talk or write foolishly:BLATHER
waffle←→speak unequivocally

wag        n. 摇摆,小丑
WIT, JOKER
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag
wag:humorous=dolt:stupid

want     n. 缺乏,贫困,需要
a:DEFICIENCY, LACK
b:grave and extreme poverty that deprives one of the necessities of life
repletion←→want

wanton        a. 荒唐的,嬉戏的,繁茂的,肆意的
playfully mean or cruel:MISCHIEVOUS

wardrobe       n. 衣橱,衣室,全部衣服
a room or closet where clothes are kept :CLOTHESPRESS
larder:food=wardrobe:clothes

warmonger      n. 战争贩子,好战者,主战论者
one who urges or attempts to stir up war:JINGO
dove←→warmonger/jingoist

warrant        vt. 保证,辩解,使有正当理由,批准
to guarantee to a person good title to and undisturbed possession  of (as an estate)
gratuitous←→warranted/merited

wary     a. 小心的,机警的,周到的,唯恐的
marked by keen caution, cunning, and watchful prudence especially in detecting and escaping danger
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled

wastrel        n.浪费者,饭桶,流浪者,废品,浪子
one who dissipates resources foolishly and self-indulgently:PROFLIGATE
inexperience:neophyte=irresponsibility:wastrel

waterproof    a. 防水的
impervious to water;  especially :covered or treated with a material
waterproof←→permeable

watershed      n.分水岭,流域
a crucial dividing point, line, or factor:TURNING POINT
watershed←→ambiguity/routine

wax        vt. 上蜡于
to treat or rub with wax usually for polishing or stiffening
varnish:wood=wax:linoleum

wax        vi. 变大,增大,月亮渐满
to increase in phase or intensity ,used chiefly of the moon, other satellites, and inferior planets
wax←→decrease
wax←→waste away
flag←→wax

wheedle        vt. 以甜言蜜语诱惑,用甜言蜜语骗,
to influence or entice by soft words or flattery

whet     vt. 磨,磨快,刺激,促进
to sharpen by rubbing on or with something
blunt←→whet

whiff   n. 一吹,一吸,香烟的一口,一点点,
a quick puff or slight gust especially of air, odor, gas, smoke, or spray
blast:whiff=gush:trickle

whimsical      adj.古怪的,异想天开的
resulting from or characterized by whim or caprice;  especially :lightly fanciful
caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied
mercurial:mood=whimsical:behavior

wholesome      a. 有益健康的,合乎卫生的,健全的,审慎的,有生气的,有益的
promoting health or well-being of mind or spirit
decadence←→wholesomeness
tainted←→unspoiled/wholesome
wholesome←→deleterious
insalubrious←→wholesome
morbid←→wholesome
noxious←→wholesome/sanitary/innocuous

wick     n. 灯芯,油绳
a bundle of fibers or a loosely twisted, braided, or woven cord, tape, or tube usually of soft spun cotton threads that by capillary attraction draws up to be burned a steady supply of the oil in lamps or the melted tallow or wax in candles

wicked        a. 坏的,邪恶的,缺德的,淘气的,恶劣的,刻毒的
morally very bad:EVIL
nefarious:wickedness=generous:liberality

welter        vi. 翻滚,滚动,挣扎,颠簸,浸湿
to be in turmoil

wily     a. 使用计谋的,有诡计的,狡猾的
full of wiles:CRAFTY

wince   v. 避开,畏缩
to shrink back involuntarily (as from pain):FLINCH
wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt

windbag        n. 风囊,饶舌之人,好说话的人
an exhaustively talkative person
windbag←→taciturnity

windy   a. 多风的,风强的,坏天气的,虚无的,吹牛的,腹胀的
a:VERBOSE, BOMBASTIC
b:lacking substance:EMPTY
windy:concise=hackneyed:original

winnow        v.把(谷物)的杂质吹掉,扬去
to remove (as chaff) by a current of air
winnow:chaff=filter:impurities
winnow:grain=purify:water

winsome        adj.媚人的,漂亮的
generally pleasing and engaging often because of a childlike charm and innocence
unprepossessing←→entrancing/winsome

wit        n. 机智,机警,智力,头脑,机智的人,妙语,理智
mental capability and resourcefulness:INGENUITY
volatile:temper=ready:wit

witch   n. 巫婆,女巫
one that is credited with usually malignant supernatural powers;  especially :a woman practicing usually black witchcraft often with the aid of a devil or familiar:SORCERESS
retainer:retinue=witch:coven

withdraw       vi. 撤退,离开
to remove (money) from a place of deposit;to become socially or emotionally detached
roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw
press←→withdrawal

wither        vt.凋谢
to become dry and sapless;  especially :to shrivel from or as if from loss of bodily moisture
dehydrate:water=wither:vitality
burgeon←→wither
wither←→revive

withhold       vt. 扣留,保留,抑制
to refrain from granting, giving, or allowing
withhold←→grant

wizen        adj. 凋谢的, 枯萎的
to become dry, shrunken, and wrinkled often as a result of aging or of failing vitality
wizened←→thrive/blooming

wobble        vi. 摇晃,动摇,游移不定,犹豫
to move or proceed with an irregular rocking or staggering motion or unsteadily and clumsily from side to side
b:TREMBLE, QUAVER

woo        v. 向(女人)求爱,争取…的支持
to sue for the affection of and usually marriage with:COURT
adulate:fawn=woo:adorn

wordsmith      n. 擅长文字创作的人
a person who works with words;  especially :a skillful writer
raconteur:storytelling=wordsmith:writing

worldly        a. 世间的,世俗的,世上的
of, relating to, or devoted to this world and its pursuits rather than to religion or spiritual affairs
worldly←→singular
worldly←→naive

worship        n. 崇拜,礼拜,尊敬
extravagant respect or admiration for or devotion to an object of esteem
worship:sacrifice=prediction:augury

wrangler       n. 口角者,争论者,牧马者
a ranch hand who takes care of the saddle horses;  broadly :COWBOY
lariat:wrangler=crook:shepherd

writ     n.命令状,书面命令
a formal written document;  specifically :a legal instrument in epistolary form issued under seal in the name of the English monarch

wry        adj.讽刺的;歪斜的
(1)cleverly and often ironically or grimly humorous
(2)having a bent or twisted shape or condition
fluent:glib=humorous:wry
wry←→even, straight, true; directly, undeviatingly

yacht   n. 游艇
any of various recreational watercraft

yardstick      n. 码尺,准绳
graduated measuring stick three feet (0.9144 meter) long
b:a standard basis of calculation

yaw        v.(船,飞机等)偏航
of a ship :to deviate erratically from a course (as when struck by a heavy sea);  especially :to move from side to side

yield   vi. 出产,屈服,投降,同意
to surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another:hand over possession of
beneficent:harm=tenacious:yield
evanescent:disappear=pliant:yield
default:pay=yield:resist
obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield
adamant:yield=cautious:gamble
acquiesce:yield=capitulate:categorical
meek←→unyielding
dogged←→yielded
outmaneuver←→yield

yoke     vt. 给...上轭,连接,结合,使成配偶
to join as if by a yoke
sunder←→combine/yoke/bond

zeal     n. 热心,热衷,热诚
eagerness and ardent interest in pursuit of something:FERVOR
devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious
fervor:zealot=improvidence:spendthrift
miser:munificent:zealot:blase
zeal:dedication={mesmeric:interest}
torpor←→zeal
zealotry←→lack of fervor
vapid←→zeal

zest     n. 风味,强烈的风味,热情,热心
keen enjoyment:RELISH, GUSTO

zigzag        n. & a. 之字形(的);v. 弯弯曲曲地行进
one of a series of short sharp turns, angles, or alterations in a course;  also:something having the form or character of such a series
zigzag:turns=montage:images

zone     vi. 分成区
to arrange in or mark off into zones;  specifically:to partition (a city, borough, or township) by ordinance into sections reserved for different purposes (as residence or business
land=zoning=??
xiexindeboke   2010-03-03 12:17:28 评论:0   阅读:6762   引用:0

发表评论>>

署名发表(评论可管理,不必输入下面的姓名)

姓名:

主题:

内容: 最少15个,最长1000个字符

验证码: (如不清楚,请刷新)