List 1   abandon
abandon     vt. 放弃(to give up without intent to return)n. 放任,放纵
abase   v. 贬低降低地位、威望或尊严(to lower in rank, prestige, or esteem)
abash   vt. 使不安,使愧疚(to destroy the self-possession沉着 or self-confidence of)
abate   v. 减轻,减低(to reduce in degree or intensity)
abbreviate   v. 缩写,缩短,(to make briefer)
abdicate   v. 让位,放弃(to relinquish formally)
aberrant   adj. 异常的,非常规的(deviating from the usual or natural type)
abet   v. 帮助、支持、怂恿(to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose)
abeyance   n. 中止,暂停,搁置(temporary inactivity)
abhor   vt. 憎恶,痛恨(to regard with extreme repugnance)
abiding   adj. 永久的,持久的(to remain stable or fixed in a state)
abject     adj. 卑微的;精神不振的(cast down in spirit)
abjure     v. 发誓放弃(renounce upon oath)
abnegation   v. 放弃,自我牺牲(renunciation;self-sacrifice )
abolition   n. 废除,废除奴隶制
abominate     v. 憎恶(to hate or loathe intensely)
aboveboard   adj. 无欺诈的(free from all traces of deceit or duplicity)adv. 直率地,光明磊落地
abrade   v. 磨损(to rub or wear away especially by friction:ERODE)
abridge   v. 删减,缩短
abrogate   v. 废除(法令等);取消(to abolish by authoritative action)
abscission   v. 切断
abscond   v. 潜逃(to depart secretly & hide oneself)
absolute   v. 绝对的,无限制的(complete;totally unlimited;certain)
absolve   v. 赦免;使无罪(to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt)
abstain   v. 主动戒绝,自我抑制 (to refrain from something by one's own choice)
abstemious   adj. 有节制的(restraint especially in the consumption of food)
abstract   vt. 1. 摘要,提炼, 抽象化 2. 心不在焉
abstruse   adj. 深奥的(difficult to comprehend;recondite)
abuse   v. 辱骂,毁谤(to attack in words;revile)滥用,虐待
abysmal   adj. 深不可测的,无底的(immeasurably low or wretched)
accede   v. 同意(to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand)
accelerate   v. 加速,促进(to move faster:gain speed)
accessible   adj. 易接近的;可理解的(easy to approach;obtainable)
accessory   adj.附属的(additional object;useful but not essential thing)
accidental   adj. 意外的,偶然的(occurring unexpectedly or by chance)
acclimate   vt. 使适应气候环境(to adapt to a new climate, environment)
accolade   n. 推崇备至,赞扬(an expression of praise)
accommodate   v. 提供方便(to provide with something desired, needed, or suited
accost   vt. 问候,致意(greet, hail, salute)大胆靠近(to approach boldly or in a challenging
accretion   v. 逐渐增长(the process of growth or enlargement by a gradual buildup)
accumulate   vi. 积聚,堆积(to gather or pile up especially little by little;amass)
acerbic   adj. 酸的,涩的(acid in temper, mood, or tone)
achromatic   adj. 非彩色的, 无色的(possessing no hue)
acme     n.顶点,极点(the highest point or stage)
acquiesce   v.勉强同意;默许(to accept tacitly or passively)
acquisition   n. 获得(the act of acquiring)
acre   n. 英亩
acrid   adj. 辛辣的,刺鼻的(sharp & harsh in taste or odor)
acrimonious   adj. 刻薄的(caustic especially in feeling, language, or manner)
acumen   n. 敏锐,聪明(keenness & depth of perception)
acute     adj. 敏锐的,锐角的;(医)急性的(having a sudden onset 发作, sharp rise, & short course)
adage   n. 谚语(a saying often in metaphorical form that embodies a common observation)
adamant   adj. 坚硬的;固执的,不动摇的(unshakable especially in opposite)
adapt   vt. 修改,使适应(to bring into correspondence or make suitable)
addendum   n. 附录,补遗(a supplement to a book)
addict   v. 沉溺,上瘾(to devote(oneself)to something habitually or obsessively强迫性地)
adhere   v. 依附,粘着(to hold fast or stick by gluing or grasping)
adjourn   vi. 延期,休会(to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place)
adjunct   n. 附属物,附件(something added to another thing but not essentially a part of it)
ad-lib   adj. 即兴的(spoken, composed, or performed without preparation)
admission   n. 许可入场,录取(the act or process of admitting)
admonish   v. 告诫,责备 (to reprove or express warning in a gentle, earnest manner)
adore   vt. 崇拜,热爱,非常喜欢(to regard with loving admiration & devotion)
adulate     v. 谄媚,奉承(to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly)
adulterate   vt. 掺杂,掺假adj. 伪造的,掺杂的
adumbrate   vt. 隐约预示(to suggest or disclose partially)
adversary   n. 敌手,对手(an opponent; an enemy)
advert   vi. 注意,留意n. 广告(to turn the mind or attention)
advertise   vt. 广告(to announce publicly esp. by a printed notice or a broadcast)
advocate   vt. 主张,提倡(to plead in favor of)
aerate   v. 充气(to supply or impregnate with air)
aesthetic   n. 美学
affable   adj.易于交谈的,和蔼的(characterized by ease & friendliness)
affected   adj. 假装的,做作的(assumed artificially or falsely)
affection   n. 爱,情感
affidavit   n. 宣过誓的书面陈述(a sworn statement in writing made esp. under oath)
affiliate   v. 使成为会员,结盟(to bring or receive into close connection as a member)
affinity   n. 天然倾向或喜好(implies a susceptibility or predisposition on something)
affluent   adj. 丰富的, 富裕的(having a generously sufficient material possessions)
agenda   n. 议程(a list or outline of things to be considered or done)
aggrandize   vt. 增加,夸大(to make appear great or greater:praise highly)
aggravate   vt. 加重,恶化(to make worse, more serious, or more severe)
aggregate   n. 集合体v. 集合,合计(to collect or gather into a mass or whole)
list 2  aggressive
aggressive   adj. 好斗的,侵略性的(Inclined to behave in a hostile fashion)
aggrieve   vt. 使委屈,使苦恼(to give pain or trouble to)
agony   n. 苦恼,极大的痛苦(intense pain of mind or body)
airtight   adj. 密闭的,不透气的(impermeable to air or nearly so)
alacrity   n. 敏捷,轻快;渴望,乐意(promptness in response:cheerful readiness)
albino     n. 白化病 (an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation)
alchemy   n. 炼金术(medieval chemistry)
alibi   n. 托辞,借口,辩解(an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment)
align   vt排成一行,调准(to be in precise adjustment or correct relative position);结盟
allay   vt., 缓解(assuage)
allegiance   n.忠诚,拥护(devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause)
alleviate   v.缓和,减轻to make(as suffering) more bearable
alienate   v.疏远(to make unfriendly, hostile, or indifferent)
alliterate   v. 押头韵(the repetition of initial consonant sounds)
allowance   n. 定量(a fixed or available amount)
allude   vi. 暗示,间接提到(to make indirect reference)
ally     n. 同盟(a sovereign or state associated with another by treaty or league)
aloft   adv.在空中(in the air;especially:in flight)
aloof   adj. 孤高的, 不合群的(removed or distant either physically or emotionally)
alphabetical   adj. 按字母顺序的(arranged in the order of the letters)
altruism   n. 利他主义(devotion to the welfare of others)
amalgamate   v. 合并,混合(to merge into a single body)
ambiguous   adj. 含糊的,不明确的(doubtful from obscurity)
amble   vi. 漫步,溜达(to walk slowly or leisurely;stroll)
ambrosial   adj. 特别美味的(delicious)
ameliorate   vt. 改善,改良,变好(to make better or more tolerable)
amenable   adj. 愿服从的,通情达理的(responsive to advice, authority;tractable)
amenity   n. 适意(agreeableness),礼仪(courtesy)便利设施(convenience, facility)
amiable   adj. 亲切的,和蔼可亲的(being friendly, sociable, & congenial)
amicable   adj. 友善的,和平的(friendly, neighborly)
amorphous   adj. 无定形的(having no definite form)
amulet   n. 护身符(an object worn as a charm符咒 against evil or injury)
anaerobic   adj. 无氧能活的(living in the absence of free oxygen)
analgesic   n. 镇痛剂(insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness)
anarchist   n. 无政府主义者(one who rebels against any authority or established order)
anathema   n. 诅咒,咒逐(one that is cursed by ecclesiastical authority)
ancillary   adj. 补助的, 副的(SUBORDINATE, SUBSIDIARY)
anecdote   n. 轶事,趣闻(a usually short narrative of an interesting incident)
anemic   adj. 贫血的, 乏力的(lacking force, vitality, or spirit)
anesthetic   n. 麻醉剂,麻药(lacking awareness or sensitivity)
anhydrous     adj. 无水的(free from water)
animate   adj. 活的,有生气的v. 鼓励
animus     n.敌意(hostile feeling or intent)
annals   n. 纪年表,年鉴,年报(a record of events arranged in yearly sequence)
annoy   vt. 使苦恼,骚扰,惹恼(to disturb especially by repeated acts)
annul   v.宣告无效,取消(to declare or make legally invalid or void)
anomalous   adj. 不规则的,反常的(abnormal;irregular)
anonymous   adj. 匿名的(not named or identified)
antagonize     vt. 使成敌人,敌对,反对(to incur or provoke the hostility of)
antediluvian   adj. 上古的, 史前的(antiquated;ancient)
anterior   adj. 前面的,在前的(coming before in time or development)
anthology   n. 诗集,文选(a collection of selected literary works of art)
antic   adj 古怪的, 滑稽可笑的(characterized by clownish absurdity)
antidote   n. 解毒剂,解药(a remedy to counteract the effects of poison)
apathy   n. 漠然,冷淡(lack of feeling or emotion)
aphorism   n. 格言(pithy maxim)
apiary     n. 养蜂场, 蜂房
apocalyptic   adj. 启示的,预言的 (prophetic)
apocryphal   n. 虚假的(untrue;made up)
apophasis   n. 表面上否认实际要说的话
apoplectic     adj. 易怒的,狂怒的(greatly agitated)
apostasy   n. 背教,变节,脱党(renunciation of a religious faith)
apostrophe   n. 书写中撇号(')(表示省略或所有格,如 I'M)
apothecary   n. 药剂师(one who prepares & sells drugs)
appall   vt. 使胆寒,使惊骇(to overcome with consternation)
apparel   v. 装饰n.服装(clothing, especially outer garments; attire)
appeal   vi. 请求, 呼吁, 上诉(to make an earnest request)
appealing   adj. 引起兴趣的,动人的(having appeal·PLEASING)
appellation   n. 名称, 称呼,命名(A name, title, or designation)
applause   n. 鼓掌,喝彩,赞许(approval publicly expressed)
apposite   adj. 适当的,恰切的(highly pertinent or appropriate:APT)
appreciable   adj. 可感知的,可评估的(capable of being perceived or measured)
apprehension   n. 忧惧(suspicion or fear especially of future evil),逮捕
apprise     v. 通知,告知(inform)
approbation   n. 认可,嘉许 (warmly commending acceptance or agreement)
appropriate   v. 盗取, 挪用(to take use of without authority)adj. 适当的
apron     n. 围裙
apropos   adj. 适当的,相关的(with reference to;regarding)
apt   adj. 易于的,适当的(unusually fitted or qualified)
aquatic   adj. 水生的,水中的(growing or living in water)
aqueduct   n.导水管(a conduit for water)
aquifer   n. 蓄水层(a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock)
arachnid   n. 节肢动物(including the spiders,scorpions, mites)
list 3  arbor
arbor   n. 树阴,凉亭
arboreal   adj. 树木的(of a tree)树栖的(inhabiting trees)
archaic   adj. 古老的 (antiquated)
archetype   n. 原型(prototype;primitive pattern) 范例(paradigm ;model)
archipelago   n. 群岛(group of closely located islands)
archive   n. 档案室(place where public records are kept)
ardor   n. 热心,热情(heat;passion;zeal)
arduous   adj. 费劲的(hard to accomplish or achieve)
argot   n. 隐语,黑话,行话(secret vocabulary peculiar to a particular group)
aria       n. 咏叹调(a solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment, as in an opera)
arid   adj. 干燥的,不毛的(excessively dry)
arrest   vt. 阻止(check),使不活跃 (to make inactive)逮捕
arresting   adj. 引人注目的(conspicuous;salient)
arrhythmic   adj. 无节奏的,不规则的(lacking rhythm or regularity)
arrogance   n.傲慢,自大(pride, haughtiness)
arroyo   n. 峡谷, 小河(a brook;a creek ;a water-carved gully or channel)
arsenal   n. 兵工厂,军械库
artery   n. 动脉,要道(a major route of transportation into which local routes flow)
articulate   vt. 清晰说话adj.发音清晰的
artifacts   n. 史前古器物(products of primitive culture)
artifice   n. 诡计(false or insincere behavior)
artless   adj. 朴质的;率直的(free from guile or craft:sincerely simple)
ascendant   n. 优势adj.上升的,占优势的 (同ascendent)
ascetic   adj. 禁欲的n. 苦行者(austere in appearance, manner, or attitude)
aseptic     adj. 无菌的,洁净的(preventing infection)
askew   adj. 歪斜的(out of line:awry)
aspect   n. 样子, 外表 (appearance to the eye or mind)
asperity   n. 性情粗暴(sharpness of temper)
aspersion     n. 诽谤,中伤 (slanderous remark)
aspirant   n. 有抱负者, 有野心者(seeker after position or status)
assay     n/v. 化验,检验,评价
assert   vt. 主张,声明,断言(state strongly ,demand recognition of rights)
assertive     adj. 过分自信的,有进取心的(Inclined to bold or confident assertion;
assess   v. 估价,评价(to determine the importance, size, or value of)
assiduous   adj.勤勉的,专心的(diligent)
assuage     vt. 缓和,减轻 (ease;lessen pain)
assume   vt. 接受(receive),承担(undertake)
astounding   adj. 令人惊骇的(causing astonishment or amazement)
astringent   n. 收敛剂adj. 收敛的
astrology   n. 占星术
astute   adj. 机敏的,狡猾的(having or showing shrewdness & perspicacity)
asunder   adv. 分离(into parts)
asymmetrical   adj. 不匀称的,不对称的(not of equal size or similar shape)
asylum     n. 收容所(place of refuge or shelter;protection)
atone   v. 赎罪,补偿,弥补(make amends for;pay for, expiate)
atrocious   adj. 残忍的,极恶的(extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel)
atrophy   adj. 萎缩的(wasting away)
attenuate   v. 变薄,变弱,削弱(to lessen the amount,magnitude, or value of)
audacious   adj. 大胆的,愚勇的(intrepidly daring)
audition   n. 试听(a trial performance to appraise an entertainer's merits)
augur   n. 预言家v. 占卜,预测(to make predictions from signs or omens)
auspicious   adj. 吉兆的;幸运的;顺利的(affording a favorable auspice)
austere   adj. 朴素的(markedly simple or unadorned)
authentic   n. 确实的,真实的(not false or imitation: real, actual)
authority   n. 权威(power to influence thought, opinion, or behavior)
autocracy   n. 独裁政府(government in which a person possesses unlimited power)
autonomy   n. 自治(the quality or state of being self-governing)
avarice   n. 贪财, 贪婪(excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain)
aver   v. 断言(to declare positively)证明(to verify to be true in pleading a cause)
aversion   n. 嫌恶,憎恨,反感(firm dislike)
avid   adj. 热切的(characterized by enthusiasm & vigorous pursuit)
avulse   vt. 撕脱(to separate by avulsion)
awash   adj. 浸满水的(covered with water)
awe   n. 敬畏(an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, & wonder )
awkward   adj. 笨拙的(lacking dexterity or skill)
awl   n. 锥子,尖钻(a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes)
awning     n. 雨篷,遮阳篷(a rooflike structure that serves as a shelter)
awry     adj. 扭曲的,走样的(deviating from a straight line or direction)
axiomatic   adj.不证自明的,公理的(self-evident truth requiring no proof)
babble   vt. 胡说八道(to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds)
backhanded   adj. 间接的,含沙射影的(indirect,devious;especially·sarcastic)
bacteria     n. 细菌,培养基
badge   n. 徽章(a device of membership in a society)标志(a characteristic mark)
badger     vt. 不断纠缠(to harass or annoy persistently)
badinage   n. 打趣,揶揄(playful repartee:banter)
bait   v. 折磨(to persist in tormenting or harassing another;badger)
balance     n. 天平,秤v. 平衡,权衡
bale     v.极恶(great evil)痛苦,悲哀(woe,sorrow)
baleful   adj. 邪恶的,有害的(deadly or pernicious in influence)
balk     vt. 阻止(block)不肯前行,退缩(refuse to proceed)
balky   adj. 不肯前行的,倔强的(refusing to proceed;restive, wrongheaded)
ballad   n. 民歌(a simple song)抒情民谣(a popular slow sentimental song)
ballast   n. 压舱物
ballet   n. 芭蕾舞
balloon   v. 膨胀(to swell or puff out)迅速增加(to increase rapidly)
list 4  balm
balm   n. 香膏(an aromatic preparation)安慰剂(a soothing restorative agency)
banal   adj. 凡的, 陈腐的(lacking originality, freshness, or novelty·trite)
bane     n. 祸根 (cause of ruin)
banish   vt. 驱逐(exile;to drive away;expel)
banister   n. 栏杆的支柱,楼梯的扶栏(a handrail with its supporting posts)
banquet   n. 盛宴(a sumptuous feast)
banter     v.善意的玩笑(to speak to or address in a witty & teasing manner)
barb   n. 尖锐而严厉的批评(a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment)
barbarous   adj.野蛮的, 残暴的, 粗野的(mercilessly harsh or cruel)
barefaced   adj. 公然的,无耻的(open, unconcealed)
bargain   v. 讨价还价(to negotiate over the terms of a purchase)
baroque   adj. 高度装饰的,过份雕琢的(highly ornate)
barrage   v. 枪弹齐发(a vigorous projection of many things at once)
barren   adj. 不育的,贫瘠的(lacking vegetation)
barricade   v. 阻碍 (to block off with a barricade)
barter   n. 物物交换(to trade by exchanging one commodity for another)
base   adj. 卑鄙的,低级的(lacking of higher qualities of mind or spirit)
baseboard   n. 护壁板,脚板(a molding covering the joint of a wall)
batch     n. 一炉、一批一次烘烤出来的数量(an amount produced at one baking)
bathetic   adj. 平凡的,陈腐的(exceptional commonplaceness)
bawdy   adj. 猥亵的(indecent,lewd)
bedeck     vt. 装饰,修饰(to clothe with finery)
belabor   vt. 冗长的解释(to explain or insist on excessively)
beleaguer   vt. 使困扰,使烦恼(trouble,harass)围攻
belie   v. 掩饰,证明为假(to show something to be false or wrong)
bellicose   adj. 好战的,好斗的(inclined to start quarrels or wars)
belligerence   n. 交战,好战性(an aggressive attitude)
bellwether   n. 领导者, 群众的首领 (one that serves as a leader)
bend   vi. 弯曲,屈服(to make submissive·subdue,compromise)
benediction   n. 祝福(the invocation of a blessing)
beneficent   adj. 仁慈的,有益的(doing or producing good)
benign     adj.(病)良性的, 仁慈的(showing kindness & gentleness)
bent   n. 倾向, 爱好(a strong inclination or interest:bias)
bequest   n. 遗产,遗赠 (something bequeathed:legacy)
berate   v.严责(to scold or condemn vehemently & at length)
beseech   v.祈求,恳求(to request earnestly·implore)
besmirch   v.诽谤,玷污(sully,soil)
bibliography   n. 参考书目(a list of the works)
bibliophile   n. 爱书者,藏书家(a lover of books)
bifurcate   v.使分离(to cause to divide into two branches or parts)
bigot   n. 盲信者,狭隘者(a person obstinately devoted to his own opinions)
bit   n. 钻头(the jaws of tongs or pincers)
bland   adj. 没有味道的,不刺激的(not irritating·soothing)
blandishment   n. 奉承,哄骗的话(something that tends to coax or cajole)
blasé   adj. 厌倦享乐的,冷漠的(bored with pleasure or dissipation)
blast   n. 一阵猛烈的强风(a violent gust of wind)
blatant   adj. 喧哗的;非常明显的(completely obvious conspicuous, or obtrusive)
blazon   n. 纹章;卖弄(ostentatious display)v. 刻纹章
blemish   v. 损害n. 缺点(to spoil by a flaw)
blight       vt. 破坏,使枯萎;vi.枯萎
bliss   n. 极度快乐(complete happiness)
blithe   adj. 愉快的(of a happy lighthearted character or disposition)
blueprint     n. 蓝图,设计图,计划(a detailed plan or program of action)
blunder   n.大错(a gross error or mistake)v. 犯大错
blunt   vt. 使变钝(to make less sharp or definite)
blur   v. 使模糊(to make indistinct & hazy in outline or appearance;obscure)
blurb   n. 简短的公告a short publicity notice (as on a book jacket)
blurt   vt. 突然说出,冲动的说出(to utter abruptly & impulsively, usually used with out)
blush   v.n. 脸红(a reddening of the face especially from shame, modesty, or confusion)
bluster     v.吵闹;狂妄自大地说或做(to be windy & boisterous)
boast     n.v. 自夸(the act or an instance of boasting)
boding       n.前兆,特别是凶兆(an omen, prediction, or presentiment)
bodyguard   n. 警卫(a usually armed attendant whose duty is to protect a person)
boggle     v. 因为怀疑,恐惧而犹豫(to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples)
boisterous     adj. 吵闹的(noisily turbulent)
bolster     支持(a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support)
bombast     n. 夸大的言辞(pretentious inflated speech or writing)
bonhomie     n.温和,和蔼(good-natured easy friendliness)
bonus     n. 奖金,红利
boo   v. 嘘(表示不满或嘲笑)(express contempt, scorn, or disapproval of by booing)
boon   n. 恩惠, 福利(benefit,favor)
boor   n.迟钝的人, 粗野的人(a rude or insensitive person)
bootless     adj. 无用的 (useless,unprofitable)
bore   vt.钻孔,厌倦 (to make a hole by or as if by boring)
bound     n. 限制(to confine, restrain, or restrict as if with bonds)
bouquet   n. 花束
boycott   vt. 联合抵制
bracing   n.支持;adj.令人振奋的(giving strength, vigor, or freshness)
bracket   n. 支架, 托架
braid   v.编织(made by intertwining three or more strands)
brake   n.刹车(to retard or stop by a brake)
brash   adj 轻率的,仓促的(done in haste without regard for consequences)
brassy     adj. 厚脸皮的,不知羞耻的(being shamelessly bold)
brattish     adj. 淘气的,无礼的(ill-mannered annoying)
bravado     n, 假装勇敢,虚张声势
bravura   n. 出色的表演(a show of daring or brilliance)
brazen   adj.厚颜无耻的(marked by contemptuous boldness)
breach     v. 使破裂, 破坏(to make a breach in)
breezeway     n. 有屋顶的通路
brevity     n.简短,简洁(shortness or conciseness of expression)
bribe     v. &n. 贿赂,收买(to induce or influence by or as if by bribery)
bridle     v.限制(to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle)
brisk   adj. 活泼的(keenly alert)
bristle     v.怒发冲冠(to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance)
brittle     adj. 易碎的,脆弱的,易坏的(easily broken, cracked, or snapped)
broach     v.开启;开矿;论文开题(open up)
bromide   n.陈腐的意见(a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion)
brook     n. 容忍(to stand for ;tolerate)
browbeat     vt. 威吓(to intimidate by a stern manner or arrogant speech)
bruit   vt. 散播(to noise abroad)
buck   v. 反对(to refuse assent;balk)
bucolic       adj. 乡村的,田园的(relating to or typical of rural life)
budge     vi. 移动(move;shift)退让 (to give way;yield)
buffoon   n.小丑(a ludicrous figure;clown)
bulge     n. 凸出部分(a protuberant or swollen part or place)
bully   n. 欺凌弱小者(one habitually cruel to others who are weaker)
bumptious     adj. 傲慢的,自夸的(presumptuously, noisily self-assertive)
bungle     vt.vi. 办糟,失败(to act or work clumsily & awkwardly)
buoy     vt.支撑 (support;uplift)
buoyant     adj.有浮力的(capable of floating),快乐的(cheerful,gay)
burgeon   v. 萌芽(to send forth new growth);迅速成长(to grow rapidly)
burlesque     n. 讽刺的嘲笑(mockery usually by caricature)滑稽戏
burnish     v. 擦亮,磨光(to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing)
burrow     n. (兔子等)动物所掘的洞(hole)
butter     n. 黄油
buttress   n. 扶墙vt. 支持
byline     n. 标题下的署名
byzantine     n. 诡计多端的(characterized by a devious manner of operation)
list 5  cabal
cabal   n. 阴谋小集团(small group secretly united to promote their own interests)
cache     n.隐藏处所(a hiding place used especially for storing provisions)
cacophony       n. 刺耳的声音(harsh or discordant sound)
cadge     v.行乞,乞求(beg,sponge)
cajole     v.哄骗(to persuade with flattery especially when reluctance)
calcify     vi. 钙化(to make inflexible or unchangeable)
calibrate   vt. 测量,校准(to rectify,mark the graduations of)
calligraphy     n. 书法(artistic, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering)
callous     adj.无情的, 冷漠的(feeling no sympathy for others)
callow     adj.未成熟的(lacking adult sophistication)
callus     n. 皮肤的硬结,老茧(a thickening of area on skin)
calorie     n. 卡路里,热量单位
calumniate     v. 诽谤,中伤(to utter maliciously false statements about)
camaraderie   n. 友情(a spirit of friendly good-fellowship)
cameo     n. 小雕塑,特写
camouflage   n. 伪装(behavior or artifice designed to deceive or hide)
canard   n. 谣传,误传
candor       n. 坦白,直率,诚挚(unreserved, honest, or sincere expression)
canon     n. 圣典(a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council)
canopy     n.蚊帐, 遮篷(a protective covering;awning, marquee)
canvas     n. 帆布,画布(a piece of cloth framed as a surface for a painting)
canvass     v. 细查(scrutinize; check over),游说,拉票(to seek votes:solicit)
canyon     n. 峡谷(a deep narrow valley with steep sides)
capitulate   v. 投降(surrender) 不再抵制(to cease resisting·acquiesce)
caprice     n.反复无常,善变(a sudden, impulsive notion or action)
captivate   vt.着迷(to influence by special charm with an irresistible appeal)
careworn   adj. 伤心的(showing the effect of grief or anxiety;worn)
caret     n. 插字符号^(文章中插字使用)
cardinal   adj. 主要的(of basic importance · main, chief, primary)
caricature       n.漫画,滑稽模仿(exaggeration by means of ludicrous distortion)
carnal     adj. 肉体的,物质的(bodily, corporeal)
carouse   vi. 畅饮,狂欢作乐(to drink liquor deeply or freely)
carp   n.鲤鱼vi. 吹毛求疵,挑剔(to find fault or complain querulously)
carpentry     n. 木工
cartographer     n. 地图绘制者(one that makes maps)
carve     v. 切(to cut into pieces or slices)雕刻(to shape by cutting)
cast     n. 演员,演员阵容vt. 选派(演员)
castigate   v.强烈反对,苛责(to subject to severe punishment, reproof)
catalyze   vt. 促进,催化(bring about, inspire)
catastrophe   n. 大灾难(a momentous tragic event)
categorical   adj. 无条件的,绝对的(absolute, unqualified)
catholic   adj.普遍的(comprehensive)包容的(broad in sympathies, interests)
caustic     adj.腐蚀性的,刻薄的(marked by incisive sarcasm)
caveat     n.警告; 告诫(a warning enjoining one from certain acts)
cavern     n. 大洞,洞窟(one cave of large or indefinite extent)
cavil   v.挑剔,吹毛求疵(to raise trivial & frivolous objection)
cavort     vi. 欢跃(to walk or move in a spirited manner)
cede   vt. 放弃(to yield or grant typically by treaty)
celebrity   n. 名人(a celebrated person)
cement   n.水泥v. 巩固(to unite or make firm by or as if by cement)
censor     vt. 审查(to examine to suppress anything considered objectionable)
censorious   adj. 挑剔的(critical)
censure   v. 责难,谴责(to find fault with & criticize as blameworthy)
census     n. 户口普查(a count of the population)
cessation     n. 终止,暂停(a temporary or final ceasing;stop)
chaff   n. 谷壳,糠
chagrin   n . 懊恼(distress of mind caused by humiliation, disappointment, or failure)
list 6   chameleon
chameleon   n. 变色龙,善变的人
champion   vt. 拥护,保卫(to act as militant supporter of)
chaotic     adj.混乱的, 无序的(in utter disorder)
charade       n. 看手势猜字谜游戏;装模作样
charlatan     n. 江湖郎中(pretender to knowledge)骗子(quack)
chary     adj. 谨慎的(discreetly cautious)
chasm     n. 深渊,断裂带(a deep cleft in the surface of a planet)
chauvinistic     adj. 沙文主义的,爱国主义的
check     n. 阻止(to block the progress of)
chef   n. 厨师(a skilled cook who manages the kitchen)
cherubic     adj. 天使的,可爱的(innocent-looking usually chubby & rosy)
chevron   n. v形臂章
chiaroscuro   n. 明暗对照法
chicanery     n.诡计多端,欺骗(deception by artful subterfuge)
chide   v. 责备(to reproach in a usually mild & constructive manner)
choleric   adj. 易怒的,暴躁的(hot-tempered)
choir     n. 唱诗班(an organized company of singers)
chord     n.和弦(three or more musical tones sounded simultaneously)
choreography     n. 舞蹈编排(the arrangement of dances),舞蹈(art of dancing)
chorus     n. 合唱队(a body of singers who perform choral compositions)
chromatic   adj. 彩色的
chronic   adj. 长期的,慢性的(long established, as a disease)
chuckle   n. 偷着乐(to laugh inwardly or quietly)
churlish   adj. 粗野的 (lack of civility or graciousness;boorish; rude)
cineast     n. 电影迷(a film or movie enthusiast)
cipher   n. 密码(a method of transforming a text to conceal its meaning)
circuitous     adj. 迂回的(not being forthright or direct in language or action)
circular   adj. 圆形的(having the form of a circle;round)
circumference     n. 圆周(the perimeter of a circle)
circumlocution   n. 说话绕圈子;迂回(indirect or roundabout expression)
circumscribe   vt. 限制(limit; confine)
circumspect   adj.慎重的;小心的(careful to consider all circumstances
circumvent   vt. 绕行,智取(to manage to get around especially by stratagem)
cistern     n. 贮水器,水箱
civility   n. 礼貌(courtesy, politeness)
claim   n.v. 要求n. 权利(a right to something)
clairvoyant   adj. 透视的, 有洞察力的(unusually perceptive;discerning)
clandestine   adj. 秘密的(secret ;surreptitious)
clarion     adj. 清澈响亮的(loud & clear)
clarity   n. 清楚, 透明(the quality or state of being clear;lucidity)
clasp     n. 扣子(a device for holding objects or parts together)
cleft     n. 裂缝(a usually V-shaped indented formation)
clement   adj.仁慈的,温和的(inclined to be merciful;lenient)
cliche     adj. 陈腐的a trite phrase or expression
clique     n. 小团体(a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons)
clog   n. 障碍, 阻塞 something that shackles or impedes
clot   n. 凝块,群v.(使)凝结(a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood)
cloture     n. 表决程序(一项议会程序,辩论结束后立即就所辩问题进行投票表决)
cloudburst     n. 倾盆大雨a sudden copious rainfall
clout     n. 权力,影响力(great influence,especially political or social)
cloying     adj. 甜得发腻的(excessively sweet or sentimental)
clumsy     adj. 笨拙的(lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace)
coagulant     n. 凝结剂(something that produces coagulation)
coalesce   v.合并,融合(to unite into a whole;fuse)
coax   vt. 用巧言诱哄(to influence or persuade by artful ingratiation)
coda   n. 终结句,乐章结尾(a concluding musical section)
coerce     vt. 强制, 强迫(to bring about by force or threat)
coeval     adj. 同时代的(of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration)
cogent     adj. 使人信服的(appealing forcibly to the mind or reason)
cognizant     adj. 认知的(knowledgeable of something through personal experience)
colander   n. 滤器(a perforated utensil for washing or draining food)
collapse   vi. 倒塌(to fall or shrink together abruptly & completely)
collude   v. 串通,勾结(conspire,plot)
colonnade     n. 柱廊(a series of columns set at regular intervals & usually supporting the base of a roof structure)
colossal   adj. 巨大的(of a bulk, extent, power, or effect approaching or suggesting the stupendous or incredible)
coltish     adj. 轻佻的(not subjected to discipline)
coma   n. 昏迷(a state of profound unconsciousness)
combustible     adj. 易燃的(capable of combustion)
comely     n. 美丽的(having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain)
comity     n. 礼让, 礼仪(friendly social atmosphere·social harmony)
commencement   n. 开始(an act, instance, or time of beginning)
commencement   n. 开始,毕业典礼(the ceremonies for conferring degrees)
commend     vt. 委托给,推荐(to mention with approbation)嘉奖(praise)
commensurate   adj. 同样大小的,相当的(equal in measure or extent;coextensive)
commercial   n. 商业广告(an advertisement broadcast on radio or television)
commingle   v. 混合(to combine into a common fund or stock)
commitment   n. 许诺,义务(an engagement to assume a financial obligation)
committed   adj. 受约束的(obligate, bind)
commodious     adj. 宽敞的(comfortably or conveniently spacious;roomy)
commonsense   adj.具有常识的(sound & prudent but often unsophisticated judgment)
commotion   n. 骚乱(an agitated disturbance)
compendium     n. 纲要(a brief summary of a larger work)
complacency     n. 满足(self-satisfaction)
complaisance     n. 彬彬有礼,柔顺(disposition to please or comply;affability)
compliant     adj. 顺从的(ready or disposed to comply;submissive)
compliment   vt. 称赞expressing or containing a compliment
comply   vi. 顺从,答应(to conform or adapt one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity)
composed   adj. 镇静的,使安定freefrom agitation;calm
compound     v.混和adj.复合的
compress   vt. 压缩(to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing)
compromise     n. 妥协,折衷(to come to agreement by mutual concession)
compunction     n. 后悔(anxiety arising from awareness of guilt)
concatenate   v. 连结(to link together in a series or chain;articulate)
concave     adj. 凹的(hollowed or rounded inward like the inside of a bowl)
conceal     v. 隐藏(to prevent disclosure or recognition of)
concede   v. 承认(to grant as a right or privilege)
concentrate   v. 集中(focus),浓缩(to make less dilute)
concerted     adj. 商议定的(mutually agreed on)共同完成的(performed in unison)
conciliate     v. 安抚,调和(to overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease)
concise   adj. 简洁的(brief & compact)
concord   n.一致,和睦 (a state of agreement;harmony)
concur     vi. 意见相同,一致(to act together to a common end or single effect)
condescending     adj. 谦逊的,故意屈尊的,叫人领情似的
condign   adj. 应得的,恰当的(deserved, appropriate)
condole   vi. 表达同情或悲伤(to express sympathetic sorrow)
condone   vt. 宽恕(to pardon or overlook voluntarily)
conducive     adj. 有益的,有促进的(tending to promote or assist)
conductor   n. 领导者,指挥(one who directs an orchestra or other such group)
confident     adj. 有信心的,自信的(self-reliant)
confine   vt. 禁闭 (something that restrains)
confluence     n.汇合(a coming or flowing together, meeting, or gathering at one point)
confront     vt. 使面对,对抗 (to face especially in challenge;oppose)
confound   v. 混淆(to fail to discern differences between)
congeal   v. 凝固(to make viscid or curdled;coagulate)
congenial     adj. 温和的(sociable,genial)
congruent     adj.和谐一致的,全等的(being in agreement, harmony, or correspondence)
conjecture   n./v.推测,猜测(inference from defective or presumptive evidence)
connive     vi. 暗中合作, 密谋(to cooperate secretly or have a secret understanding)
connoisseur   n. 鉴赏家 (expert who is competent to act as a critical judge)
conquest     n. 征服(the act or process of conquering)
conscientious     adj. 有责任心的,负责的(thorough & assiduous)
consensus     n. 一致,团结(group solidarity in sentiment & belief)
conservative   adj. 保守的n.保守的人(tradiyional)
conservatory   n.温室,音乐学院(a school specializing in one of the fine arts)
conserve   vt. 保存,保全(to keep in a safe or sound state)
considerable   adj. 值得考虑的,重要的(worth consideration;significant)
console   vt. 安慰,藉慰(to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of)
consolidate   vt. 使联合,统一,巩固 (to join together into one whole;unite)
consonance   n. 一致,调和(harmony or agreement among components)
conspicuous   adj.显著的,显而易见的(obvious to the eye or mind)
conspiracy     n. 共谋, 阴谋(treacherous plot)
constitute     vt. 构成,任命(to appoint to an office, function, or dignity)
constrained   adj. 束缚的,节制
constringe     vt. 压缩(to cause to contract; constrict)
construct       v. 建造(to make or form by combining or arranging parts or elements)
consummate     adj. 完美的(complete in every detail; of the highest degree)
contagious   adj. 传染性的,会传播的(communicable by contact;catching)
contaminate   vt. 染污(to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact)
content   adj. 满足的(manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions)
contentious   adj.好辩的,喜争吵的(exhibiting an often perverse tendency to quarrels)
contiguous   adj. 紧邻的,接壤的(being in actual contact)
contort     v. 扭弯,曲解(to twist into a strained shape or expression)
contract   v. 收缩(to reduce to smaller size by squeezing or forcing together)
contravene   v. 违反,反驳,反对(to oppose in argument:CONTRADICT)
contrite   adj. 后悔的,痛悔的(grieving & penitent for sin or shortcoming)
control       n. 在对照实验中被用作对照标准的一个或一组物体
contumacious     adj. 不服从的(stubbornly disobedient·REBELLIOUS)
conundrum   n.难题(a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun)
convalesce     vi. 渐渐康复,渐愈(to recover health gradually after sickness)
convenience   n.便利的(something conducive to comfort or ease)
convention     n. 大会,惯例(usage or custom especially in social matters)
convergent     adj. 收敛的,聚合(tending to move toward one point;confluent)
conversant   adj. 熟悉的,亲近的(having frequent or familiar association)
convert   vt. 使改变信仰(to persuade or induce to adopt a particular religion, faith, or belief)
convex     adj. 凸起的,凸面的(curving outward)
convey   vt. 传达(to communicate;impart)运输,转移
conviction   n. 深信,确信(a strong belief)n. 定罪
convoke     v. 召集会议(to call together to a meeting;assemble)
convoluted   adj.复杂的,费解的(complicated; intricately)
convulsion     n. 痉挛(violent, involuntary muscular contractions)骚乱
coop   n. 小屋,鸡笼(a cage or small enclosure for poultry)
copious   adj.丰富的(abundant; plentiful)
coquette   n.风骚的女人,玩弄男人的女人(a woman who flirt insincerely)
cord   n.木料计量单位;绳索,束缚
cordon     n. 警戒线(extended line of police to prevent access or egress)
cornucopia   n.象征丰收的羊角(羊角装饰器内装满瓜果、谷物代表丰收)
corona     n. 冠壮物,光环,日冕
coronation     n. 加冕,加冕礼(the act or occasion of crowning)
corporeal     adj. 肉体的,有形的,物质的,非精神的
corroborate   vt. 使坚固,确证(confirm)
corrosive     adj. 腐蚀的,侵蚀的n.腐蚀剂
corrugated     adj. 满是皱纹的(wrinkled; ridged)
cosmopolitan     adj. 世界性的(pertinent or common to the whole world)
cosset     v. 宠爱,娇养(to treat as a pet:coddle; pamper)
coterie     n.小团体,小圈子(group that meets socially;select circle)
countenance     v.赞成,容忍(approve; tolerate)n. 面容,表情
counterfeit     n. 赝品,伪造品(something counterfeit : FORGERY)
countermand     vt. 取消,撤销(cancel; revoke)
court   n/vt. 求爱;献殷勤n.法院,法庭;庭院
coven     n. (尤指十三个)女巫的集会(an assembly or band of usually 13 witches)
covert       adj.隐蔽的,偷偷摸摸的n.掩蔽处, 隐藏处
covetous   adj. 贪婪的,渴求的(marked by extreme desire to acquire or possess)
cow     v. 恐吓,威胁(to destroy the resolve or courage of)
cowardice   n. 懦弱(lack of courage or resolution)
cower   vi. 畏缩,退缩(to shrink away or crouch from something that menaces)
cozen   v. 欺骗,瞒(to cheat; deceive)
cramped     n. 狭促的(confined, incommodious)
crass   adj. 粗俗的;粗厚的;愚钝的(without refinement or sensitivity)
craven   adj. 懦弱的(timid)n.懦夫 (coward, dastard)
crave   v. 渴望(to yearn for)恳求(to ask for earnestly)
crease     n. 折痕(a line or ridge made by folding a pliable substance)v. 折,弄皱
credence       n.信任(belief,credit,faith)
credulous   adj. 轻信的,易受骗的(willing to believe or trust too readily)
creek   n. 小溪,小河
creep   vi. 爬,缓慢地行进(to move slowly on hands & knees)
crescendo   n&v.(声音)渐强(a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage)
crest   n.鸡冠,顶部,顶峰(the highest or culminating point; the peak)
crestfallen   adj.垂头丧气的,挫败的,失望的(dejected; discouraged)
cronyism       n. 任人唯亲,对好朋友的偏袒
croon   v. 低声歌唱 ,低吟(to sing or hum in a soft ,soothing voice)
crouch     v. 蹲伏、弯腰(to stoop, especially with the knees bent)
crucial     adj. 严重的;极重要的(of vital importance)
crumple     v. 弄皱;崩溃,垮台
crutch   n. 拐杖,支撑(a support to assist a lame person in walking)
crux     n. 中心,关键(the central or pivotal point);难题
cryptic     adj. 秘密的,神秘的(mysterious);含义模糊的(puzzling)
cuisine     n. 烹调法,烹饪(a characteristic manner or style of preparing food)
culpable   adj. 该受谴责的(deserving blame or censure);有罪的
cultivate     v.培养,栽培(to foster the growth of)
cumbersome     adj. 笨拙的,累赘的(unwieldy because of heaviness & bulk)
cunning       adj. 狡猾的(characterized by wiliness & trickery)
curator     n.(博物馆、图书馆等的) 馆长,主持
curmudgeon   n. 脾气坏的(老)人(a crusty, ill-tempered, & usually old man)
curriculum     n.课程表(a set of courses constituting an area of specialization)
cursory     adj.匆忙的,草率的(rapidly & often superficially performed or produced)
curt     adj. 简略的(rudely brief in speech or abrupt in manner)
curtail   vt.截短,缩短;削减(to cut short;reduce)
cynic     n. 犬儒主义者(a person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness)
dabbler     vi. 涉猎者,浅尝辙止者(one not deeply engaged in something)
daft   adj. 傻的,愚蠢的(silly, foolish)
daguerreotype       n.早期银板照相法
dais   n. 讲台,主席台(a raised platform, as in a lecture hall, for speakers or honored guests)
dally   vi. 闲逛,虚度时光(to waste time ;loiter)
damper     n.抑制因素,泼冷水(a dulling or deadening influence)
dandy   n.纨绔子弟,好打扮的人(a man who affects extreme elegance in clothes; a fop)
dank     adj. 阴湿的(unpleasantly moist or wet)
dapper   adj. 衣冠楚楚的;干净的(neat ,trim or smart in dress or demeanor)
dappled     adj. 有斑点的,花的
daredevil     n. 大胆的人,鲁莽的人(a recklessly bold person)
dart     vi. 疾驰,飞奔n.标枪
daunt   vt. 使胆怯,使畏缩(to overcome with fear; intimidate)
dawdle   v.n. 游手好闲,虚度光阴(to waste by trifling;idle)
deadpan     adj.无表情的,冷漠的(wooden; impassive)
dearth     n. 缺乏,粮食不足,饥谨(an inadequate supply)
debacle     n.崩溃,溃败(breaking up; downfall)
debark     vt.使下船登陆, 卸载(to unload, as from a ship or an airplane)
debase     v.贬低,贬损(to reduce in quality value, or dignity)
debilitate     vt. 使衰弱(to make weak;enfeeble)
debris   n.碎片,残骸(the remains of something broken down or destroyed)
debunk     v. 揭穿真面目,暴露(to expose the sham or falseness of)
debut   n.初次登场亮相(a first public appearance)
decadence   n. 衰落,颓废(the act or process of falling into decay)
decant   vt. 轻轻倒出(to pour liquor gently so as not to disturb the sediment)
decibel     n. 分贝(音量单位)
decipher   vt.破解,解释(to decode ,as something written in cipher)
decode     vt. 解码,译解
decorum   n.礼仪(propriety & good taste in conduct or appearance)
decrepit     adj. 衰老的,破旧的(weakened by old age; worn out by long use)
default       n. &v. 拖欠(failure to act in meeting financial obligations)
defer     v.推迟,延期,听从
deference     n. 敬意,尊重(respectful regard)
list 9   deficiency
deficiency     n. 缺乏,不足(insufficiency, an amount that is lacking or inadequate)
defile   n.(山间)小道v. 弄污,弄脏
defoliant     n. 脱叶剂, 落叶剂
deforest   vt.采伐森林,清除树林
deft   adj. 灵巧的,熟练的,敏捷的(skillful ,nimble ,facile)
defuse     vt.抚慰,减轻(to make less dangerous or tense);去掉…的雷管
defy     vt.公然反抗,违抗to resist boldly or openly
dehydrate     vt. (使)脱水,(使)干燥(to remove water from)
deify   v.神化(to worship or revere as a god)
deject     vt. 使沮丧,使灰心(to make gloomy in spirits)adj.沮丧的
deleterious     adj.有害的,有毒的(injurious to healthy ;harmful)
deliberate     adj.深思熟虑的(to think about decisions carefully)
delicacy     n.精致(fineness);令人愉悦的事情(something delightful or pleasing)
delirium   n.精神错乱,发狂(a mental disturbance)
delusion   n.错觉(an abnormal mental state)
deluge     n.大洪水;豪雨(a great flood, inundation)
delve   vt.&vi. 探究,查考(to make a careful or detailed search for information)
demagogue   n. 煽动者,蛊惑民心的政客
demanding   adj. 过分要求的,苛求的(making difficult or excessive demands)
demolition     n. 破坏,毁坏;毁坏之遗迹
demonstrate   v.论证,证明(to prove or make clear by reasoning or evidence)
demoralize     vt. 使道德颓废;使堕落;挫折锐气
demotic   adj.通俗的,大众化的(popular)
demur     v.表示异议,反对(to make objection ,esp. on the grounds of scruples)
denigrate     vt.玷污,诋毁(to cast aspersions on·disparage)
denouement       n.(小说的)结尾,结局
denounce     v. 公开指责,揭发(to condemn or censure openly or publicly)
dent   n.凹,凹痕 (a depression made by pressure)
denture     n.假牙
denude     v.脱去,剥蚀,剥夺(to strip of all covering or surface layers; bare)
despise     vt.轻视(to regard with contempt or aversion;scorn)厌恶(to hate)
deplete       vt. 耗尽,使衰竭(to lessen markedly in content, power, or value)
deplore       vt.深表遗憾(regret);反对(to consider deserving of deprecation)
deploy     v.展开(有策略性的);调度(to spread out strategically)
deportation   n. 驱逐,放逐(the removal from a country of an alien)
depose       vt.作证(to testify to under oath or by affidavit);免职
deposit   vt.沉淀n.沉淀,押金(to put or set down; place)
depravity     n. 堕落,腐败,邪恶(a corrupt act or practice)
deprecate   vt. 不赞成,贬低(to express earnest disapproval of)
depreciate     v. 贬低,贬值(to lower the price or estimated value of)
depressed   adj. 沮丧的(low in spirits:sad;especially:affected by psychological depression)
deprivation   n. 剥夺(the state of being deprived)损失,匮乏(loss)
deracinate     vt. 根除,灭绝 (uproot)
derelict   adj. 玩忽职守的n.被遗弃的人
deride     vt. 嘲弄,嘲笑(to laugh at in scorn or contempt; mock)
derivative     adj. 派生的,无创意的(lacking originality·banal)
descend   v. 降落 (to pass from a higher place or level to a lower one)
descendant     n.后代,后裔(one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype)
desecrate     vt.亵渎,污辱(to treat with sacrilege;profane)
desiccate       vt. 使干,干贮(to preserve(a food)by drying·dehydrate)
designate     vt.任命,命名(entitle)
despicable     adj. 可鄙的,卑劣的
despotic       adj.专制的,暴虐的
dessert     n. 餐后甜点
desultory     adj.散漫的,不连贯的,断断续续的(lacking in consistency or order)
detach     vt. 分离(unfasten or separate);派遣(to sent on a special mission)
detain     v. 拘留(to keep under restraint);阻止(to keep from processing)
deter   vt. 制止,威慑
deterioration       n.恶化;堕落
detour     vi.绕路而行(to avoid by going around ;bypass)
detoxification       n. 解毒
detract     v. 减去,贬低(to take away a part ,as from value or reputation)
detritus     n. 废品(a product of disintegration, destruction);废墟
devoted     adj. 投入的,深爱的,忠诚的
devout     adj. 虔诚的(devoted to religion)
dew       n. 露水
dexterous     adj.心灵手巧的(skillful & competent with the hands)
diabolic     adj.恶魔一般的(devilish; fiendish)
diaphanous     adj.精致的,几乎透明的(very sheer & light, nearly transparent)
diatribe     n.抨击性演说 (a abusive denunciation ,criticism or writing )
didactic     adj.教诲的、说教的(intended for instruction ;moralizing or preaching)
die     v.模具
diehard     n.死硬分子(person who vigorously resists change)
diffident       adj. 不自信的,羞怯的(hesitant through lack of self-confidence)
diffuse   adj.罗嗦的,冗长的(being at once verbose & ill-organized)
digit   n. 手指或脚趾(a human finger or toe)数字
digress     v. 离题(to turn aside especially from the main subject)
dilapidate     v. (使)毁坏(to fallen into of decay or partial ruin)
dilate     vt. 使膨胀,使扩大 (to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent)
dilatory     adj. 拖拉的,不慌不忙的(tending to delay or procrastination)
dilettante   n. 业余爱好者(dabbler)
diligent     adj. 勤勉的,辛勤的(constant & earnest in effort & application)
dilute   v. 稀释(to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture)
list 10    dimension
dimension   n. 尺寸;维度
diminish     v. 减少(to make or become smaller ,less, or less important)
din     n. 喧闹声,嘈杂声(a loud continued noise)
dingy   adj. 肮脏的,暗黑褪色的(a dark, dull ,or dirty color)
diocesan   adj. 主教管区的(a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese)
diplomatic   adj.外交的(of or engaged in diplomacy);老练的(tactful or suave)
dire     adj.悲惨的,阴惨的(dismal,oppressive);可怕的
dirge   n. 挽歌(a song or hymn of grief or lamentation)
disabuse   v.使省悟,纠正 (to free from error, fallacy, or misconception)
disaffected     adj.不满的,叛离的(discontented especially against authority)
disarm     vi.解除武装,缓和,消除敌意(to deprive of reason to be hostile)
disarray     n.vt. 杂乱,混乱(to throw into disorder, confusion)
disavow     vt. 否认,抵赖,不想承担责任(to disclaim responsibility for)
discern   v.辨别(to recognize or identify as separate & distinct ,discriminate)
discharge   vt.解雇(to dismiss from employment)
disciple     n.信徒,门徒
discombobulate     v.使混乱,使仓惶失措(to confuse or disconcert)
discomfit     v. 使窘迫;使沮丧 (to confuse & deject)
discommode     v.使不便;打扰(to cause inconvenience to;trouble )
discompose   vt. 使不安,使烦乱(to destroy the composure of)
disconcert   vt. 使困惑,使不安(to disturb the self-possession of ,perturb)
discord     n. 不和谐(lack of agreement or harmony)
discourse     n. 演说;论文
discredit     v. 羞辱(to injure the reputation)
discrepancy     n.差异,矛盾(divergence or disagreement)
discrete     adj. 分离的,不连续的(apart or detached from others)
discretion   n.慎重(circumspection);判断力(ability to make responsible decisions)
discretionary   adj.随意的,自主决定的(exercised at one's own discretion)
discriminate     v. 区别,差别对待(to note a difference)
discursive   adj. 散漫的,无主题的(moving from topic to topic without aim)
disdain     v. 轻视,鄙视(treat with scorn or contempt)
disengage   vt. 解开,分开(uncouple; separate; disconnect)
disgorge   v. 吐出(surrender something),呕出(vomit)
disgruntle   vt. 使不高兴(make discontented)
disguise   v.伪装,掩饰(to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity)
disinclination     n. 不起劲,不感兴趣,厌恶(slight aversion)
disinfect     vt. 消毒(to free from infection)
disjointed     adj.脱节的;杂乱的
disinter     v.掘出
disinterested     adj. 无偏见的(free from selfish motive or interest;unbiased)
disjunctive     adj.可分的,分离性的,分隔的(marked by breaks or disunity)
dismantle     vt. 拆除...的设备,分解(to take to pieces)
dismay     n.沮丧,惊慌v.使沮丧,使惊慌
disparage   v. 贬低,轻视(belittle)
disparate   adj. 迥然不同的(basically different);不相关的(unrelated)
dispassionate     adj.冷静的(calm);公正的(impartial)
dispatch     n. 迅捷(speedy action)v. 派遣,一下做完
dispose     vt. 使倾向(incline)vi.处理掉(dispose of 与of连用)
disregard   v.不重视,漠视
disrupt     vt. 使分裂(to break apart);扰乱,打断(to disturb or interrupt)
dissect     vt.vi. 解剖,切成碎片(to cut apart to examine the structure)
dissemble   v. 用假象隐藏真相、掩饰;假装(to put on a false appearance)
disseminate   vt. 广泛散播、传播(to scatter or spread widely)
dissension   n. 意见不合,纠纷,倾轧(strong disagreement or discord)
dissent   vi. 持异议,不同意,不墨守成规(to differ in opinion or sentiment)
dissipate     vt. 驱散(dispel);浪费(squander);放纵(to be dissolute)
dissolute     adj.放荡的(indifferent to moral restrains)
dissolve     v. 溶解(to cause to pass into solution);解散(disintegrate)
dissonance   n.不和谐(lack of agreement, harmony)
dissuade     vt. 劝阻(to deter by advice or persuasion)
distain     v. 贬损,伤害名誉
distal     adj远离中心的,(神经)末梢的(situated away from the point of attachment or origin or
distend     n.膨胀(expand;swell out)
distill     v. 蒸馏
distort       vt. 扭曲,歪曲(to reproduce or amplify inaccurately)
distract     vt. 转移,分心(to divert in the mind);使发狂(to disturb or trouble greatly)
distraught   adj. 心神狂乱的,极其烦恼的(bewildered)
ditty     n. 小调,小曲(an especially simple & unaffected song)
diurnal     adj. 白昼的,白天的(occurring in the daytime; daily)
diverge     vi. 分歧;岔开(vary; go in different directionsfrom the same point )
diversity     n.差异;多样性
divert   vt.使转向(to turn from one course or use to another,deflect)
divestiture     n. 剥夺,脱衣 (the act of divesting)
divulge   vt.泄漏秘密(to make known as a secret)
dodder       vi. 摇摆,蹒跚(to progress feebly & unsteadily)
dodge       v.避开,躲避(to evade by a sudden or repeated shift of position)
doff   vt. 脱(to take off);丢弃;废除
dogged     adj. 顽固的,顽强的(marked by stubborn determination)
doggerel       adj.歪诗的n.打油诗(crude or trivial poetry)
dogma       n. 教条(something held as an established opinion)
doldrums   n. 情绪低落(a dull, depressed mood)
dolorous   adj. 悲哀的,忧愁的(full of or cause pain or sorrow)
dolt   n. 呆子,笨蛋,傻瓜(a blockhead ;dunce)
list 11   domicile
domicile   n.住所,住宅(a dwelling place·place of residence)
domination   n. 支配,控制(supremacy or preeminence over another)
don   vt. 穿上(to put on or dress in an article of clothing)
donor     n. 捐赠人(one that gives, donates, or presents something)
doodle     n.v. 乱写,乱画(to draw or scribble idly)
dormant     adj.休眠的,静止的,不活跃的(lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive)
dour   adj.严肃的,严厉的(sullen; gloomy; severe ;stern)
downpour   n. 暴雨,倾盆大雨(a heavy , drenching rain)
doyen   n. 老资格,首席(the senior member of a body or group)
doze     vi.瞌睡;假寐(to fall into a light sleep; nap)
draconian   adj. 严峻的,苛刻的(cruel; severe)
drawl   v. 懒洋洋地说,慢慢地说(to utter in a slow lengthened tone)
dreary   adj. 沉闷的(having nothing likely to provide cheer)
drench     v.湿透,浸透(to wet thoroughly)
drivel   vi.说傻话n.胡言乱语,傻话(silly or meaningless talk)
drizzle   n./v. 下毛毛雨,毛毛雨(a very light rain)
droll   adj. 古怪的,滑稽的,好笑的(having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality)
drone   vt.嗡嗡地说出,单调而低沉地说(to make a continued ,low, monotonous sound)
drudgery   n. 苦差,苦工(dull, irksome, & fatiguing work)
dubious   adj. 可疑的;不确定的(inclined to doubt ;questionable)
ductile     n.有延展性的(capable of being drawn out or hammered thin)
dulcet     adj.(声音)悦耳的(pleasing to the ear; melodious)
dullard     n.愚人,笨蛋(a stupid or insensitive person)
dune     n.沙丘(a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind)
dupe     n. 傻瓜,易受骗的人v.欺骗(to delude by underhand methods)
dwindle       v.逐渐缩小;衰落(to become gradually less until little remains)
dyspeptic     adj. 消化不良的;阴郁的;脾气坏的(of or displaying a morose disposition)
dyslexia     n.[医] 阅读障碍
eaglet     n.小鹰;小雕(a young eagle)
earnest     adj.认真的;诚恳的(proceeding from an serious state of mind)
earplug     n.耳塞(an ornament inserted in the lobe of the ear to distend it)
earshot     n.听力所及的范围(the range within which the voice may be heard)
earsplitting     adj.震耳欲聋的(distressingly loud or shrill)
easel   n. 画架(An upright frame for supporting something, such as an artist's canvas)
eavesdrop   v.偷听(to listen secretly to what is said in private)
ebullient     adj.热情奔放的(showing excitement)
eccentric     adj.古怪的(odd;whimsical;irregular)n.行为古怪者
eclat     n.辉煌成就(a notable success)
eclipse     n.v.日月蚀;使黯然失色(darken;extinguish)
ecstasy     n.v.狂喜(a state of being overwhelming emotion)
ecumenical       adj.世界范围的;一般性的;特指世界范围基督教的
eddy     n.v.漩涡(a current moving contrary to the direction of the main current)
edible       adj.可食用的(fit to be eaten:)
edifice   n.大厦;大建筑物(an elaborate conceptual structure)
efface     v. 擦掉;抹去;磨灭(rub out)
effervesce     vi.冒泡(bubble)欢腾(show liveliness or exhilaration)
effete     adj.衰老的;疲惫的(no longer fertile)
effluvium     n. 臭气(noxious smell);没用的副产品(pl.effluvia)
effulgence   adj.光辉,灿烂(radiant splendor;brilliance)
effusive   adj. 感情横溢的;喷发的(pouring forth;gushing)
egalitarian       n.adj.平等主义(的)
egoism     n. 利己主义(a doctrine that self-interest is the valid end)
elaborate     v.详述adj.精细的;详尽的(full of detail)
elastic       adj.有弹性的;能伸展的(easily resuming original shape after being stretched)
elate   adj. 兴高采烈的(elated)v.使兴奋(to fill with joy)
elbow       n.肘(the joint of the human arm)
eleemosynary       adj.施舍的;慈善的(supported by charity)
elegy       n.哀歌(诗);挽歌(诗)(poem or song expressing lamentation)
elephantine     adj.象的;巨大的having enormous size or strength
elevate       v.举起;提升(rank or status);振奋(moral,intellect,culture,spirits)
elicit     vt. 引出;引起(draw out by discussion)
ellipsis     n.省略;省略号(marks indicating an omission or a pause)
elliptical     adj.椭圆的;省略的;朦胧含糊的
elucidate     v. 阐明;说明(explain;enlighten)
emaciate     v .使憔悴(to make feeble);减肥
emancipate     v.解放(to free from bondage)
embargo     n.(贸易)禁运令;封港令(ban on commerce)
embark   vi.上船;开始从事(commence)
embarrass     vt.使困窘(to cause to feel self-conscious or ill at ease);妨碍(impede)
embed     vt. 嵌入,放入(enclose;place in something)
embezzle     vt.盗用;挪用(to appropriate fraudulently to one's own use)
embolden     v.壮胆;鼓励(to instill with boldness or courage)
emboss     vt.饰以浮饰;使凸出来;浮雕装饰(to ornament with raised work)
embrace     n.v.拥抱;乐于接受(to take up especially readily or gladly)
embroider     v.刺绣(to ornament with needlework)
emigrate     v.(使)移居;(使)移民
eminence       n.显赫地位;出众(a position of prominence or superiority)
emollient     adj.使柔软的n. 润滑剂,安慰剂
emulate     vt. 努力赶上;仿效 (to strive to equal or excel)
enact       vt.制定颁布法律(to cause to be by legal & authoritative act)
enamel     n.珐琅;瓷釉;搪瓷(a usually opaque vitreous composition)
encomium     n.高度赞扬(glowing & warmly enthusiastic praise)
list 12  encompass
encompass     v.环绕(surround);包含(include)
encumber     v. 阻碍;妨碍
endemic       n.地方病adj.地方性的(epidemic)
endorse     vt. 背书,签署;支持(to approve openly)
enervate     vt.使衰弱(to weaken or destroy the strength or vitality of)
enfranchise     vt. 给予选举权;解放(to endow with the right to vote)
effrontery     n.厚颜无耻;冒犯胆大(brazen boldness; presumptuousness)
engender     vt. 产生;导致(cause; produce)
engross       vt.使全神贯注(occupy fully)
enigma       n.谜语;费解的事物(puzzle)
enlighten     vt. 启发;教导;照耀(to give spiritual or intellectual insight to)
enmity     n.敌意(ill will; hatred)
ennoble     vt.授予爵位;使尊贵(to make noble)
ennui       n.v.倦怠;厌倦(a feeling of weariness & dissatisfaction)
ensemble     n. 合奏曲(a work for two or more vocalists or instrumentalists)
ensconce     vt. 安置(to establish or place firmly, comfortably, or snugly)
ensue       vi. 随之而来(follow)
entangle     vt. 使纠缠;卷入(to twist together or entwine into a confusing mass;snarl)
enthusiasm     n.狂热;热心
entice       vt. 诱使(lure; attract; tempt)
entrance     vt.使狂喜;使入迷(carry away with emotion)n.入口
entrap       vt.诱骗(to lure into a compromising statement or act)
entreat     v. 恳求(to make an earnest request)
enunciate     v.清晰发音(articulate);阐明
epaulet       n.肩章;肩饰(something that ornaments the shoulder)
ephemeral     adj.朝生暮死的;极短暂的(lasting a very short time)
epic     n.史诗adj.史诗的;英勇的;超出正常范围的
epicure     n.美食家 (one with sensitive tastes especially in food or wine)
epidermis     n.表皮;上皮
epigram     n.警句(a terse, sage, or witty & often paradoxical saying)
epilogue     n.收场白;尾声
episode     n.一段情节(one event in a chain of events)
epistemology     n.认识论(a theory of the nature & grounds of knowledge)
epitaph       n. 墓志铭;碑文
epithet       n.绰号;脏话(a disparaging or abusive word or phrase)
epitome     n.摘要(summary);典型(a typical or ideal example)
equable       adj. 稳定的(unvarying; steady);心态平和的(not easily disturbed; serene)
equipoise     n.v.平衡
equity       n.公平(freedom from bias or favoritism)
equivocate     vi. 模棱两可地说(to avoid making an explicit statement)
erode   v. 使腐蚀;使侵蚀(to eat into;corrode)
errant   adj.漫游的(moving about aimlessly or irregularly);犯错误的(fallible)
erratic   adj.不稳定的;古怪的;游移的(having no fixed course)
erudite   adj. 博学的n.博学之士
escalate   v.(战争等)升级,上升(to increase in amount, intensity, or scope)
eschew     v.避开;戒绝(to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds)
esoteric   adj.秘传的 (understood by the specially initiated alone)
espouse     vt.支持;拥护(adopt; support)参加婚礼,结婚(to take in marriage;marry)
esteem     n.v.尊重(repect;value)
estimable     adj.值得尊敬的(worthy of esteem);可估计的;有价值的
estrange     vt.使疏远;使隔离(separate; alienate)
etch     n.腐蚀剂v.蚀刻
eternal     adj.永恒的
ethereal     adj. 轻飘的;空气的;太空的(light; heavenly)
ethics     n. 伦理学
eulogize     vt.称赞;颂扬
euphemism     n.婉言(mild expression in place of an unpleasant one)
euphonious   adj.悦耳的(pleasing or agreeable to the ear)
euphoria     n.精神欢快;欣快症(a feeling of well-being or elation)
evacuate     v.疏散;撤离
evanescent     adj.短暂的;逐渐消失的(fleeting; vanishing)
evasion     n.逃避,借口(the act or an instance of evading)
everlasting     adj.永恒的,无止境的(lasting forever;eternal)n. 永久
evict   vt.赶出;驱逐(expel)
evince     vt. 表明;表示(show clearly)
evoke     vt. 唤起,引发(call forth)
ewe     n.母羊(ram公羊)
exacerbate       vt.激怒;使加剧(worsen;embitter)
exacting     adj.苛求的;吃力的(extremely demanding)
exalt     v. 提升;赞扬(raise in rank or dignity; praise)
exasperate     vt. 激怒,使加剧adj.激怒的
excavate     v.挖掘,挖空(to make a hole in;hollow out)
exceptional     adj.例外的,异常的,特别的(being an exception; uncommon)
excerpt     v. 做摘录n.摘录(selected passage)
excoriate       v. 严厉批评(to censure strongly;denounce)
excrete       vt. 分泌,排泄(to separate & discharge (waste matter) from the organs)
excruciate       vt. 施酷刑;折磨(afflict)
exculpate     vt. 声明无罪;开脱(clear from blame)
excursive     adj. 离题的;散漫的(having the nature of digression)
execrate     v.憎恶;咒骂(curse; express abhorrence for)
exemplary     adj.可仿效的;模范的(worthy of imitation; commendable)
exempt     adj. 免除的vt. 使免除(to free from an obligation to which others are subject)
exhaust     vt. 耗尽;使精疲力尽(to wear out completely)
list 13   exhilarate
exhilarate     vt. 使振奋;使兴奋(To cause to feel happily refreshed & energetic;elate)
exhort     v. 劝告;规劝(urge)
exodus     vt.大批离去(departure)
exonerate     v. 免除责任;确定无罪(acquit; exculpate)
exorbitant     adj. 过度的(excessive)
exotic       adj.外来的,奇异的(not native; strange)n.外国人
expansive     adj. 易膨胀的;广阔的;健谈的,外向的;自大狂的
expedite       vt.加快(hasten)adj.无阻碍的;迅速的
expedition     n.远征;探险队;迅速
expiate     vt.补偿vi.赎罪make amends for (a sin)
expire       v.期满;终止;断气
explicit       adj.外在的;清楚的;直率的;结尾的(totally clear; definite)
exploit     n. 英雄事迹(deed, act;especially:a notable or heroic act)
exponent     n.倡导者;阐述者(one that champions, practices, or exemplifies)
expurgate     v.净化;删去不当处(clean; remove offensive parts of a book)
exquisite     adj.高雅的;精致的(characterized by intricate & beautiful design)
extant       adj.现存的;传世的(still in existence)
extemporize     v.即席演说
extenuate     vt.减轻;使人原谅(weaken; mitigate)
extinct     adj.绝种的;熄灭了的(no longer existing or living)
extinguish     vt.熄灭;消灭(to put out (a fire, for example); quench)
extol       v. 颂扬;吹捧(praise; glorify)
extort       v.敲诈;强占(wring from; get money by threats, etc.)
extract     n.榨出物;摘录vt.榨取;摘录
extraneous     adj.外来的;无关的;体外的
extravagant     adj.奢侈的;无节制的
extricate     vt.使解脱,救出(free; disentangle)
exuberant     adj.繁茂的;丰富的;非常高兴的(abundant; effusive; lavish)
exude       vt.vi.(使)流出;(使)渗出(discharge; give forth)
exult       v.狂喜(rejoice)
fable       n.寓言
fabricate     vt.制造;捏造(build; lie)
facetious     adj.轻浮的;好开玩笑的(humorous; jocular)
facilitate     vt.帮助;使容易;促进(make less difficult)
faction     n.派别;派系斗争(party; clique; dissension)
fallacy       n.谬论
fallow       adj.休耕的;闲置的(plowed but sowed; uncultivated)
fail-safe     n.自动防故障装置
falsehood       n.谎言;虚假
falter       n.v. 蹒跚;颤抖;动摇(hesitate)支吾说话
fanatic       n.狂热者;盲信者adj.狂热的;盲信的
fang     n.(犬狼等的)犬牙;(毒蛇的)毒牙
fantasy     n.v.幻想
farce     n.闹剧(broad comedy; mockery)
fascinate     vt.强烈吸引;使着迷
fast     n.绝食;斋戒adv.快地;稳固地
fastidious     adj.难取悦的;挑剔的
fateful     adj.命中注定的;重大的;致命性的(vitally affecting subsequent events;momentous)
fathom     v. 理解,调查,测量(comprehend; investigate)
fatigue     n.v.疲惫adj.疲惫的
fatuous     adj.愚昧的;痴呆的;虚幻的(foolish; inane)
faultfinder   n.找岔,喜欢挑剔的人(one who is given to petty criticism & constant complaint)
fawn   n.未满周岁的小鹿;巴结v.阿谀奉承adj.奉承的
faze     vt. 打扰,折磨,使狼狈(disconcert; dismay)
feckless     adj. 无效的;无力气的;粗心不负责任的(careless & irresponsible)
fecund       adj. 多产的;丰饶的;肥沃的(capable of producing offspring or vegetation)
feeble       adj.衰弱的;无效的(lacking strength; weak.)
feigned     adj.假装的(not genuine or real)
fender     n.挡泥板;防御物
feral       adj.野生的;凶猛的(of or suggestive of a wild animal;savage)
ferrous       adj.铁的;含铁的
fertilize       vt.施肥;使丰饶;使受精(to make (soil, for example) fertile)
fervid     adj.热情的(marked by great passion or zeal)
fervor     n.热情(great warmth & intensity of emotion)
fester     n.脓疮v.溃烂;感染(to infect, inflame, or corrupt.);烦恼
fetid     adj.有恶臭的(malodorous)
fetter     n.脚镣v.束缚(s hackle)
fiasco   n.大失败;惨败(total failure)
fickle     adj.(感情等)易变的(capricious);薄情的
fictitious     adj.虚构的;小说的(imaginary)
fidelity       n.忠诚;尽职(loyalty)
fidget     vi.n.坐立不安;烦躁
figurative     adj.比喻的;字意引申的(not literal, but metaphorical)
figurine       n.小雕像
filibuster     n.v. 妨碍议事;阻挠(block legislation by making long speeches)
filigree     n.金银丝做的工艺品(ornamental openwork of delicate design)
filing     n.锉屑(a particle or shaving removed by a file)
filly     n.小雌马
filter     v.过滤(to remove by passing through a filter)n. 滤器
finale     n.终场;结尾;终曲
finch   n.雀类鸣鸟(如燕雀,金丝雀)
finesse     n.技巧;计谋;手段(delicate skill)
finicky     adj. 过分讲究的(extremely nice, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards)
list 14   flaccid
flaccid     adj.软弱无力的(flabby)
flag     n.旗;标记v.标记;变弱衰退(droop; grow feeble)
flamboyant     adj. 辉耀华丽的;火焰似的;浮夸的
flatter       vt.过分夸赞;奉承(to compliment excessively & often insincerely, especially in
flaw     n.瑕疵;缺点v.生裂缝
flax     n.亚麻
fledge     v.长羽毛(to grow the plumage necessary for flight)
fleet     adj.快速的vt.消磨vi.疾驰;飞逝;掠过
flexible     adj. 有弹性的;柔韧的;灵活的
flinch     n.v.畏缩;退缩(to recoil, as from something unpleasant or difficult;shrink)
flippancy     n. 轻率,无礼
flirt   v.调情(to make playfully romantic or sexual overtures)n.调情者
flit     n.v.掠过;迁徙(fly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by)
flock     n.一群;大量v.聚结
florid   adj.华丽的(very flowery in style)
flounder     n.v.挣扎;犯错;困难地往前走
flourish     vi.繁荣;茂盛;炫耀(grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures)
flout     n.v.蔑视(reject; mock)
fluctuate     vi.波动;动摇(wave)
fluent     adj.流利的;流畅的
fluke   n.侥幸(unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune)
flush     vi.脸红;冲洗(to be emptied or cleaned by a rapid flow of water, as a toilet.)
fluster     v. 慌乱(confuse)
fluvial     adj. 河流的
foible     n.小缺点
foil     v.挫败n.金属薄片
foliage     n.树叶;一簇叶子masses of leaves
foment     vt.引发;煽动(stir up; instigate)
foolproof     adj.连傻子都懂的;十分简单的
footloose     adj.自由自在的
forebear     n.祖先
forbearance     n.克制;忍耐;宽容
ford     n.浅滩v.涉水place where a river can be crossed on foot
forestall     vt.预先阻止;先发制人prevent by taking action in advance
foreword     n.前言
forgery     n.伪造;伪造品
formidable     adj.可怕的;艰难的(menacing; threatening)
forthright     adj.直率的;立即的(straightforward; direct; frank)
fortify       vt.增强
foster       vt. 养育培养;鼓励(to promote the growth & development of)
founder     vt. 完败(fail completely)沉没(sink)n.奠基者
fracas       n.喧闹的吵架(brawl; melee)
fracture     n.破裂;骨折
fragile       adj.易碎的;脆弱的;纤巧的
frail     adj.虚弱的;脆弱的;(意志)薄弱的
fraudulent     adj.欺诈的cheating; deceitful
freelancer     n.自由作家
frenzy     n.疯狂v.使发狂
frequent     v. 时常出入出现,常往;adj.经常的
fresco       n.壁画
fret         n.苦恼;侵蚀v.使苦恼;侵蚀;烦恼
friable       adj.易碎的;脆的
friction     n.摩擦;不和
frieze       n.在墙顶与天花板间起装饰作用的横条饰带
frigid       adj.酷寒的(intensely cold)
fringe       n.边缘(a marginal, peripheral, or secondary part)
frivolous     adj.轻浮的,琐屑的(lacking in seriousness;relatively unimportant)
frond       n.蕨类叶子;庞大的叶子(fern leaf; palm or banana leaf)
frothy       adj. 泡沫的;浅薄的(playfully frivolous in character or content)
frowsy/frowzy     adj.肮脏的;难闻的(sordid)
frugal       adj.节约的(practicing by economy, as in the expenditure of money)
frustrate     adj. 失败的v.挫败;使泄气灰心(to cause feelings of discouragement in)
full-bodied     adj.躯体大的;味道浓烈的
fulminate     v. 大声斥责(to issue a thunderous verbal attack or denunciation)
fumble       n.v.摸索;乱摸(to grope awkwardly to find or to accomplish something)
fungi         n.真菌类;蘑菇[pl.
furnace       n.火炉
furor       n.喧闹;狂怒;狂热(a general commotion; public disorder or uproar)
furtive       adj.偷偷摸摸的;秘密的(stealthy; sneaky)
fury         n.暴怒;狂怒;狂暴
fussy       adj. 过分注重细节的;挑剔的(requiring great attention to sometimes trivial details)
fusty       adj. 发霉味的(smelling of mildew or decay;musty);守旧的(antique)
futile       adj.白费力气的;无益的;无用的(ineffective; fruitless)
gadfly       n.牛虻;讨厌的人(any of various flies)
gadget       n.小玩意(a contrivance)
gaffe       n.社交上失言;失态(a social or diplomatic blunder)
gainsay     v.否认(deny)
gait         n.步态;步法(manner of walking or running)
galaxy       n.银河;星系(the Milky Way)
gall         n.v.(使)烦恼;(使)焦躁;难堪(annoy; chafe)
gallant       adj.华丽的;英勇的
galley       n.船上厨房
galvanize     v.电镀;激励(to arouse to awareness or action; spur)
list 15   gamble
gamble       v.赌博;孤注一掷(to engage in reckless or hazardous behavior)
gambol       n.vi.欢跳;雀跃(to leap about playfully; frolic)
gangly       adj.身材瘦长的(gangling.)
gangway     n.过道;通路;跳板
garble       v.曲解;篡改;混淆(mix up; jumble; distort)
gargantuan     adj.巨大的(huge; enormous)
garish       adj.俗丽的;过分装饰的(gaudy)
garment     n.衣服;外观
garrulous     adj.唠叨的;啰嗦的(tiresomely talkative)
gash       n.砍得很深的伤口;很深的裂缝(a long, deep cut)
gasification     n.气化
gauche     adj.笨拙的;粗鲁无礼的;缺乏社交经验的(lacking social polish; tactless)
gaudy     adj.俗丽的(ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented)
gauge     n.度量规格;测量器具vt.度量;估计
gear       n.齿轮;工具
genial       adj.和蔼的;亲切的(having a pleasant or friendly disposition or manner)
genteel       adj.上流社会有教养的;文雅的;时髦的(well-bred; elegant)
germane     adj. 有密切关系的(being at once relevant & appropriate:fitting)
gerrymander     vt. 不公正划分选区(to divide an area into political units to give special advantages to
geyser       n. 间歇泉;(英)(洗澡用)燃气热水器
gibe     v. 嘲笑,奚落(to deride or tease with taunting words)
giddy     adj. 轻率的(lightheartedly silly:frivolous)
girder   n. 大梁(a horizontal main structural member that supports vertical loads)
gist     n.要点, 要旨(the main point or part ;essence)
glacier     n.冰川(a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope)
glade       n.林间空地(an open space surrounded by woods)
gladiator     n.角斗士
glaze     n.釉v.使表面光滑(a smooth slippery coating of thin ice)
glib   adj. 流利圆滑的,善辩的(marked by fluency in speaking or writing)
glisten     v. 闪光 (to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection)
glitch     n. 小故障(a usually minor malfunction)
gloat       vi. 满足的看(有幸灾乐祸的味道)
gloomy   adj. 阴沉的,昏暗的;忧郁的(low in spirits·melancholy)
gloss     n. 简短解释(a brief explanation of a difficult;annotate)
glossary   n.术语表(a collection of textual glosses)
glossy     adj. 平滑的,有光泽的(having a surface luster or brightness)
glut   n. 大量,充斥,吃饱(an excessive quantity·oversupply)
glutinous   adj. 粘的,胶状的(having the quality of glue·gummy)
glutton     n. 贪吃者(one given habitually to greedy & voracious eating)
goad     vt. 驱使,唆使(to incite or rouse as if with a goad)
gobble     vt. 狼吞虎咽(to swallow or eat greedily)
goggle     n. 护目镜
goldbrick   vi. 逃避工作和责任(to shirk duty or responsibility)
gorge   n. 峡谷vi. 狼吞虎咽(to eat greedily or to repletion)
gossamer   n. 无实体东西(sth. light or insubstantial)adj. 轻而薄的(extremely light)
gourmand   n. 嗜食者(one who is excessively fond of eating & drinking)
gourmet     n. 美食家(a connoisseur of food & drink; connoisseur)
grandeur   n. 庄严,伟大(the quality or state of being grand)
grandiloquent     adj(语言等)夸张的
grandiose   adj. 宏伟的,印象深的(imposing;impressive)
grandstand     v. 哗众取宠的表演(to play or act so as to impress onlookers)
grate       v.碾磨;发出刺耳声音;使烦恼(irritate,fret)
gratify     vt. 使满足(give pleasure or satisfaction to;please)
gratuitous     adj. 无根据的(unwarranted);免费的(given freely)
gravel     n. 鹅卵石;卵石堆(a stratum or deposit of gravel)
green     adj. 无经验的(deficient in training, knowledge, or experience)
gregarious     adj. 合群的,爱社交的(sociable)
grieve     adj.使痛苦(to cause to suffer)
grimace   n. 面部扭曲,痛苦表情,鬼脸
grin   vi.咧着嘴笑(to draw back the lips to show the teeth in amusement)
gripe   v. 抱怨,诉苦(to complain with grumbling)
grisly   adj. 恐怖的(inspiring horror or intense fear)
groove   n. 槽(a long narrow channel or depression)
grotesque   adj. 奇异的(fanciful, bizarre)
grotto     n.小洞穴, 岩穴, 人工洞室(a small cave or cavern)
grove     n.小树林(a planting of fruit or nut trees)
grovel       vi.卑躬屈膝(crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate)
grueling     adj.筋疲力尽的(trying to the point of exhaustion)
guarantee   vt. 保证,担保(undertake to do or secure)
guile     n. 狡猾,狡诈(deceitful cunning·Duplicity)
guilt     n. 罪行;内疚,自责(feelings of culpability)
gullible   adj.轻信的(easily duped or cheated)
gully     n.小峡谷(a small valley or gulch)
gum     n. 树胶;口香糖
gush   n. 涌出, 感情外溢(make an excessive display of feeling)
gust   n. 一阵狂风(a sudden brief rush of wind)
guzzle     v. 狂饮(to drink especially liquor greedily)
habitable   adj. 可居住的(suitable for habitation)
hack       n. 出租用老马(a jade),雇佣文人v.切割(to cut or sever with repeated irregular blows)
hackneyed     adj.平凡的;陈腐的(lacking in freshness or originality)
halcyon       adj. 宁静的(calm);繁荣的,丰富的(prosperous;affluent)
hale     adj. 强壮的,健壮的(free from defect;sound)
half-baked   adj.考虑不成熟的(lacking adequate planning or forethought;lacking in judgment,
list 16   hallmark
hallmark     n. 典型的特征,特点(a distinguishing trait, or feature)
hallow     vt. 视为神圣(to make holy or set apart for holy use)
hallucination     n. 幻觉,幻想
halting     adj. 蹒跚的,犹豫的(marked by a lack of effectiveness)
ham-handed       adj. 笨手笨脚的(lacking dexterity or grace)
hammer     n. 铁锤, 槌
hamper       vt.阻碍n.有盖的大篮子
hamstring     vt. 使残废,使无效(to make ineffective ;cripple)
hangdog     adj. 忧愁的,悲哀的,沮丧的;低贱的(sad, dejected)
hankering     n. 渴望(to have a strong or persistent desire)
haphazard     adj. 偶然的(marked by lack of plan, order, or direction)
harangue     v. 长篇大论(to address in aranting way)
harass     v.烦扰(to annoy persistently)
harbinger     n. 先驱,预兆(one that presages or foreshadows what is to come)
harbor     n. 港,避难所v. 包庇,隐匿(to give shelter or refuge to)
hard-bitten     adj. 顽强的,坚韧不拔的,不屈的(seasoned or steeled)
hardy     adj. 勇敢的,鲁莽的;强健的(capable of withstanding adverse conditions)
harmonious     adj. 和睦的,和谐的(marked by accord in sentiment or action)
harness       n.马具v.利用(UTILIZE)
harp     n. 竖琴
harrow     vt.折磨, 使苦恼
harry     v. 掠夺,骚扰(to torment by or as if by constant attack)
harsh     adj. 粗糙的;刺耳的;严厉的(causing a painful sensory reaction)
hasten     vt.促进vi.赶紧(to urge on)
hasty     adj. 匆匆的,急忙的(done or made in a hurry);轻率的(fast&typically superficial)
hatch n.舱口,舱口盖,(门、墙壁、地板上的)开口
haunt     vt. 常去;(思想)萦扰;(鬼魅等)常出没于n. 常到的地方
hauteur       n.傲慢,高傲,自大
haven     n. 避难所,安全的地方(a place of safety)
havoc     n.大破坏,浩劫;大混乱(great confusion & disorder)
headlong     adj. 莽撞的,轻率的(lacking in calmness or restraint Impetuous; rash)
hearken     vi.倾听(to give respectful attention)
hearten     vt. 鼓起勇气,激励(to give heart to)
heartrending     adj.令人心碎的;悲惨的(causing intense sorrow or distress)
hedonism     n.享乐主义(the doctrine that happiness is the sole good in life)
hegemony     n.霸权,统治权(preponderant influence or authority over others)
heinous   adj.可憎的,十恶不赦的(hatefully or shockingly evil·abominable)
heirloom     n. 传家宝
helmet     n.头盔
hem     n. (衣服或裙子的)褶边
herald     vt. 预告(to give notice of)
herbicide     n. 除草剂
heresy     n. 异教(an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma)
heretical     adj. 异教的,异端的
hermetic     adj. 秘术的,深奥的(having to do with the occult sciences, especially
hermit     n. 隐士,隐居者
herpetologist     n. 爬虫学家(dealing with reptiles & amphibians)
hesitance     n. 踌躇,犹豫(the quality or state of being hesitant)
heterodox     adj. 非正统的,异端的(not in agreement with accepted beliefs)
hidebound     adj. 顽固的(having an inflexible character)
hideous     adj. 丑陋的(exceedingly ugly)
hie     v. 急忙;疾走;催促(to go quickly)
hieroglyph   n.象形文字,图画文字(a character used in a system of hieroglyphic writing)
hike     v. 使高涨,拉起(to rise up)远足
hilarious     adj. 热闹的(marked by or affording hilarity)
histrionic     adj.戏剧的(of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater)
hive     n. 闹市(a place swarming with activity)
hoard     n./v. 贮藏,秘藏(to keep (as one's thoughts) to oneself)
hoary     adj. 灰白的,久远的(extremely old)
hoax     n. 愚弄,欺骗(an act intended to deceive or trick)
hodgepodge     n. 大杂烩(a heterogeneous mixture)
homage     n. 敬意,尊敬,效忠(expression of high regard)
homely     adj.家常的, 朴素的;不漂亮的(not attractive or good-looking)
homily     n. 说教,训诫(a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme)
homogenize     v. 使均匀(to blend (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture)
hone     v. 用磨刀石磨(to make more acute;whet)n. 磨刀石,抱怨,想念
honorarium     n.酬劳
hoodwink     vt. 欺骗, 迷惑(to deceive by false appearance)
hortative     adj. 鼓励的(giving exhortation)
horticulture     n. 园艺
hovel       n. 小屋(a small, wretched, & often dirty house)
hub     n. 车轴,中心
hubris     n. 狂妄自大(exaggerated pride or self-confidencehubristic)
humble     adj. 卑下的,谦逊的,粗陋的(ranking low in a hierarchy or scale)
humor     v. 迁就(to soothe or content by indulgence)
hurricane     n. 飓风
husbandry     n.节俭;耕种;家政(the control or judicious use of resources)
husk     n.(果类或谷物的)外壳(通常用复数);皮;无价值之物
husky     adj. 声音沙哑的;粗糙的(hoarse or rough in quality)
hybrid     adj. 混合的;杂种的;混合语的n. 杂种(something heterogeneous)
hymn     n. 赞美诗,圣歌;赞歌(a song of praise or joy)
hypnotic     adj. 催眠的,于催眠的(tending to produce sleep)
list 17   hyperbole
hyperbole     n. 夸张法(extravagant exaggeration)
hypocritical     adj. 伪善的(characterized by hypocrisy; also ·being a hypocrite)
ichthyologist     n. 鱼类学者,鱼类研究者(one that deals with fishes)
iconoclast     n.偶像破坏者,打破旧习的人(one who attacks settled beliefs)
idolatrize     v.奉为偶像,盲目崇拜(admires intensely & often blindly)
idyll     n.田园诗,牧歌;田园生活
ignite     v. 点燃(to set afire),使灼热;使兴奋
ignominy     n. 耻辱(deep personal humiliation & disgrace)
illiteracy     n. 文盲
illuminati     n. 有睿智的人(persons who claim to be unusually enlightened)
illumination     n. 照明;阐明;启发;装饰图案
illusory     adj. 产生幻觉的,幻影的,幻想(based on or producing illusion)
imbibe     v. 象喝一样地吸收或吸进(to absorb or take in as if by drinking)
imbroglio     n. 纷乱,纠葛,纷扰,一团糟(a violently confused altercation)
imitation     n. 模仿,效法;冒充,赝品
immaculate   adj纯净的(having no stain or blemish)
immanent     adj. 普遍存在的,内在的
immaterial     adj. 非物质的,无形的,精神的(of no substantial consequence)
immature     adj. 不成熟的, 未完全发展的
immemorial     adj. 古老的(existing since beyond the reach of memory, record)
immune     adj. 免疫的,免除的,不受影响的
immure     v. 监禁,禁闭(to enclose within or as if within walls)
immutable     adj. 不可变的(not capable of or susceptible to change)
imp     n. 顽童(a mischievous child)
impassive     adj. 冷漠的,无感情的 ,平静的
impeccable     a.没缺点的,正直的
impecunious     adj. 不名一文的,贫困的(having very little or no money)
impede     v. 妨碍,阻碍(to interfere with or slow the progress of)
impend   vi. 即将发生(to be about to occur)
impenetrable     adj. 难以渗透的(incapable of being penetrated or pierced)
impenitent     adj. 不悔悟的(not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain)
imperative     adj. 命令式的,急需的,势在必行的,强制的(expressive of a command)
imperial     adj. 帝王的,至尊的;壮丽的,堂皇的
imperious     adj. 傲慢的,专横的(marked by arrogant assurance)
impertinent     adj. 鲁莽的,粗鲁的(characterized by insolent rudeness);不恰当的
imperturbable     adj. 冷静沉着的,泰然自若的,镇静的(marked by extreme calm)
impervious     adj. 密封的;不会被损害的(not capable of being damaged or harmed)
impetuous     adj. 冲动的,急躁的(marked by impulsive vehemence or passion)
impiety     n. 无信仰,不虔诚(the quality or state of being impious)
implacable   adj. 不能和解或平息的(Impossible to placate or appease)
implement   n. 工具,器具v. 实现,使生效,执行
implode   v. 内爆(to collapse inward as if from external pressure)
imposing   adj. 使难忘的;壮丽的(impressive in size, dignity, or grandeur)
impostor     n. 冒名顶替者(one that assumes false identity for deception)
impotent   a. 无力的,虚弱的,无效的(lacking in power, strength)
imprecise     adj. 不严密的,不精确的
impresario     n.(剧院、乐团等的)经理人
impromptu   adj. 即席的,即兴的(composed without previous preparation;extemporaneous)
improvise   v. 即兴而作(to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously)
imprudent   adj. 轻率的,鲁莽的 (not prudent·lacking discretion)
impudent   adj. 放肆无礼的,厚颜无耻的(marked by contemptuous orboldness)
impugn   v. 指责,对…表示怀疑(to assail by words or arguments)
impuissance   n.无权;无力;虚弱
inadvertent   adj. 不注意的,疏忽的(not focusing the mind on a matter)
inalienable   adj. 不能让与的,不能交出的(incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred)
inane   adj. 空洞的(lacking significance, meaning, or point)
inanimate   adj. 无生命的(not animated or lively)
inaugurate   v. 举行就职典礼(to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies)
incandescent   adj. 白炽的(strikingly bright, radiant, or clear)
incantation   n. 咒语
incarnate   vt. 体现,使具体化,使成化身adj.人体的(invested with bodily & especially human nature & form)
incendiary   adj. 放火的;煽动的,教唆的(involving a deliberate burning of property)
incense   v. 用香焚;激怒(to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of)
inception   n.开端,开始,取得学位(an instance of beginning;commencement)
incessant   adj. 不断的,不绝的,无尽的(continuing without interruption)
inch   v. 慢慢前进,慢慢移动(to move by small degrees·progress slowly)
inchoate   a.刚开始的,未完全发展的(being only partly in existence or operation)
incinerate     vi. 烧成灰烬(to cause to burn to ashes)
incipient     adj. 开始的(beginning to come into being or to become apparent)
incite   v煽动,刺激(to move to action·stir up·spur on·urge on)
inclement     a.(天气)严酷的,严厉的(lacking mildness)
incogitant   adj. 考虑不周的(thoughtless; inconsiderate)
incongruent   adj. 不协调的,不合适(not superposable to be coincident throughout)
inconsequential   adj. 不合逻辑的,不合理的;不重要(of no significance)
incontrovertible   adj. 无可争议的(not open to question)
incorrigible   adj. 无药可救的,固执的(incapable of being corrected or amended)
incriminate   vt. 归罪,使负罪,控告(to proof of involvement in a crime or fault)
incubator   n. 孵化器
inculpate   vt. 使…有罪
incursion   n.侵犯,入侵 (a hostile entrance into a territory)
indelible   adj. 擦试不掉的,不可磨灭的
indemnity   n. 赔偿,补偿;保护(security against hurt, loss, or damage)
indict   vt. 起诉,控告,指控(to accuse of wrongdoing; charge)
list 18   indifferent
indifferent   adj. 漠不关心的(marked by a lack of interest)
indigenous   adj.土产的,本地的;先天的,天生的(innate;inborn)
indigent     adj. 贫穷的(suffering from indigence)
indispensability   n. 不可缺少(absolutely necessary)
industriousness   adj. 勤勉的, 刻苦的(constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied)
indoctrinate   v. 灌输思想(to instruct especially in fundamentals)
indolent   adj. 懒惰的(averse to activity)
inducement   n.引诱(the act or process of inducing)
indulgent     adj. 纵容的(lenient:);自我放纵的
indurate   vt. 使坚固(to make hard)
ineffable   adj.不能说的,不应说出的(incapable of being expressed in words)
ineluctable   adj.无法逃避的(not to be avoided,resisted)
inept   adj. 不适当的;无能的,笨拙的(generally incompetent)
inert     adj. 惰性的,行动迟钝的(deficient in active properties)
inevitable   adj. 不可避免的,必然的(incapable of being avoided or evaded)
inexorable   adj. 无情的,无法说服的(not to be persuaded by entreaty)
infamy   n. 声名狼藉(evil reputation)
infatuate     vt. 使迷恋,使糊涂(to cause to be foolish)
inferno   n.火海,地狱般的场所(a place that resembles or suggests hell)
infiltrate     v. 渗透;秘密潜入(to passsurreptitiously into enemy-held territory)
infinite   adj. 无穷的(immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive)
infirm   adj. 虚弱的(of poor or deteriorated vitality)
inflame   v. 使燃烧,激怒(某人)(to excite to uncontrollable action or feeling)
infelicitous   adj. 不幸的;不适当的(not appropriate in application)
influx     n. 涌入(a coming in)
infuse     vt. 灌输,使…充满,鼓舞
infuriate   vt. 激怒(to make furious; enrage)
ingenious     adj. 聪明的,有独创性的(marked by originality, resourcefulness, and
ingenuous   adj.直率的,单纯的(showing innocent simplicity & candidness)
ingest     vt. 摄取,咽下,吸收(to take in for or as if for digestion)
ingrained     adj. 根深蒂固的(to work indelibly into the natural texture)
ingrate     n. 忘恩负义者(an ungrateful person)adj. 不知恩的,忘恩的
ingratiating   adj. 讨人喜欢的(agreeable)逢迎的,讨人欢心的
inherent     adj. 固有的, 内在的(belonging by nature or habit)
inimical   adj.敌意的(having the disposition of an enemy)
inimitable   adj. 无法模仿的,独特的(not capable of being imitated)
iniquity     n. 邪恶,不公正(gross injustice)
initiate   vt. 开始,发动,传授(to cause or facilitate the beginning of)
inkling     n. 略知,模糊概念(a slight knowledge or vague notion)
innocuous   adj.(行为,言论等)无害的(not likely to give offense)
innovation   n. 改革,创新(the introduction of something new)
inquisitive   adj. 过分好奇的(improperly curious about the affairs of others)
insight     n. 洞察力(the capacity to discern the true nature of a situation;penetration)
insipid   adj. 平淡的(lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate);难吃的
insolent   adj. 粗野的,无礼的(exhibiting boldness or effrontery)
insouciant   adj. 无忧无虑的(lighthearted unconcern)
instate   vt. 任命(to set or establish in a rank or office)
instigate   vt. 教唆,怂恿,煽动(to goad or urge forward)
instill   v. 滴注,慢慢地灌输(to impart gradually)
institute   n. 学院vt. 创立,开始,制定(to originate & get established)
instrumentalist   n. 乐器演奏家
insubordinate   adj.不服从的,反抗的(disobedient to authority)
insular   adj. 岛的,孤立的,岛特有的
insulate   v. 使绝缘,使隔离(to place in a detached situation)
insurgent   adj. 叛乱的,起事的n. 叛乱分子
intangible   adj. 难以明了的,无形的(incapable of being perceived by the senses)
integral   adj. 完整的,应有的(essential to completeness)
integrity   n. 正直,诚实,完整(the quality or state of being complete or undivided)
intelligible   adj. 可理解的,易理解的(capable of being understood)
intemperate   adj. 无节制的,放纵的(not temperate especially)
intensify   vi. 加强(to make intense or more intensive)
inter   vt. 埋葬(to deposit(a dead body)in the earth or in a tomb)
intercede   vi. 仲裁,调解(to intervene between parties to reconciling differences)
interdict   v. 阻断,禁止(to forbid in a usually formal or authoritative manner)
interim   n. 中间时期,过渡时期,暂定(an intervening time)adj. 暂时的
interlock   adj. 联锁的(to become locked together or interconnected)
interminable   adj. 无尽头的(having or seeming to have no end)
intermittent   adj. 断断续续的,间歇的(coming & going at intervals)
interregnum   n. 过渡期政府或统治(a period during which the normal functions of
interrogate   vt. 质问,讯问,审问(to question formally & systematically)
intimate   adj. 亲密的n. 密友(a friend or confidant)
intimate   vt. 宣布,明白表示(to make known especially publicly or formally)
intimidate   vt. 威胁,胁迫(to make timid or fearful)
intransigent   adj.不妥协的,固执的(refusing to compromise or to abandon an
intrepid   adj. 无畏的,刚毅的(characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and
intrigue   vt. 激起…的兴趣, 用诡计取得 (to arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of)
intrinsic   adj. 固有的,内在的(the essential nature or constitution of a thing)
intuitive   n. 直觉的(known or perceived by intuition · directly apprehended)
inundate   v. 淹没(to cover with a flood:overflow;overwhelm)
inure   vt. 使习惯(to accustom to accept something undesirable)
invective   n. 谩骂(insulting or abusive language)adj. 谩骂的
inveigh   vi. 痛骂,漫骂,臭骂(to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently:rail)
inveigle   v. 诱骗,诱使 (to win over by wiles:entice;to acquire by ingenuity or flattery)
list 19    inventory
inventory   n. 存货清单(an itemized list of current assets)
inveterate   adj. 根深的,成癖的,积习的(firmly established by long persistence)
invidious   adj. 容易引起不满的,招人嫉妒的(tending to cause discontent,animosity,or
invigorate   v. 使有活力,激励 (to give life & energy to·animate; also:stimulate)
invincible adj. 不能征服的,无敌的(incapable of being overcome or defeated;
invoke   vt. 恳求,调用(程序等),实施(to put into effect or operation:implement)
irascible   adj. 易发怒的(marked by hot temper & easily provoked anger)
irate   adj. 发怒的,生气的(arising from anger)
iridescence   n. 彩虹色(a lustrous rainbowlike play of color)
irk   v.使苦恼,厌烦(to make weary, irritated, or bored)
ironclad   adj. 装铁甲的,无懈可击的(so firm or secure as to be unbreakable)
irradicable   adj. 不能根除的, 根深蒂固的(impossible to eradicate:deep-rooted)
irreducible   adj. (数)不可约的
irritate   n. 刺激,烦恼,刺激物(to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in:annoy)
isthmus   n.地峡 (a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas)
itinerary   n. 旅行日记,旅行指南(a travel diary;a traveler's guidebook)
jabber   v. 快而不清楚地说(to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly)
jaded   adj.疲惫的,过度的,厌倦的(fatigued by overwork:exhausted)
jape   n.v. 嘲弄(to make mocking fun of)
jargon   n. 行话(specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, similar group)
jarring   adj. 刺耳的
jaundice   vt. 使怀偏见(to affect with envy, jealousy, prejudice, or hostility)
jaunty   adj.愉快的,满足的(sprightly in manner or appearance:lively)
jejune   adj. 空洞的,不成熟的 (devoid of significance or interest·dull)
jest   n.v. 说笑,玩笑(an utterance intended to be taken as mockery or humor)
jeopardy   n. 危险(exposure to or imminence of death, loss, or injury:danger)
jettison   vt. 丢弃(to get rid of as superfluous or encumbering · discard)
jibe   vi.一致(to be in accord:agree)嘲笑
jingoist   n. 沙文主义者
jitter   vi. 神经过敏,战战兢兢(to be nervous or act in a nervous way)
jocular   adj. 诙谐的(given to jesting·habitually jolly or jocund; playful)
jocund   adj. 快乐的,高兴的(suggestive of high spirits & lively mirthfulness)
jog   n. 慢跑(a movement, pace, or instance of jogging as for exercise)
jolt   vi. 颠簸而行,震摇(to cause to move with a sudden jerky motion)
jot   vt. 略记,摘要(to write briefly or hurriedly·set down in the form of a note)
jovial   adj. 快活(markedly good-humored esp. as evidenced by jollity & conviviality)
jubilant   adj. 喜悦的,喜洋洋的(exultant)
judicious   adj. 明智的,慎重的(sound judgment·discreet)
juggernaut   n. 势不可挡的力量(a massive inexorable force that crushes everything
kangaroo   n. 袋鼠
ken   n. 视野范围(the range of vision)
kidnap   vt. 诱拐,绑架,勒赎(to seize & detain by unlawful force or fraud or carry away
kindle   vt. 点燃vi. 着火(to stir up·arouse)
kindred   adj. 同族的, 类似的(of a similar nature or character)
knack   n. 诀窍 (a clever trick or stratagem)
knave   n. 流氓(a tricky deceitful fellow)
knead   vt. 揉捏(to work & press into a mass with or as if with the hands)
knit   v. 编织(to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles)
knotty   adj. 多节的,棘手的(intricate; difficult; tangled)
kudos   n. 名望, 荣誉, 声誉(award, honor; compliment, praise)
labile   adj. 易变的,不稳定的(likely to change ;unstable)
labored   adj. 表达困难的(lacking ease of expression)
labyrinth   n. 迷宫,难解的事物,迷路(maze;something extremely complex or tortuous in
lackluster   n. 无光泽, 暗淡(lacking in sheen, brilliance, or vitality:dull, mediocre)
laconic   adj.(用字)简洁的
lachrymose   adj. 爱哭的, 悲哀的(tearful; mournful)
lambaste   vt. 痛打(to assault violently),严责(to attack verbally:censure)
lament     n/vt.vi. 哀悼(mourn);悔恨,悲叹(to regret deeply; deplore)
lamentable   adj. 忧郁的,不快的(expressing grief)
lampoon   n.讽刺文章v.讽刺(a harsh satire usually directed against an individual)
landfill   n. 垃圾堆(a system of trash & garbage disposal)
languid   adj.没精打采的,怠倦的(drooping or flagging from or as if from exhaustion:weak)
languish   v.衰弱,变得消瘦(to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated)
languor     n. 衰弱无力(listless indolence or inertia)
lank   adj. 瘦弱的,稀疏的(not well filled out:slender, thin)
lapse   n. 过失,小错(a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention)
larder   n. 食物贮藏室,食品橱(a place where food is stored:pantry)
largesse   n.慷慨(generosity)
lariat   n.套索(a long light rope used with a running noose to catch livestock or tether grazing animals:lasso)
lash   v. 捆扎,绑紧(to bind with or as if with a line)
lassitude   n.疲乏无力,没精打采(a condition of weariness or debility:fatigue)
latent   adj. 潜伏的,潜在的(present & capable of becoming though not now visible)
lathe   n. 车床
latitude   n. 行动或言论的自由(freedom from normal limitations, or regulations)
laudatory   adj. 赞美的,赞赏的(expressing praise)
lavish   adj. 浪费的,过度的(expended or produced in abundance)v.浪费
leaven   vt. 使发酵,影响(to raise as bread with a leaven)
leer   vi. 斜视,一瞥(to cast a sidelong glance)
leery   adj. 可疑的,怀疑的;机警的(suspicious or distrustful;wary)
legacy   n.遗产(money or property bequeathed to another by will)
legend   n. 传奇,图例(an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart)
legion   n. 兵团;众多,大量(a very large number:multitude)
lenient   adj. 不苛刻的(inclined not to be strict)仁慈的,宽厚的(merciful)
lethal   adj. 致命的 (capable of causing death)
list 20   lethargic
lethargic   adj. 昏睡的,没精打采的(being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent)
levee   n. 防洪堤(an embankment for preventing flooding)
levelheaded   adj. 明智的,有判断力的 (having sound judgment:sensible)
levity   n. 轻浮 多变(excessive or unseemly frivolity;lack of steadiness)
lexicographer   n. 辞典编纂者(an author or editor of a dictionary)
liability   n. 责任,债务(something for which one is liable; esp. pecuniary obligation)
liberalist     n. 自由者(the quality or state of being liberal)
libertine   n. 放荡不羁者(a person who is unrestrained by convention or morality;
libretto   n. 剧本(the text of a work as an opera for the musical theater)
licentious   adj.放纵的,纵欲的(lacking legal or moral restraints)
lien   n.扣押权,留置权(legal claim until a debt on it is repaid)
liken   vt. 把…比作 (compare)
limber   adj. 可塑的,柔软的(capable of being shaped·flexible)
limerick   n. 打油诗
limousine   n. 豪华轿车
limp   adj. 松软的v. 跛行(lacking firm texture, substance, or structure)
limpid     adj. 透明的,清澈的(marked by transparency:pellucid)
linen   n. 亚麻布
linger   v. 逗留, 闲荡, 拖延(tarry;saunter; to be slow to act:procrastinate)
linoleum   n. 油布
lint   n. 绷带用麻布,皮棉(fuzz consisting of fine ravelings & short fibers of yarn & fabric)
lissome   adj. 柔软的,敏捷的(easily bent;supple)
list   n.vi. 倾斜(a deviation from the vertical:tilt; to tilt to one side)
lithe   adj. 柔软的,优雅的(characterized by easy flexibility & grace)
loath   adj. 不情愿的,勉强的(unwilling to do something contrary to one's ways of thinking)
loathe     vt. 厌恶, 憎恶(to dislike someone or something greatly; abhor)
loathing   n. 极端厌恶,憎恶(extreme disgust:detestation)
lode   n. 矿脉(an ore deposit)
lofty   adj. 高的,崇高的(elevated in status:superior)
loll   vi. 懒洋洋的(to act or move in a lax, lazy, or indolent manner:lounge)
lopsided   adj. 倾向一方的,不平衡的(lacking in balance, symmetry, or proportion)
loquacious   adj. 多嘴的,饶舌的(given to fluent or excessive talk·garrulous)
lottery   n. 抽彩,抓阄(contest in which winners are selected in a drawing of lots)
loutish   adj. 粗鲁的(resembling or befitting a clumsy,stupid fellow)
lubricate   vt. 使润滑(to make smooth or slippery)
lucid   adj. 清澈的,明晰易懂的(clear to the understanding·intelligible)
lucubration   n. 刻苦钻研,苦心的著作laborious or intensive study
lug   v. 拖,拉(to carry laboriously)
lugubrious   adj. 悲哀的(尤指装出来的)(mournful;esp. affectedly mournful)
lull   vt. 麻痹,使安静 (to cause to sleep or rest·soothe)
lullaby     n. 摇篮曲 (a song to quiet children or lull them to sleep)
lumber   vi. 笨重地行动(to move ponderously; stumble)
lumen     n. 流明(亮度单位)(a unit of luminous)
luminary   n. 杰出人物,名人(a person of prominence or brilliant achievement)
lurch   vi. 举步蹒跚 (to move forward unsteadily while swaying from side to side)
lurk   vi. 潜藏,潜伏(to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose)
lush   adj. 苍翠繁茂的(growing vigorously especially with luxuriant foliage)
lustrous   adj. 有光泽的,光辉的(reflecting light evenly & efficiently without glitter or sparkle)
luxury     adj. 奢侈,奢华(a condition of abundance or great ease & comfort)
lyric   n. 抒情诗, 歌词
macabre   adj.恐怖的(gruesome; grisly)以死亡为主题的(having death as a subject)
macerate   v. 浸软(steep, soak)
maculate   adj. 有斑点的(marked with spots:blotched ;impure, besmirched)
maelstrom   n.大漩涡,灾祸(violent whirlpool; violent or tublent situation)
magnificent   adj. 高尚的,宏伟的(grand or noble in thought or deed; exalted.)
maladroit     adj. 笨拙的(lacking adroitness:inept)
malaise   n. 不舒服(uneasiness; vague feeling of ill health)
malcontent   adj. 不满的,不服的n. 不满者(dissatisfied ;discontented)
malicious   adj. 怀恶意的,恶毒的(given to, marked by, or arising from malice)
malign   adj. 有恶意的vt. 诽谤(intense often vicious ill will·malevolent)
malinger   v.假装不适以逃避工作 (to pretend incapacity as illness to avoid duty or work)
malleable   adj. 可塑的,易改变的(capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces)
malodor     n. 恶臭(an offensive odor)
mandatory   adj. 命令的,强制的(containing or constituting a command:obligatory)
mangle   vt. 破坏, 毁损(to spoil, injure, or make incoherent especially through ineptitude)
mangy     adj. 污秽的,褴褛的(having many worn or bare spots·seedy, shabby)
mania   n. 狂躁,热衷,狂热(excessive or unreasonable enthusiasm)
manifest   n. 载货清单
manifest2   adj. 显然的,明显的(easily understood or recognized by the mind:obvious)
manipulate   vt. 巧妙操作 (control or change by artful means)
manumit   v. 解放(奴隶)(to release from slavery)
manuscript   n. 手稿
mar   v. 损坏,破坏(to impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil)
marsh   n. 沼泽,湿地
marsupial   n.有袋类动物
martial   adj. 战争的, 军事的
martinet   n. 纪律严明之人(a strict disciplinarian)
marvel   n. 奇迹(something that causes wonder or astonishment)
masquerade   v. 伪装,掩饰(to disguise oneself)
masticate   v. 咀嚼(chew)
matriculate   vt. 入学
mattress   n. 床垫
maudlin   adj. 多愁善感的,感情脆弱的(weakly & effusively sentimental)
list 21   maven
maven   n. 专家,行家 (one who is experienced or knowledgeable:expert)
maverick   n. 特立独行之人(an independent individual not go along with a group)
mawkish   adj. 自作多情的,令人厌恶的 (sickly or puerilely sentimental)
meager   adj. 贫乏的,稀少的(deficient in quality or quantity)
meander   vi. 蜿蜒而流,闲逛(to wander aimlessly without urgent destination · ramble)
measly   adj. 低贱的(contemptibly small)
measured   adj. 标准的(marked by due proportion)
meddle   vi. 干涉,管闲事(interfere without right or propriety)
media   n. 媒体,营养基(a nutrient system for the artificial cultivation of cells or bacteria)
mediate   vt. 调解,调停
mediocre   adj. 平庸的,平凡的(of moderate or low quality,value, ability, or performance)
medley   n. 混合,混杂;集成曲(a musical composition made up of a series of songs)
meet   adj. 合适的(very proper)
meliorism   n.世界改良论(the belief of tendency toward improvement)
mellifluous   adj.曲调优美的(having a smooth rich flow)
melody   n. 曲子,美的音乐,曲调(tunefulness)
melodrama   n. 情节剧(a work as a movie or play characterized by extravagant theatricality & by the predominance of plot & physical action over characterization)
membrane   n.薄膜,细胞膜(a thin soft pliable sheet or layer especially of animal or plant origin)
menace   v. 恐吓,威胁(to make a show of intention to harm)
mendacious   adj. 虚假的,说谎的(deception/falsehood/divergence from absolute truth)
mentor   n. 良师益友, 贤明的顾问, 导师, 指导者(a trusted counselor or guide·tutor, coach)
mercenary   adj.唯利是图的 n.雇佣兵(one that serves merely for wages)
mercurial   adj.情绪善变的,活泼的(rapid & unpredictable changeableness of mood)
merited   adj. 应得的, 理所当然的 (deserved, be worthy of or entitled or liable to)
mesh   vt. 啮合(to cause as gears to engage)
mesmerism   n. 催眠,着迷
metaphor   n. 隐喻,暗喻 (figurative language)
metamorphose   vt.变形,变质,改变(change strikingly the appearance of· transform)
meteoric   adj. 流星的,昙花一现(resembling a meteor in speed or in sudden & temporary brilliance)
meteorology   n. 气象学(a science that deals with weather & weather forecasting)
meticulous   adj.非常仔细的,细心的(extreme care in the consideration of details)
metrical   adj. 韵律的,有韵律的,测量的 (of, relating to, or composed in meter)
mettle   n. 勇气(staying quality · stamina)
miff   n. 小争执,微怒vt. 使恼怒 (a trivial quarrel)
migratory   adj. 迁移的,流浪的(wandering, roving)
mime   vt.vi. 摸拟表演(to act a part with mimic gesture & action usually without words)
minaret   n. 尖塔(a tall slender tower of a mosque)
minatory   adj.威胁的,恫吓的(having a menacing quality·threatening)
mince   vi. 小步走(to walk with short steps in a prim affected manner)
mindful   adj. 留心的(inclined to be aware)
mingle   v. 混合(to bring or mix together)
minion   n. 奴才(a servile dependent, follower, or underling)
mint   vt. 铸造;n. 巨额
minuscule   adj. 极小的n. 小写字(very small)
minutia   n. 细节,琐事(a minute or minor detail)
miraculous   adj. 奇迹的, 不可思议的(of the nature of a miracle:supernatural)
mirage   n.幻影,海市蜃楼(something illusory & unattainable)
mire   vt. 使陷于泥泞,使陷入困境(to hamper or hold back as if by mire:entangle)
mirth   n.欢乐,欢笑(gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter)
misanthrope   n. 厌恶人类者(a person who hates or distrusts mankind)
misbehave   v. 行为不端(to behave badly)
mischievous   adj. 调皮的,恶作剧的,有害的(able to cause trouble, or minor injury)
misconstrue   vt. 误解, 曲解(misinterpret)
miscreant   n. 恶棍adj. 堕落的(one who behaves criminally or viciously)
misdemeanor   n.不轨的行为,轻罪(a crime less serious than a felony)
miser   n. 守财奴,吝啬鬼(one who is extremely stingy with money)
misfortune   n. 不幸(a distressing or unfortunate incident or event)
misgiving   n. 疑虑,担心(a feeling of suspicion especially concerning a future event)
mishap   n. 不幸之事(an unfortunate accident)
misrepresent   vt. 不如实的叙述,误传(to give a false or misleading representation
mite   n. 微生物,螨虫
mitigate   v. 减轻,使缓和(to make less severe or painful)
mnemonics   n. 记忆术(a technique of improving the memory)
mobility   n. 灵活性
mockery   n. 嘲弄,笑柄,歪曲 (a subject of laughter, derision, or sport)
moderate   vt. 节制,使稳定,使缓和(to lessen the intensity or extremeness of)
modicum   n. 少量(a small portion:a limited quantity)
molar   n. 臼齿, 磨牙(a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food)
molding   n. 嵌线(a decorative plane or curved strip used for ornamentation or finishing)
mollify   v. 平息,缓和,使变软(to soothe in temper or disposition:appease)
mollycoddle   vt. 溺爱 (a pampered or effeminate man or boy)
molt   n.v. 换毛,脱皮(ecdysis)
momentous   adj. 极重要的(important, consequential)
momentum   n. 势头,动力(a property of a moving body that the body has by virtue of its mass & motion & that is equal to the product of the body's mass & velocity)
mongrel   n. 杂种,混血儿adj. 杂种的, 混血儿的
monochromatic   adj. 单色的(having or consisting of one color or hue)
monocle   n.单片眼镜(an eyeglass for one eye)
monologue     n. 独白, 独脚戏(soliloquy; a dramatic sketch performed by one actor)
monotone   adj. 单调的(monotonic)
montage   n. 蒙太奇(the production of a rapid succession of images in a motion picture to illustrate an association of ideas)
moratorium   n. 延期,暂缓施行(a suspension of an ongoing or planned activity)
morbid   adj. 疾病的,病态的
mordant   adj. 讥讽的,尖酸的(biting & caustic in thought, manner, or style·incisive)
list 22   moribund
moribund   adj. 即将结束的,垂死的(being in the state of dying·approaching death)
morose   adj.脾气坏的,不高兴的 (having a sullen & gloomy disposition)
mortar   n. 小臼,乳钵(a strong vessel in which material is pounded/rubbed with a pestle)
mosaic   n.镶嵌图案(一种装饰品由某种材料拼成的图)
mosque   n. 清真寺(a building used for public worship by muslims)
moth-eaten   adj. 虫蛀的,过时的
motile   adj. 能动的,有自动力的(exhibiting or capable of movement)
motivate   v.促使,激发(to provide with a motive·impel)
motley   adj. 杂色的,混杂的(variegated in colorcomposed of diverse elements)
mottle   vt. 使成杂色 (to mark with spots of different color or shades of color as if stained)
mournful   adj. 悲恸的,悲哀的(causing sorrow or melancholy·gloomy)
movement   n. 乐章
muddy   adj. 浑浊的,不明晰的(lacking in clarity or brightness)
muffle   vt. 围裹(to wrap up so as to conceal or protect)压低声音(to deaden the sound of)
mulish   adj. 骡的,执拗的,顽固的(unreasonably & inflexibly obstinate)
mumble   vt.vi. 喃喃而语,咕哝(to utter with a low inarticulate voice)
mundane   adj. 尘世的,世俗的(worldly as opposed to spiritual); 平凡的( commonplace)
munificent   adj. 慷慨的,丰厚的(characterized by great liberality or generosity)
mural   adj. 墙壁的n. 壁画,壁饰(a mural work of art as a painting)
murky   adj. 黑暗的,朦胧的(dark & gloomy; thick with fog; vague)
murmur   n.v. 低语(a low indistinct but often continuous sound)
mutate   v. (使)改变(to cause to undergo change)
mute   vt. 减弱…的声音(to muffle, reduce, or eliminate the sound of)使柔和(to tone down:soften, subdue)
mutter   v. 咕哝, 嘀咕(to utter sounds or words indistinctly or with a low voice)
myopic   adj. 近视的,缺乏远见的(a lack of foresight or discernment)
myriad   adj. 无数的,大量的(having innumerable aspects or elements)
naive   adj. 天真的,纯朴的(deficient in worldly wisdom or informed judgment; credulous)
narcissism   n. 自恋(love of or sexual desire for one's own body)
nascent   adj. 新生的(coming or having recently come into existence)
natty   adj. 整洁的,时髦的(trimly neat & tidy·smart)
nauseate   v. 使厌恶,使作呕(to feel disgust)
naysay   n. 拒绝(denial, refusal)
nebulous   adj. 模糊的(indistinct, vague),星云的
needy   adj. 贫困的(being in want)
nefarious   adj.违法的,邪恶的(flagrantly wicked or impious·evil)
negation   n. 否定, 拒绝(a negative statement, judgment, or doctrine; especially:a logical proposition formed by asserting the falsity of a given proposition)
negligence   n. 疏忽(the quality or state of being not taking prudent care)
neologism   n. 新语(新词, 新用法,新表达法)(a new word, usage, or expression)
negotiate   vi. 商议,谈判,交涉(to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter)
neophyte   n.初学者,新信徒(a new convert·proselyte)
nepotism   n.裙带关系,偏袒亲属(favoritism as in appointment to a job based on
nerve   vt. 鼓起勇气(to give strength or courage to )n. 神经,胆量
nettle   v. 烦忧,激恼(to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger)
nexus   n. 连结,连系,核心,中心(connection,link; a connected group or series; center,
nibble   v. 小口咬(to eat or chew in small bits)
nil   n.. 零(NOTHING, ZERO)
nip   v. 一口饮酒(to take liquor in nips)
nitpick   v. 挑剔,吹毛求疵
nocturnal   adj. 夜间发生的,夜曲的(of, relating to, or occurring in the night)
noisome   adj. 有害的,有毒的(noxious, harmful) 恶臭的(offensive to the senses & especially to the sense of smell)非常讨厌的(highly obnoxious or objectionable)
nomad   n. 流浪者, 游牧民(a member of a people who have no fixed residence)
nominal   adj. 名义上的,不重要的(trifling, insignificant)
nonchalant   adj. 冷漠的(having an air of easy unconcern or indifference)
nondescript   adj. 没有特征的,平凡的(lacking distinctive or interesting qualities)
nonentity   n. 不存在,不重要之人(a person of little consequence or significance)
nonplus   vt. 使困惑,使进退两难(to put at a loss as to what to do;bewilder)
nonsense   n. 胡言乱语(words or language having no meaning or conveying no
notch   vt. 刻痕(to cut or make a notcha usually v-shaped depression in an edge or surface)
novelty   n. 新奇(something new or unusual)
noxious   adj. 有害的,有毒的(physically harmful or destructive to living beings)
nuance   n. 细微的差异(a subtle distinction or variation)
nucleate   v. 使…聚集成核(to form into a nucleus)
nudge   n.v. 用肘轻推,引起注意(seek the attention of by a push of the elbow)
nugatory   adj. 无关紧要的(of little or no consequence;trifling, inconsequential)
nurture   vt. 抚育,给…营养(to supply with nourishment)
oasis   n. 沙漠绿洲 (a fertile or green area in an arid region as a desert)
oath   n. 誓言, 宣誓(solemn promise)
obdurate   adj. 固执的,执拗的(resistant to persuasion or softening influences);冷酷的
obedient   adj. 服从的,顺从的(submissive to the restraint or command of authority)
obeisance   n. 鞠躬,敬礼(a movement of the body made in token of 表示respect or submission)
obfuscate   v. 使困惑,使迷惑(to make obscure)
obituary   n. 讣告(a notice of a person's death usually with a short biographical account)
obligatory   adj. 强制性的,必须的(binding in law or conscience; mandatory, required)
obliging   adj. 乐于助人的(willing to do favors)
oblique   adj. 倾斜的,间接的(not straightforward:indirect)
obliterate   v. 涂掉,删除(to remove from existence)
oblivious   adj. 健忘的,忘记的(lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention)
obloquy   n. 谩骂,诽谤(abusively detractive language or utterance; calumny)
obscure   adj. 暗的,模糊的,无名的(not clearly seen or easily distinguished)v. 使模糊
obsequious   adj. 谄媚的,奉承的,顺从的(marked by or a fawning attentiveness)
observatory   n. 天文台
obsess   vt .迷住;使困窘,使烦扰(to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of)
list 23   obstinate
obstinate   adj. 固执的, 倔强的(perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course)
obstruct   v. 阻碍,阻塞(to hinder from passage, action, or operation)
obtuse   adj. 愚笨的,不锐利的(lacking sharpness or quickness of sensibility or intellect)
obviate   vt. 除去,排除
occlude   vt. 阻塞,闭塞(to close up or block off·obstruct)
occult   adj. 神秘的,不可思议的(not easily apprehended or understood)
ode   n. 颂诗,赋(a lyric poem marked by exaltation of feeling & style, varying length of line, & complexity of stanza forms)
odium   n. 憎恶,讨厌(hatred & condemnation accompanied by loathing or contempt)
offbeat   adj. 不平常的,离奇的(eccentric, unconventional)
offhand   adj. 即席的,无准备的(without premeditation or preparation·extempore)
officious   adj.多管嫌事的,好忠告人的(meddlesome)
offish   adj. 冷淡的(somewhat cold & reserved·standoffish)
off-key   adj. 走调的(varying in pitch from the proper tone of a melody)不规则的(irregular)
olfaction   n. 嗅觉(the sense of smell)
ominous   adj.预兆的, 恶兆的, 不吉利的(being or exhibiting an omen:portentous; especially:
omniscient adj. 全知的,无所不知的(having infinite awareness/understanding/ insight)
onerous   adj. 繁重的,费力的(involving, imposing, or constituting a burden:troublesome)
opaque   adj. 不透明的(exhibiting opacity),难懂的
opine   vt. 表达观点(to express opinions)
opportune   adj. 合适的,适当的(suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence)
opprobrious   adj. 无礼的,粗野的(expressive of opprobrium·scurrilous)
oracle   n. 神谕(a person through whom a deity is believed to speak)
oration   n. 演说,致辞(an elaborate discourse delivered in a formal & dignified manner)
orient   vt. 使适应, 确定方向(get one's bearings; adjust; make familiar with a situation)
original   adj. 最初的,原始的,有创意的(not secondary, derivative, or imitative)
ornithology   n. 鸟类学(a branch of zoology dealing with birds)
orthodoxy   n. 信仰正统,正教(quality of being conforming to established doctrine)
oscillate   v. 使振动,使动摇,犹豫(swing like a pendulum;vary between opposing beliefs,feelings,or theories)
ossify   v.硬化,僵化(to become hardened or conventional & opposed to change)
ostentatious   adj. 卖弄的,夸耀的(marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious & sometimes pretentious display)
ostracize   n. 贝壳放逐,排斥(exclusion by general consent from common privileges)
oust   vt. 剥夺,驱逐(to remove from or dispossess of property by legal action or force)
outgoing   a dj. 外向的,爱社交的(openly friendly & responsive·extroverted)
outlandish   adj. 古怪的, 奇异的(strikingly out of the ordinary:bizarre)
outmaneuver   v. 以策略制胜;智取(to maneuver with better effect than; outwit)
outset   n.开端, 开始(beginning, start)
outwit   v. 瞒骗, 以智取胜(to get the better of by superior cleverness)
overbearing   adj. 傲慢的(harshly & haughtily arrogant)
overlap   vt. 重叠,重复(to occupy the same area in part·lap over)
overt   adj.公开的,非秘密的(open to view:manifest)
overture   n. 前奏曲,序曲(something introductory·prelude)
oxymoron   n. 矛盾修饰法(a combination of contradictory or incongruous words)
pachyderm   n. 厚皮类动物, 迟钝的人
pacify   vt. 使平静,安慰(to allay the anger or agitation of·soothe)
pack   n. 一群 (a group of often predatory animals of the same kind)
padding   n. 填塞物(material with which something is padded)
paean   n. 赞美歌(a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph)
painstaking   adj. 艰苦的(taking pains)
palatable   adj.美味的(agreeable to the palate or taste)
palatial     adj. 宫殿般的,豪华的(magnificent)
palette     n. 调色板,颜料(a particular range, quality, or use of color)
pall     v. 感到腻烦,失去兴趣(to lose in interest or attraction)
palliate     v. 减轻(痛苦)(to reduce the violence of (a disease))
pallid   adj. 苍白的(面色)(having an abnormally pale complexion)
palmy     adj. 繁荣的(marked by prosperity)
palpable   adj. 可触知的,明显的,易觉察的(easily perceived)
palter     vi. 欺骗(to act insincerely or deceitfully)
paltry   adj. 无价值的;微不足道的(practically worthless; trifling)
pan   vt.【口语】严厉批评 (to criticize unfavorably, as in reviewing)
panache   n. 羽饰;假威风,炫耀(dash or flamboyance in style)
pancreas   n. 胰腺
pandemic   adj. 全国流行的
pandemonium     n. 喧哗吵闹(wild uproar or noise)
panegyric     n. 赞扬,夸大的颂词(a eulogistic oration or writing)
panoramic   n. 全景的(an complete view of an area in every direction)
pantry   n. 食品柜,餐具室(a room for preparation of foods on order)
parable   n. 寓言,比喻
paradigm   n. 典范, 范例(example, pattern)
paradise   n. 天堂 (a place or state of bliss, felicity, or delight)
paradox   n. 似是而非的论点,自相矛盾的话(a statement that is seemingly contradictory to common sense & yet is perhaps true)
paragon   n. 模范,典型(a model of excellence or perfection)
paramount     adj. 最重要的,最高权力的(superior to all others)
paranoia   n. 偏执狂(a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational suspiciousness & distrustfulness of others)
paraphrase   vt. 简要重述,解释(to make a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form)
parch   vi. 烤干(to dry or shrivel with cold)
parenthesis   n.插入语;附带;插曲;圆括号
pariah     n. 贱民,底层民众(a member of a low caste of southern india)
parity   n. 同等,平等(the quality or state of being equal)
parlance   n. 说话的方式(manner or mode of speech)
parody       n.诙谐改编的诗文v. 做模仿诗文
paroxysm     n. 发作,突发(a sudden violent emotion or action)
parquetry     n. 镶木地板艺术或图案(inlaid woodwork in geometric forms, usually of
parrot     vt. 鹦鹉学舌,机械地模仿(to repeat by rote)
list 24   parry
parry   v. 躲避(武器、问题等)(to evade especially by an adroit answer)
parse   n./v. 从语法上分析
parsimony     n. 过度节俭,吝啬(unreasonable economy; stinginess)
partial     adj. 偏袒的,偏爱的(inclined to favor one party more than the other:biased)
particularize   vt.vi. 详细说明,列举(to state in detail)
partisan   n. 党羽,同党的人(a firm adherent to a party, faction)
pastiche   n. 模仿 (的手法)(a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous work)
partition   n.分割,划分,瓜分vt.区分,隔开,分割
patent       adj. 专利的;显著的,新奇的(readily visible or intelligible)
pathology     n. 病理学;病状
patina     n. 铜绿;薄层;光泽
patrician   n. 贵族,名门望族(a person of high birth·aristocrat)
patriot     n. 爱国主义者(one who loves his or her country)
patronize   vt. 资助,赞助,让人领情
paucity       n. 少数,少量,缺乏(smallness of number:fewness)
paunchy   dj. 大肚子的(having an enlarged or protruding abdomen)
pebble     n. 小鹅卵石(a small usually rounded stone)
peccadillo     n.小过失(a slight offense)
peck   n. 轻吻
pedagogue   n. 教师,教育者(a dull, formal, or pedantic teacher)
pedant     n. 迂腐之人,书呆子,学究式人物
pedestal     n. 基架,底座,基础
predestine   vt. 预定,注定
pedestrian     adj.缺乏想像的,呆板的(commonplace;unimaginative)
pediatrics   n. [医]小儿科
peep   n. 瞥见,偷看(to look cautiously or slyly)
peer     n. 同等的人;贵族vi.凝视;窥视vt.与...同等;封为贵族
peerless   adj. 出类拔萃的,无可匹敌的(matchless;imparable)
peeve   v. 使气恼,怨恨(to make peevish or resentful)
pejorative   adj.轻蔑的,贬低的(having negative connotations)
pelf   n. 钱财(wealth or riches, especially when dishonestly acquired)
pellucid   adj.清晰的,易懂的(easy to understand)
pen   n. 雌天鹅(a female swan)
penalty     n. 刑罚,罚款,报应
penchant     n.强烈嗜好,倾向(a strong & continued inclination)
penitent     adj. 悔过的(feeling or expressing regretful pain)
pensive     adj. 沉思的,哀思的(musingly or dreamily thoughtful)
penury     n. 贫困,贫穷(severe poverty)
perambulate   v. 巡行
perceptible   adj. 可察觉的(capable of being perceived)
peremptory   adj. 专横的(imperious or arrogant self-assurance)
perfervid   adj.非常热心的(marked by overwrought emotion)
perfidy     n. 不诚实(the quality or state of being faithless)
perforate   v. 打孔,穿透(to make a hole through)
perfunctorily   adv. 敷衍地,潦草地(lacking in interest or enthusiasm)
perimeter   n. 周长,周界(the boundary of a closed plane figure)
periodical   adj. 周期的n. 期刊,杂志
peripatetic   adj. 巡游的(moving or traveling from place to place)
peripheral   adj. 边缘的,周边的(a periphery or surface part)
perish     vi. 毁灭,死亡,腐烂,枯萎vt.毁坏;使麻木
perjury   n.伪证(the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to do what has been promised under oath )
permanence   n. 永久(the quality or state of being permanent)
permeable     adj. 有浸透性的,能透过的(penetrable;having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through)
pernicious     adj. 有害有毒的;致命的(highly injurious or destructive)
peroration     n.(演讲的)结束语;演讲高谈阔论
perpetual     adj. 永久的,不断的(continuing forever·everlasting)
persecute   vt. 迫害,虐待,困扰(to come to mind continually)
persevere     vi. 坚持不懈,不屈不挠(to persist in a state)
persiflage   n. 挖苦,嘲弄(to provide with an incentive)
persistence   n. 坚持, 持续
personable   adj. 优雅的,貌美的(pleasant or amiable in person)
perspicacious     adj. 敏锐的(of acute mental vision·keen)
perspicuity   n. 明晰,明了,简明(plain to the understanding)
pertain     v. 适合,属于
pertinacious   adj. 顽固的(stubbornly unyielding or tenacious)
pertinent   adj. 相关的,中肯的(having a clear decisive relevance)
perturb   vt. 扰乱,使烦躁不安,使担忧(to disturb greatly in mind:disquiet)
peruse     v. 细读(to examine with attention & in detail)
pervade   vt. 弥漫,充满,漫延(to become diffused)
pesticide   n. 杀虫剂(an agent used to destroy pests)
pestle   n. 杵,乳钵槌(grinding substances in a mortar)
petition   vt.vi. 请求,请愿n.请愿,请愿书(to make a request)
petrify   v.石化;吓呆
petrography   n. 岩石记述学(研究岩石分类和体系)
petty   adj. 细微的,不重要的(having secondary rank or importance)
phenomenal     adj. 显著的,非凡的,杰出的
philanthropic     adj. 博爱的(characterized by philanthropy)
philatelist     n. 集邮家
philistine   n. 庸人,对艺术很轻蔑的人(a person who is guided by materialism & is
phlegmatic   adj. 冷静的,冷淡的,无活力的(stolid temperament)
piddling   adj. 无用的,琐屑的(trivial, paltry)
piebald     adj. 花斑的,斑驳的(spotted with black & white)
pixel   n.(显示器或电视机图象的)象素
list 25    pigment
pigment   n. 颜料,色料
pilfer     vt.vi. 偷窃(to steal stealthily in small amounts)
pillar   n. 柱子,栋梁;重要的支持者(a firm upright support)
pillory   n.被示众,被嘲弄(to expose to public contempt)
pilot   n. 飞行员;领航员(one employed to steer a ship:helmsman)
pine     n. 松树vi. 消瘦;渴望(to yearn intensely & persistently)
pinnacle     n. 小尖塔,顶点(an upright architectural member generally ending in a small spire & used especially in gothic construction to give weight especially to a buttress)
pinpoint   v. 精确定位或确认(to locate or aim with great precision)
piquant     adj.辛辣的,开胃的(agreeably stimulating to the palate)
pique   n. 不满,愤怒vt.伤害...自尊心,使...生气
pirate   n. 海盗;盗版者vt. 盗版,翻印;掠夺
pitch     n.音品(Any of various standards for this quality associating each tone with a particular
pithy   adj. 精练的,简洁的(having substance & point)
pitiless     adj. 无情的,冷酷的(devoid of pity·merciless)
pittance     n. 施舍少量的钱;少量供应(a meager wage or remuneration)
placate   vt. 安抚,和解(to soothe or mollify)
placebo   n.安慰剂
plagiarize     vt.vi. 剽窃,抄袭(to steal as one's own)
plangent   adj.轰鸣的(having a loud reverberating sound)
plantation     n. 大农场,种植园
plasticity   n.可塑性,塑性
plateau   n. 高地,高原(上升后的)稳定水平(或时期、状态)
platitude     n. 陈词滥调,陈腐(a banal, trite, or stale remark)
plausible     adj. 似真实的,似合理的(superficially fair)
pleat   n. 褶,褶状物vt. 使...打褶(to arrange in pleats)
plentitude     n. 充分
plethora   n. 过量,过剩(excess, superflutty;profusion, abundance)
pliable     adj. 易曲折的,柔软的,易受影响的,温顺的
pliant   adj.易受影响的,易弯曲的,顺从的(easily influenced)
plight   n. 困境 (a situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one)
plodding     adj. 沉重缓慢的,单调乏味的(working laboriously monotonously)
pluck   n. 勇气,精力(courageous readiness to fight)
pluck2   n. 猛拉;弹奏
plumb     vt. 用铅锤测定深度(to measure the depth of with a plumb)
plummet   v. 垂直或突然地堕下(to drop sharply & abruptly)
plump     adj. 丰满的(having a full rounded)
plutocracy   n. 富豪统治
podiatrist   n. 足病医生
polarize   v.(使)对立,(使)两极分化(to break up into opposing factions or groupings)
polemic   adj. 争论的(the art or practice of disputation)
polished     adj.精练的,优美的,有教养的(highly developed, finished)
politic     adj. 精明的,圆滑的,慎重的,策略的
pollster     n. 民意测验专家
pompous     adj. 傲慢的,自大的,夸大的(self-importance;arrogant)
ponderable   adj. 有价值的,有重量的(significant enoug:appreciable)
ponderous     adj. 笨重的,笨拙的(of very great weight)
pontificate     v. 自大武断地做,装模作样的说话(to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way)
porcelain     n. 瓷,瓷器
pore   n. 毛孔,气孔,细孔
porous     adj. 可渗透的(capable of being penetrated)
portentous     adj. 前兆的,不寻常的(eliciting amazement or wonder)
portfolio   n. 部长职务;公事包
poseur     n. 装模作样的人(a person who pretends to be what he is not)
posit   v.假设,假定(to assume or affirm the existence of·postuate)
postulate     v. 假定为真(depend upon or start from the postulate of)
posture   vi. 作姿势(to assume an artificial attitude)
potable   adj. 适于饮用的(suitable for drinking)
potboiler     n. 粗制滥造的文艺作品(a literary or artistic work of poor quality, produced
potentate     n. 有权的人,统治者(one who wields great power or sway)
potentiate     vt. 加强(to make more effective or more active)
pout     vt.vi. 撅嘴,绷脸(to show displeasure by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression)
prairie     n. 大草原,牧场
prate     vi. 闲聊,空谈(to talk long & idly)
preach     vt.vi. 传道,讲道,鼓吹,宣讲,说教(to deliver a sermon)
precarious     adj. 不稳定的(characterized by a lack of security)
precedent     adj. 在先的,先前的n. 先例,前例(prior in time, order)
precipice   n. 悬崖(a very steep or overhanging place)
precipitate     v. 加速adj. 匆忙的,鲁莽的(to bring about abruptly)
precipitation   n.急躁;降雨(量)(something precipitated)
precipitous   adj. 非常陡峭的(very steep, perpendicular)
preclude   v. 预防;阻止(prevent)
precursor     n. 先驱者,先导
predecessor     n. 前任,先辈
predilection   n. 爱好,偏袒
preeminent   adj. 优秀的,卓越的(having paramount rank,dignity)
preempt   v. 以先买权取得,取代(to replace with something considered to be of greater
preen     v. 整理羽毛,(人)打扮修饰(to dress or smooth up:primp)
preface     n. 序文,前言(the introductory remarks of a speaker)
pregnant     adj. 含有深意的;有创造力的(inventive)
premeditated     adj. 预想的,有计划的
preoccupation     n. 当务之急
preponderant     adj. 占优势的,压倒性的 (having superior weight)
prepossessing   adj. 吸引人的,有魅力的 (attractive)
preposterous     adj. 荒谬的(contrary to nature, reason, or common)
list 26    presage
presage     vt. 成为...的前兆,预示,预言(foretell, predict)
prescience     n. 预知,先见(foreknowledge of events)
prescription     n. 处方;命令,指示
preservative   n. 预防法,预防药,防腐剂
prestige   n. 声望,威望(standing in the eyes of people)
presumptuous     adj. 放肆的(taking liberties)
pretense     n. 虚假,伪装
preternatural     adj.超自然的
prevail     vi. 获胜,成功(to gain ascendancy through strength)
prevalent     adj. 流行的,普遍的(generally or widely accepted)
prevaricate   vi. 支吾搪塞,撒谎(to deviate from the truth)
primordial     adj. 原始的(existing in the beginning)
primp     vt.vi. 精心打扮(to dress, adorn in a finicky manner)
principal     adj. 主要的,重要的(most important, consequential)
pristine   adj.原始的,纯净的,质朴的(not spoiled, corrupted)
privation     n.缺乏,穷困(the state of being deprived)
probe   v. 探索,探查(to make a searching exploratory investigation)
probity   n. 正直 (adherence to the highest principles)
proclivity   n. 癖性,偏好(a natural propensity or inclination)
procrastinate     v. 耽搁,拖延
procure     vt. 获得,取得,促成(to get possession of)
prod     vt. 戳,刺;刺激 (to incite to action:stir)
prodigal     adj. 浪费的,挥霍的,放荡的
prodigy   n.惊人的事物,不凡的人,神童
profane     v. 亵渎,玷污
proffer     v. 献出,赠送n. 提议(to present for acceptance)
proficient     adj. 熟练的,精通的
profligate     adj. 挥金如土的n. 挥霍者(wildly extravagant)
profundity     n. 深奥,深刻
profusion     n.丰富,大量,浪费 (great quantity:lavish)
proliferate     v. 增生扩散(to increase in number by proliferating)
prolix     adj.罗嗦的,冗长的(marked by or using an excess of words)
prologue     n. 序言(an introduction or a preface)
prolong   vt. 延长,拖延(to lengthen in extent, scope, or range)
proofread   vt. 校对(to read (copy or proof) in order to find errors & mark corrections)
promulgate     vt. 正式宣布(announce officially)
propagate     vt.繁殖;传播,普及(to cause to spread out)
propensity     n. 习性;倾向(an often intense natural inclination)
prophetic     adj. 预言的,先知的,预示的(foretelling events)
propitiate     vt. 慰抚,安抚,和解(to gain or regain the favor)
propitious     adj. 适合的;吉祥的,慈悲的(favorably disposed)
proponent     n. 建议者,支持者
propriety   n.适当
prosaic   adj.单调的,无趣的
proscribe   v.(当作危险物而)禁止,排斥(to condemn or forbid)
prosecution     n. 实行;经营;起诉
proselytize     vi. 劝诱改宗(to recruit or convert especially to a new faith or cause)
prospect   v. 探察,考察(to explore(a region) for mineral deposits or oil.)
prosperous   adj. 成功的,繁盛的,幸运的(enjoying vigorous & healthy growth)
prostrate   adj. 拜倒的,降伏的,伏地的(stretched out with face on the ground in
protean     adj. 千变万化的,变化不定的(displaying great diversity)
protocol     n. 外交礼节,协议
protract     v.延长,拖长(to prolong in time or space)
protrude     v.突出(to push or thrust outward)
protuberant     adj. 突起的,凸出的,显著的 (thrusting out from a surrounding or
provident     adj. 深谋远虑的;节俭的
providential   adj. 天意的,幸运的(happening as if through divine intervention)
provincial     adj. 省的,地方的,偏狭的(limited in outlook)
provisional     adj.暂时的,暂定的,临时的(serving for the time being)
provisory     adj. 有附文的,有附带条件的,暂时的
provoke   vt. 激怒,惹起,驱使(to call forth)
prowess   n. 英勇,勇敢(distinguished bravery)
prowl     v. 巡游以猎取食物(to move about stealthily in or as if in search of prey)
prude     n. 装成规矩的女人,过分正经的女人
prudent   adj. 审慎的,精明的,节俭的(marked by circumspection)
prudish   adj. 装淑女样子的,过分规矩的(marked by prudery)
prune     n.梅干;深紫红色;傻瓜v.修剪
pry     v 刺探,打听(to look closely or inquisitively);撬开
pseudonym   n. 假名;笔名
psychology     n. 心理学,心理状态
pucker   v. 折叠;噘嘴(to contract into folds or wrinkles)
puckish     adj.精灵似的;爱恶作剧的,淘气的,顽皮的
puerile     adj. 幼稚的,儿童的
puissance     n. 权力,权势,力量,影响(power; might)
pulchritude   n. 美丽(physical comeliness)
pullet   n. 小母鸡;小姑娘
pulverize   v. 研磨成粉,破坏(to reduce as by crushing to very small particles:atomize)
pun   n. 双关语(a joke using words with similar sounds or two different meanings)
punch line   n.(笑话的)妙语(the sentence, statement, or phrase as in a joke that makes the point)
punctilious   adj. 精密细心的,一丝不苟的(marked by precise accordance with the
pundit   n.权威人士,专家(used as a title of respect for a learned man in India)
pungent     adj. 辛辣的,刺激性的,严厉的 (causing a sharp or irritating sensation)
puny   adj. 微小的,弱小的,微不足道的 (slight in power, size, or importance)
purity   n.纯净,纯洁,纯度(the quality or state of being pure)
purlieu   n. 森林边缘地;常去的地方(a frequently visited place)
list 27   purloin
purloin       vt.vi. 偷窃,盗取(to appropriate wrongfully & often by a breach of trust)
purvey     v.(大量)供给,供应
pusillanimous   adj. 懦弱的(lacking courage & resolution)
quack     v. 鸭呷呷叫n. 庸医,骗子
quaff   vt.vi. 一口气喝干,大口地喝(to drink(a beverage)deeply)
quail     vi. 胆怯,畏缩(to recoil in dread or terror)
qualified     adj. 合格的,受限制的 (limited or modified in some way)
quandary     n. 困惑,窘境,进退两难(a state of perplexity or doubt)
quarantine     n. 隔离检疫期,隔离(to isolate from normal relations)
quarry     n. 采石场
quarry2     n.猎物,追求物,出处(one that is sought or pursued)
quash     v. 撤销,镇压(to suppress or extinguish summarily & completely)
quell     vt. 压制,平息,减轻(to thoroughly overwhelm & reduce to submission)
quench     vt. 结束,熄灭;冷浸(to cool suddenly by immersion)
querulous     adj. 抱怨的,发牢骚的(habitually complaining)
quibble     n. 遁辞,谬论,双关话v. 推托,诡辩,说模棱两可的话
quiescent     adj. 静止的,寂静的(marked by inactivity or repose)
quixotic   adj. 不切实际的,空想的(marked by rash lofty romantic ideas)
quota     n. 配额, 限额(a proportional part or share)
quotidian     adj.每日的,平凡的
rabble     n. 乌合之众,暴民,下等人
rabid   adj. 猛烈的,热烈的,急进的,疯狂的,固执的,狂怒的
raconteur   n.善于讲故事的人
racy   adj. 活泼生动的 (having a strongly marked quality)
raffish     adj. 粗俗的 (marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness)
raffle     n. 抽彩售货,废物
rafter   n. 椽;椽架屋顶;筏夫
rage   n. 愤怒,情绪激动,狂暴vi.大怒;狂吹;风行
ragged     adj. 衣衫褴褛的,参差的,不协调的(torn or worn to tatters)
rail     vi. 责骂,抱怨to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language)n.围栏
rakish     adj.放荡的(of, relating to, or characteristic of a rake ;dissolute)
ramble   vi. 漫步,漫游(to move aimlessly)
rambunctious     adj. 粗暴的,难控制的,骚乱的
rampart     n. 垒,壁垒,城墙(a protective barrier;bulwark)
ramshackle     adj. 摇摇欲坠(appearing ready to collapse)
rancid     adj. 腐臭的(offensive in odor or flavor)
rancor     n.敌意,深仇,怨恨(bitter deep-seated ill will)
randomize     v. 使随机化,完全打乱
ranger     n. 守林人,骑警,徘徊者
rankle     v.(怨恨,失望等)难以释怀,激怒(to cause irritation)
rant     vt.vi. 咆哮,激昂地说(to scold vehemently)
rapacious       adj. 强夺的,贪欲的,贪婪的(excessively grasping)
rapport     n.和睦,意见一致 (relation marked by harmony, conformity)
rapprochement     n. 建立或恢复友谊或和睦关系→
rapscallion   n. 流氓,恶棍
rapt     adj.全神贯注的,入迷的,出神的 (wholly absorbed)
rash     adj. 轻率的;鲁莽的 (proceeding from undue haste)
raisin     n. 葡萄干
rarefy     v. 使稀薄,变稀薄(to make thin, less compact, or less dense)
raspy     adj. 刺耳的;粗糙的;易怒的
ratify     vt. 认可;批准 (to approve & sanction formally)
ratiocination     n. 推理,推论(the process of exact thinking)
ration   n. 定额,定量,配给 (a food allowance for one day)
rationalize       v. 使合理化;找借口,自圆其说,文过饰非(明明做错还要找借口)
ravel   vt. 使纠缠, 使混乱, 解开, 弄清(to separate the texture)
rave   v.咆哮n. 过分赞扬, 吹捧狂热的观点(an extravagantly favorable criticism)
ravenous     adj. 贪婪的,饿极的,渴望的,狼吞虎咽的 (very eager or greedy for food,
ravish     v. 强夺 -ing·adj.令人陶醉的
raze     vt.破坏,抹去(to destroy to the ground;demolish)
reactant     n. 反应物
reactionary     adj.反动的,反对变革的
ream   n. 令;大量的纸(a quantity of paper )
reap     v. 收割, 收获(to gather by reaping)
reassure     v. 使安心,安慰(to restore to confidence)
rebuff     vt. 严厉拒绝(to reject or criticize sharply)
recalcitrant     adj.固执的,顽抗的
recant     vi. 取消前言,放弃信仰,公开认错(to make a formal retraction or disavowal of a
recessive     adj. 退行的,逆行的;后退的;隐性的(producing little or no phenotypic
recidivism     n. 累犯,重犯 (relapse into criminal behavior)
reciprocate     vi. 往复运动;互换;酬答(to move forward & backward)
reckless     adj. 不注意的,卤莽的,不顾后果的(careless of consequences)
recluse     n. 隐遁者,遁世者(a person who leads a secluded life)
recoil     vi. 退却,畏缩,撤退(to fall back under pressure);报应
reconcile     vt. 使和解,调停(to make consistent or congruous)
recondite   adj. 深奥的,难解的(not easily understood;abstruse)
reconnaissance     vi. 侦察,勘查(an exploratory military survey of enemy territory)
reconstitute     vt. 重新组成,重新设立;加水使恢复
reconvene     vt 重新集合,重新召集
rectify     v. 订正,校正(to set right)
rectitude     n. 正直,公正,清廉(moral integrity)
recumbent     adj. 靠着的,斜躺着的,不活动的,休息的
recuperate     v. 复原(to regain a former state or condition)
redistribution     n. 重新分配,再区分
redolent     adj.芳香的(exuding fragrance)
list 28   redoubtable
redoubtable   adj.可敬畏的,可怕的,著名的 (worthy of respect)
redundant     adj. 多余的,过多的,冗长的
reel     n. 卷轴;一卷;蹒跚;旋转;纺车
referee     n. 仲裁人,调解人;裁判员
refinery     n.精炼厂,提炼厂
reflective       adj. 反射的;反映的;熟虑的
refractory     adj.难驾驭的,不听话的,执拗的;(病)难治的
refulgent     adj.辉煌的,灿烂的(a radiant or resplendent quality)
refute   vt. 驳倒,反驳
regenerate   adj. 新生的,再生的(restored to a better, higher, or more worthy state)
regimen     n. 养生法,生活规则
regress     v. 复原,逆行,使倒退(to tend to approach or revert to a mean )
rehabilitate     v.使康复,使复职,使恢复名誉
rehearsal     n. 排演, 演习, 预演, 试演
reign     n. 执政,君主统治,统治,支配 (royal authority )
rein     n.缰绳vi.驾驭,控制
reiterate     v. 重申,反复地说
rejoice     v. 欣喜,喜悦(to feel joy or great delight)
relapse     vi. 故态复萌,再陷邪道,再度堕落(to slip or fall back into a former worse
release   vt. 释放,放松;豁免,免除 ( to set free from restraint)
relent   v. 变慈悲(to become more lenient, compassionate, or forgiving)
relevant     adj. 有关联的,中肯的,有关系的,适当的
religion   n. 宗教,信仰
relinquish     vt. 放弃(give up),松开(release),放手(to let go)
relish     n. 爱好,美味,食欲
reluctant     adj.不顾的,勉强的,难得到的,难处理的
remiss     adj. 疏忽的,不留心的,玩忽职守的(showing neglect or inattention·lax)
remodel     vt. 改造,改型,改变(to alter the structure of)
remonstrance   n.抗议,抱怨(an earnest presentation of reasons for
remorse     n. 懊悔,悔恨(a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt)
remunerate     vt. 给与报酬,赔偿,酬劳
rend     v.撕裂,猛拉(to split or tear apart or in pieces by violence)
renounce     vi. 断绝关系;放弃权利(to give up, refuse or resign usually by formal
renovate     vt. 更新,革新,恢复,修复,刷新(to restore to a former better state )
repartee     n. 机灵的回答(a succession or interchange of clever retorts:amusing
repatriate     v. 遣返(to restore or return to the country of origin or citizenship)
repeal   v.n. 撤销,废除(法律)(to rescind or annul by authoritative act; to revoke or
repel     vt. 抵制,排斥(repulse;resist)使厌恶(to cause aversion in · disgust)
repertoire   n. 预备上映的剧目列表(a list or supply of dramas, operas, pieces, or parts
repine     v. 抱怨,表达不满(to feel or express discontent or dejection)
replete   adj. 饱满的(fully provided ;full)
reportage     n. 报道, 报道的消息, 报告文学
repose     v.n.. 休息,睡眠,静止(to lie at rest ;to take a rest)
reprehend   v. 谴责,责难(to voice disapproval of ;censure)
repress     v.镇压(to put down by force)抑制(to hold in by self-control)
reprieve     n. 缓刑,暂缓(to delay the punishment of a condemned prisoner)
reproach     n./v. 责备,耻辱(an expression of rebuke or disapproval)
reprobate     v. 谴责,指责n. 堕落者,道德败坏的人
reproof   n. 谴责,责备(criticism for a fault · rebuke)
reprove     v. 责备,申斥(to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent;to
reptile     n.爬虫动物, 卑鄙的人
repudiate     vt. 否认,拒绝承认,拒绝接受,拒付
repugnant     adj. 令人厌恶的(exciting aversion);不一致的(incompatible)
repulse     v.n. 厌恶,令人厌恶;驱逐,击退
repute     n. 名声,名誉(the character or status commonly ascribed to one)
requite   vt. 酬劳,报答(to make return for · repay)
requisite   adj. 需要的, 必不可少的, 必备的(essential, necessary)
rescind   v.废除,取消(abrogate;cancel)
reserved     adj. 收敛的,内敛的,话不多的(restrained in words & actions)
residue   n. 剩余物(something that remains after a part is taken, separated, or designated)
resign   v.辞(职)(give up one's office:quit),听之任之(to accept something as
resilience   n.弹力,在逆境中调整的能力(an ability to recover from or adjust easily to
resin     n.树脂
resolute     adj. 坚决的,刚毅的,毅然的(marked by firm determination · resolved)
resonant     adj.(声音)洪亮的,共鸣的(echoing; resounding; deep & full in sound)
resourceful     adj. 策略的,机智的,资源丰富的
respite   n. 间歇,休息,暂缓 a period of temporary delay;an interval of rest or relief
respire   v.呼吸(breathe; specifically:to inhale & exhale air successively)
resplendent     adj.华丽的,辉煌的(shining brilliantly)
responsive adj. 做出响应的(giving response)敏感的(quick to respond appropriately or sympathetically)
restive     adj. 急躁的(marked by impatience);倔强的(stubbornly resisting control)
restless   adj.得不到休息的, 不平静的
restrain     vt. 阻止,限制,使受控制
resurgence   n. 复活,重新活跃,复兴
resuscitate   v.使复活,使苏醒
retainer   n. 家仆(a person attached or owing service to a household ; especially:servant)
retaliate     v. 报复,反击(to repay(as an injury)in kind)
retard   vt. 妨碍,延迟,迟缓
reticent   adj.沉默不语的(inclined to be silent or uncommunicative in speech· reserved)
retort     vi. 反驳,回嘴n. 机智回答(a quick, witty, or cutting reply; especially:one that turns
retouch   vt.vi. 润饰,修正(to rework in order to improve)
retract   vt.vi. 缩回,收回,否认
retrench     v. 节省,削减(cut down, reduce)
list 29   retribution
retribution     n. 报偿;惩罚; 报复(recompense, reward;punishment)
retrograde     adj.倒退的(go backwards; recede; degenerate; deteriorate)
retrospective     adj. 追想的,回顾的(looking back on the past)
revelry     n. 狂欢 , 喧闹的作乐(noisy partying or merrymaking)
revenge     n.v. 报仇,复仇,报复
revere     v. 尊崇,尊敬(to show devoted deferential honor to)
revise     vt. 校订,修正(to make a new, amended, improved, or up-to-date version of)
revive     vi. 复活,恢复意识
revoke     vt.撤回, 废除, 宣告无效(to annul by recalling or taking back)
ribald     adj. 举止.言语粗鲁的(crude,offensive)
rickety     adj.摇摆的(shaky:in unsound physical condition)
rider     n. 附件a clause appended to a legislative bill to secure a usually distinct object
ridicule     n .v. 嘲笑,笑柄
rife   adj. 流行的(prevalent);丰富的(copiously supplied)
rift     n.裂缝,离间(a clear space or interval)
rile     vt. 搅浑浊,惹怒,使焦急(to make agitated & angry:upset)
ripen     v. 使成熟
riot   n.v.喧闹,打破平静(public violence, tumult, or disorder)
rite   n.宗教仪式,仪式(a ceremonial act or action)
rive   vt. 撕开(to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces ;rend)
riveting   adj. 吸引人的, 极迷人的(to attract & hold(as the attention)completely)
rivulet     n.小河, 小溪(a small stream)
robust     adj. 精力充沛的, 强壮的,健康的
rodent   n.啮齿类动物(如鼠等)
roil   v. 搅浑,激怒(to make turbid by stirring up the sediment or dregs of)
roister     v. 喧闹作乐(to engage in noisy revelry:carous)
rookie     n.新兵;新手(recruit;also:novice)
roster   n.值勤表,花名册(a roll or list of personnel)
rostrum     n. 讲坛,演讲坛(a stage for public speaking)
rouse     v. 激起,煽动 (to stir up:excite),唤起,唤醒
royalty     王权(royal status or power);版税 (a payment to an author or composer for each copy of a work sold or to an inventor for each item sold under a patent)
rubicund     adj. 红润的,透红的(ruddy)
rudimentary     adj.基础的(fundamental)原始的(of a primitive kind), 未发展
rue   n.后悔,遗憾(to feel penitence, remorse, or regret for)
ruffle   n.. 皱褶, 生气v.使皱,使生气
ruminate   vt.vi. 反刍(to chew repeatedly for an extended period)沉思(to go over
rumple   n.皱纹,皱褶(fold,wrinkle)v.使皱,弄皱
run     n. 连续演出(an unbroken course of performances or showings)
rupture   v. 打破;打碎(to part by violence)
ruse   n.诡计(trick to deceive; stratagem)
rustic   adj. 乡村的,纯朴的, 粗俗的(lacking in social graces or polish)
rustle   v. (美口语)偷牛(马)
sabbatical   adj. 安息日的,周期性休息的
sabotage   vt. 妨害,破坏
saccharine   n. 糖精
sacrilege   n. 亵渎圣物,冒渎,悖理逆天的行为
saddle   n. 鞍, 鞍状物v. 压抑,负担(oppress,burden)
safeguard   n. 保护措施,护照
sagacious   adj.聪明的,睿智的(of keen & farsighted penetration & judgment)
salient   adj.显著的,突出的(standing out conspicuously:prominent)
salmon   n. 大马哈鱼
salubrious   adj . 有益健康的(favorable to or promoting health or well-being)
salutary   adj. 有益的,有益健康的(promoting a beneficial effect or health)
salutation   n. 致敬,打招呼(表示欢迎和礼貌)
salvage   v.(从灾难中)抢救,海上救助
salve   n. 药膏,抚慰剂v. 减轻,缓和(quiet, assuage)
sanctify   vt. 使神圣,敬神,使成为神圣之物
sanctuary   n. 避难所(a place of refuge & protection)
sanction   v. 批准, 同意,认可(to give effective or authoritative approval or consent to)
sanctimonious   adj. 假装虔诚的(hypocritically pious)
sand   v. 磨光n. 沙
sanguine   adj. 红润的(red)充满希望的(hopeful)愉快的(cheerful)
sanitation   n.卫生,卫生设施
sap   vt. 削弱(weaken)n.树液,体液,活力(bodily health & vigor)
sapient   adj. 贤明的,有洞察力的(possessing or expressing great sagacity)
sarcasm   n. 讽刺,轻蔑(cutting ironic remark; scornful remarks)
sartorial   adj. 裁缝匠的,缝工的,裁缝的
sate   vt. 满足,充足,饮食过度(satisfy to the full; satisfy to excess; cloy)
satiate   v. 饱足,过分满足(to satisfy fully or to excess)
satire   n.讽剌作品(a literary work holding up human vices & follies to ridicule or
saturate   v. 使饱和, 浸透(full of moisture·made thoroughly wet)
saturnine   adj. 忧郁的,阴沉的 of a gloomy or surly disposition
saunter   n./v. 闲逛,漫步(to walk about in an idle or leisurely manner:stroll)
savanna   n. 平原(a treeless plain especially in Florida);草原(a tropical or
savant   博学之士,学者(a person of learning)
savory   adj. 美味的,可口的(appetizing to the taste or smell)
savvy   n. 老练,机智(practical know-how)
sawdust   n. 锯屑 fine particles (as of wood) made by a saw in cutting
scabbard   n. 鞘v. 插入鞘中(a sheath for a sword, dagger, or bayonet)
scads   n. 许多,大量(a large number or quantity)
scale   n. 天平,秤盘;音阶
scalpel     n.手术刀(a small straight thin-bladed knife used especially in surgery)
scan   vt. 分析韵律(to read or mark so as to show metrical structure)
list 30   scant
scant   adj. 不足的,缺乏的
scathing   adj. 严厉的(bitterly severe)
schism   n. 分裂(division, separation),不一致(discord, disharmony)
school   n. 学派,鱼群
scintillate   v. 闪烁,(谈吐)流露机智(to throw off as a spark or as sparkling flashes)
scion   n. 幼芽, 子孙(descendant, child)
scission   n. 切断,分离,分裂(a division or split in a group or union:schism)
scissor   n. 剪刀
scoff   n. 笑柄,嘲笑v. 嘲笑(to treat or address with derision:mock)v.狼吞虎咽
scooter   n. 滑行车,踏板车
scorch   v. 烧焦, 烘干(sear)
score   n. 乐谱,分数
scorn   n. 轻蔑vt. 轻蔑,鄙视,不屑(reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy)
scotch   vt. 阻碍(hinder, thwart)
scour   vt. 擦洗;全面检查(to go through or range over in or as if in a search)
scowl   vi. 皱眉(表现出不高兴)(to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure)
scrappy   adj. 好斗的,果敢的(quarrelsome;having an aggressive & determined spirit)
scrap   vt. 抛弃(discard;to abandon as no longer of enough worth to retain)
scrawl   vt.乱涂, 潦草地写(to write or draw awkwardly, hastily, or carelessly)
scribble   vt.vi. 潦草地书写,乱写
script   n. 手迹,手稿,剧本(the written text of a stage play, screenplay, or broadcast)
scrupulous   adj. 小心谨慎的,正直的(having moral integrity;painstaking)
scrutable   adj. 可以理解的,可以了解的(comprehensible)
scrutinize   v. 仔细检查(to examine closely & minutely)
scuff   n.v. 拖着脚走,磨损(to become scratched, chipped, or roughened by wear)
sculpt   v. 雕刻(carve, sculpture)
scurrilous   adj. 说粗话的,猥亵的(using or given to coarse language containing
scurvy     adj. 下流的,可鄙的(disgustingly mean or contemptible:despicable)
scythe   n. 长柄的大镰刀,战车镰
seascape   n. 海景(a view of the sea), 海景画(a picture representing a scene at sea)
seamy   adj. 堕落的,污秽的(degraded, sordid)
secluded   adj. 隐僻的,隐蔽的(screened or hidden from view; sequestered;solitary)
secrete   vt. 隐藏,分泌(to form & give off a secretion)
sedate   adj.镇静的,安静的(keeping a quiet steady attitude)vt. 给...服镇静剂
sedentary   adj. 久坐的,固定不动的(not migratory:settled)
seduce   vt. 怂恿,劝说 (使不忠诚,使不服从)(to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty)
sedulous   adj. 坚忍不拔的,勤勉的(diligent in application or pursuit)
seemly   adj. 适宜的,恰当的,合适的(conventionally proper;fit)
segment   n. 片断vt. 分割(to separate into segments:give off as segments)
self-abasement   n.自卑, 自谦(degradation or humiliation of oneself;especially
seminal   adj. 有创意的,种子的,萌芽的(containing or contributing the seeds of
seminary   n. 神学院
sensation   n. 感觉,知觉,轰动事件
sensitive   adj. 敏感的,易感的,灵敏的,感光的
sentinel   n. 哨兵,看守
sepulchral   adj. 坟墓的,阴深的,忧郁的(suited to or suggestive of a sepulchre)
septic   adj. 腐败的n. 腐烂物(of, relating to, or causing putrefaction)
sequela   n. 后继者, 后遗症
sequester   vt. 使隐退,使隔绝,分离(to set apart:segregate;seclude, withdraw)
seraph   n. [圣经]六翼天使(one of the 6-winged angels standing in the presence of God)
sere   adj.干枯的,凋萎的(being dried & withered)
serrated   adj. 锯齿状的
serendipity   n. 善于发掘新奇事物的天赋(the faculty or phenomenon of
serene     adj. 清澈的,晴朗的,安静的(marked by or suggestive of utter calm & unruffled
serfdom   n. 农奴身份, 农奴境遇
sermon   n. 说教,训诫,布道
serpentine   adj. 蜿蜒的在形状或移动上象蛇的,弯曲的
serrate   adj. 锯齿状的(notched or toothed on the edge)
serried   adj. 密集的,林立的,重重叠叠罗列的
servile   adj. 奴隶的,卑屈的(meanly or cravenly submissive:abject)
severe   adj. 严格的,凶猛的(of a strict or stern bearing or manner:austere)
shackle   vt. 加枷锁,束缚(to deprive of freedom especially of action by means of
shadow   vt. 遮蔽,使朦胧,预示,偷偷尾随(to follow especially secretly:trail)
shallow   浅的,浅薄的(lacking in depth of knowledge, thought, or feeling)
shale   n. 页岩,泥板岩
sham   v. 佯装n. 伪品adj. 虚假的(not genuine:false, feigned)
shard   n.(陶瓷器、瓦等的)破片,碎片
shiftless   adj. 无计谋的,懒惰的(lacking in ambition or incentive:lazy)
shipshape   adj. 井然有序的,整洁的(trim, tidy)
shirk   v.逃避,规避 avoid (responsibility, work, etc.); malinger
shoal   adj. 浅的(shallow)
shopworn   adj. 陈旧的, 陈腐的(尤指在商店中陈列久的货物)
shrewd   adj. 精明的, 机敏的(marked by clever discerning awareness & hardheaded
shrine   n. 神殿,圣地
shrug   v. 耸肩(表示冷漠、怀疑等)to lift or contract(the shoulders)especially
shun   vt. 避开, 避免(to avoid deliberately & especially habitually)
sidereal   adj. 恒星的(in relation to stars or constellations:astral)
sidestep   vi. 躲避打击,回避问题(avoid;bypass, evade)
signal   adj. 显著的(distinguished from the ordinary)
simper   vi.n. 假笑,傻笑(to smile in a silly manner)
simpleton   n. 笨蛋,傻子(缺乏常识)
simulate   vt. 模拟,假装,模仿(to give or assume the appearance or effect of often
sin   n. 犯罪,过失(an offense against religious or moral law)
sincere   adj. 诚实的,正直的(honest;pure; true)
list 31   sinecure
sinecure   n. 美差(well-paid position with little responsibility)
sinew   n. 精力,腱,原动力,体力(solid resilient strength:power)
singe   v. 烧焦, 烤焦(to burn superficially or lightly · scorch)
sinuous   adj. 迂回的,复杂的(winding; intricate, complex)
sip   vt. 啜饮(to drink in small quantities)
siren   n. 塞壬;海妖之一,用歌声诱惑海员,使船只在岛屿周围触礁沉没
skeleton   n. 骨架,骨骼,提纲(a usually rigid supportive or protective structure or
skeptic   n. 怀疑者,怀疑论者,无神论者(a doubting or incredulous person)
skimp   v. 节省花费,吝啬(provide scantily;live very economically)
skirmish   n. 小冲突(a minor fight in war usually incidental to larger movements)
skirt   vt. 回避,绕…走(to avoid especially because of difficulty or fear of controversy)
skit   n. 滑稽短剧(a satirical or humorous story or sketch)
slack   adj. 松弛的,缓慢的(not tight or taut)
slab   n. 厚片(a broad, flat, thick piece)
slake   vt. 消除,平息(quench),使满足,解渴(satisfy as thirst)
slant   n.v.(使)倾斜,倾向,偏见(to interpret or present in line with a special interest:angle)
slate   n. 石板,候选人(提名)名单(a tablet used for writing on)
slew   v.(使)旋转n. 大量,许多(a large number)
slight   adj. 纤细的, 轻微的(TRIVIAL), 少量的(SCANTY)
slight   n.vt. 轻蔑,怠慢,冷漠(to treat with disdain or indifference)
sling     n. (支撑伤臂或伤手的)吊带,三角巾
slink     v. 溜走(to go or move stealthily or furtively)
slippery   adj. 滑的(causing or tending to slide or fall;unstable),狡猾的(tricky)
slipshod   adj. 粗心的,邋遢的(careless, slovenly)
sloppy   adj.邋遢的,不整洁的(slovenly, careless)
sloth   n. 怠惰,懒惰(disinclination to action or labor · indolence)
slouch   n. 懒惰无能的人v. 懒散(to sit, stand, or walk with an awkward, drooping,
slovenly   adj. 懒散的, 不修边幅的(untidy; careless in work habits; slipshod)
sluggard   n. 懒鬼, 游手好闲的人(an habitually lazy person)
sluggish   adj. 行动迟缓的,缓慢的,迟钝的(indolent,torpid;slow to respond;markedly
slumber   n.v. 睡眠,沉睡状态(sleep;a light sleep)
slur   vt. 使模糊, 含糊的发音(obscure;to pronounce indistinctly)
sly   adj. 狡猾的,诡密的,不坦率(lacking in straightforwardness & candor·dissembling)
smarmy   adj. 虚情假意的(revealing by a smug, ingratiating, or false earnestness)
smart   vi. 刺痛,快速反应(to cause or be the cause or seat of a sharp poignant pain)
smart 2   adj. 整洁的(neat,trim)聪明的,潇洒的(stylish or elegant in dress or appearance)
smattering   n. 一知半解,浅薄的知识(superficial piecemeal knowledge)
smirk   v.假笑,得意地笑(to smile in an affected or smug manner · simper)
smother   vt. 窒息,压抑(to suffocate (another))
smug   adj. 自满的,沾沾自喜的(highly self-satisfied)
smuggle   v. 走私,私运(to import or export secretly & in violation of the law)
snare   v. 诱捕(to trap with or as if with a snare)n. 陷井
snarl   vi.n. 缠结,咆哮
sneer   n. 冷笑,嘲笑vt. 轻蔑(to laugh with facial contortions that express scorn or contempt)
snobbish   adj. 势利的(snobby)
snub   v. 冷落,不理睬 ,轻蔑(to treat with contempt or neglect)
soak   v. 浸泡,渗透(to permeate so as to wet, soften, or fill thoroughly)
sober   adj. 节制的,严肃的,朴素的(abstemious; unhurried, calm; serious)
sodden   adj. 浑身湿透的,浸过酒的(heavy with or as if with moisture or water)
solace   n.v. 安慰. 慰藉(alleviation of grief or anxiety)
solder   v. 焊接,焊合(to unite or make whole by solder)
solemnity   n. 严肃, 一本正经(seriousness;gravity)
solicitous   adj. 热切的,挂念的(worried,concerned)
solidify   v.(使)凝固, (使)坚固
soliloquy   n. 独白(talking to oneself ;a dramatic monologue)
solitude   n. 孤独, 偏僻处,隐居处(state of being alone or remote from society)
solvent   adj. 有偿付能力的(able to pay all legal debts)有溶解力的n. 溶剂
somatic   adj. 肉体的(relating to the the body; physical)
somber   adj. 昏暗的,阴森的,忧郁的(gloomy; dismal or depressing)
somnolence   n. 想睡,瞌睡,嗜睡
sonata   n. 奏鸣曲
sonnet   n. 十四行诗
soothe   vt. 缓和,使安静,安慰(to ease or relieve (pain, for example))
sop   n. 有安慰作用的东西(a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture)v.浸湿,湿透(to
sophism   n.诡辩 (看似有道理实际上无效)
sophistication   n. 诡辩;久经世故,精明
soporific   adj. 催眠的,懒惰的,昏昏沉沉的n. 安眠药
sordid   adj. 肮脏的,不干净的,卑鄙的(base,vile; dirty, filthy)
sound   adj.健康的,强壮的,有效的,合理的
sparse   adj. 稀疏的,薄的(not thickly grown or settled)
spartan   adj. 简朴的,刻苦的(lacking luxury & comfort;sternly disciplined)
spat   n. 小争吵(a brief petty quarrel or angry outburst)
spate   n. 泛滥,洪水;大量(sudden flood; a large number or amount)
specific   n. 特效药adj. 特有的,独特的(special, distinctive, or unique)
specious   adj.似是而非的(having a false look of truth or genuineness)
speck   n. 小点,斑点,少量(a very small amount:bit)
spectator   n. 观众,目击者,旁观者(one who looks on or watches)
spectrum   n.光,光谱(colored band produced when a beam of light passed through a
speculate   vi. 深思,推测(to meditate on or ponder a subject:reflect)
spendthrift   n. 挥霍者(a person who spends improvidently or wastefully)
spent   adj. 精疲力竭的,失去效用的(drained of energy or effectiveness:exhausted)
spindly   adj.细长的,纤弱的(frail or flimsy in appearance or structure)
spiny   adj. 多刺的,棘手的(abounding with difficulties or annoyances:thorny)
spire   n. 教堂的尖塔,尖顶(the upper tapering part of something; pinnacle)
spleen   n.脾,脾气,怒气,怨恨(feelings of anger or ill will often suppressed)
list 32   splint
splint   n.(固定断骨的)夹板,托板(material or a device used to protect & immobilize
spoke   n.(车轮上)幅条,阻碍物(any of the small radiating bars inserted in the hub
spontaneous   adj. 自发的,本能的(acting without apparent thought or eliberation)
spoof   n. 轻松幽默的模仿(a light humorous parody)
sporadic   adj. 偶尔发生的,零星发生的(occurring occasionally)
sprain   n. 扭伤,扭筋(to injure by a sudden or severe twist)
sprightly   adj.愉快的,活泼的(marked by a gay lightness & vivacity)
spur   vt. 刺激,激励,用马刺刺
spurious   adj. 假的,伪造的(false;forged)
spurn   v. 拒绝,摈弃(to reject with disdain or contempt:scorn)
squabble   n. 争论,口角,小争吵(a noisy altercation or minor quarrel)
squalid   adj. 污秽的,肮脏的(marked by filthiness from neglect or poverty)
squall   n.小骚乱 狂风,暴风雪,哇哇叫声(a short-lived commotion)
squander   vt. 浪费,使分散(to spend extravagantly or foolishly:dissipate)
squat   adj. 敦实的,矮壮结实的(marked by disproportionate shortness or thickness)
squint   v. 斜视(to look or peer with eyes partly closed)
squelch   n.v. 压制,镇压(to completely suppress:quell)
stabilize   v. 稳定(to make stable, steadfast, or firm)
stagnant   adj. 不流动的,停滞的,不活泼的(not flowing in a current or stream)
staid     adj. 稳重的,沉着的(marked by settled sedateness & often prim self-restraint)
stalemate   n. 和棋局面,僵局(a drawn contest:deadlock)
stalk   v. 暗中追踪(to pursue quarry or prey stealthily)
stalwart   adj.健壮的,坚定的(marked by outstanding strength & vigor)
stamina   n. 体力,耐力(staying power, endurance)
stammer   v.口吃,结巴(to make involuntary stops & repetitions in speaking·halt)
stanza   n.(诗)节,段(a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines)
startle   vt. 使大吃一惊n. 吃惊(to frighten or surprise suddenly & usually not seriously)
static   adj. 静态的,呆板的,停滞的(a lack of movement, animation, or progression)
stature     n. 身高, 身材(natural height in an upright position)
steadfast   adj. 坚定的,忠诚的(firm in belief, determination, or adherence:loyal)
stealth   n. 秘密行动,鬼祟(the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly)
steep   vt.vi. 浸,泡(to cover with or plunge into a liquid)
stench   n.臭气,恶臭v.(使)发恶臭(to emit a strong offensive odor:stink)
stencil   n.(用以刻写文字、图案的)模版v.用模版刻写
stentorian   adj.声音宏亮的(extremely loud)
sterile   adj. 不毛的(unproductive of vegetation)无菌的(free from living organisms and
stickler   n.坚持细节之人,一丝不苟的人(one who insists on exactness or
stiff   adj. 僵硬的;呆板的(lacking in suppleness or responsiveness)
stifle   vt. 抑制, 使窒息(to withhold from circulation or expression:repress; to kill by
stigma   n. 耻辱,污名(a mark of shame or discredit:stain)
stilted   adj. 夸张的,高傲的;不自然的(pompous, lofty ;formal, stiff)
stint   v. 吝惜,节省(to be sparing or frugal)
stingy   adj. 小气的,吝啬的(not generous or liberal)stingy
stipple   v.点画,点描,点刻(to engrave by means of dots & flicks)
stipulate   v.(作为合约的条件)规定;按合同要求(to lay down as a condition of an
stitch   n. 一针,缝线(a single complete movement of a threaded needle in sewing)
stock   n. 库存,储备adj. 存货的,常备的,普通的(commonly used or brought forward)
stockade   n. 栅栏,围栏(an enclosure or pen made with posts & stakes)
stodgy   adj. 平庸的,乏味的(boring, dull)非常守旧的(extremely old-fashioned:
stoke   v. 添加燃料,司炉,激起(to poke or stir up (as a fire):supply with fuel)
stoic   adj. 禁欲的,坚忍的,冷静的(not showing passion)n.坚忍克己的人
stolid   adj. 无动于衷的,感情麻木的(expressing little or no sensibility:unemotional)
stomach  v.吃得下,容忍(to bear without overt reaction or resentment)
stonewall   v. 拒绝(合作)(to refuse to comply or cooperate with)
stouthearted   adj. 刚毅的,大胆的(having a stout heart or spirit:stubborn)
stratagem   n.谋略,策略(a cleverly contrived trick or scheme for gaining an end)
strait   n. 海峡(a comparatively narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water)
stratify   v. 使层化,使分成各种等级(to divide into classes, castes, or social strata)
stray   adj. 离群的,迷途的,偶然的vi.离群,迷途,偏离(separated from the group or the
strength   n. 力量,强度,浓度(degree of potency of effect or of concentration)
striate   vt. 加条纹(to mark with striations or striae)
stricture   n. 严厉谴责,束缚(an adverse criticism·censure;restriction)
stride   v. 迈大步走,跨过(to move with or as if with long steps)
strident   adj. 刺耳的,高声喧哗的(sound harsh, insistent, & discordant)
strike   v. 冲制(奖牌)(to form by stamping, printing, or punching)
stringent   adj. 绷紧的,严厉的,缺钱的(tight, constricted)
strip   v. 脱衣,剥夺(to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from)
strut   vi. 趾高气扬地走(to walk with a pompous & affected air)n. 支柱,压杆(a structural
studio   n. 工作室,画室,摄影室(the working place of a sculptor or photographer)
stultify   vt. 使无效,抑制(to have a dulling or inhibiting effect on)使显得愚笨
stupor   n. 迟钝,麻痹,无知觉(a condition of greatly dulled or completely suspended
stun   vt. 使晕倒,使发愣(to make senseless or dizzy by:daze)
stunt   v.阻碍(成长)(to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of)
sturdy   adj. 强健的,健全的(marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor)
stygian   adj. 漆黑的,幽暗的,地狱的(extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding)
stylus   n. 铁笔(an instrument for writing, marking, or incising)
stymie   v. 阻碍(to present an obstacle to·stand in the way of)
subdue   vt. 征服;压制;减轻(to conquer & bring into subjection·vanquish;
subject   n. 臣民,受支配的人vt.使屈从于…,使隶属
subjugate   vt. 征服,镇压(to bring under control & governance as a subject)
sublime   adj. 崇高的,庄严的(lofty, grand, or exalted in expression or manner)
subliminal   adj.下意识的,潜在意识的(below the threshold of conscious perception)
submerge   vt. 浸没,淹没vi. 潜入水中(to cover or overflow with water)
list 33   submissive
submissive   adj. 服从的,顺从的,恭顺的(submitting to others)
subordinate   adj. 下级的,附属的(inferior)次要的(secondary)顺从的
subpoena   n.(法律)传票(a writ commanding a person designated in it to appear in
subservient   a. 奉承的,屈从的(obsequiously submissive)
subside   vi. 下陷,下沉(to let oneself settle down :sink;to sink or fall to the bottom)
subsidiary   adj. 次要的;辅助的(of secondary importance)
subsidy   n. 补助金, 津贴(direct financial aid by government)
substantial   adj. 物质的(consisting of or relating to substance)真实的(not
substantiate   vt. 证实(verify);使实体化(to give substance or form to:embody)
subterfuge   n. 托辞,狡计(a deceptive device or stratagem)
subvert   vt. 颠覆,推翻(to overturn or overthrow from the foundation·ruin)
succinct   adj. 简明的,简洁的(compact precise expression without wasted words)
succor       vt.n. 救援,援助(to go to the aid of:relieve)
suffocate     v. 使窒息(to stop the respiration of)
suffuse   v.(色彩等)弥漫,染遍, 充满(to spread over in the manner of fluid or light)
sulk   v. 生气,愠怒(to be sullen or morose in mood usually because of a grievance)
summary   n. 摘要(an abstract)adj.即刻的,仓促的(done without delay or formality)
summit   n. 顶点,最高阶层(top, apex; especially ·the highest point:peak)
summon   vt. 召集;传唤出庭(to command by service of a summons to appear in court)
sumptuous   adj. 豪华的,奢侈的(extremely costly, rich, luxurious, or magnificent)
sunder   v. 分裂,分离(to break apart or in two ;separate)
supercilious   adj. 目中无人的,傲慢的(coolly & patronizingly haughty)
superficial   adj. 表面的;肤浅的(lying on the surface :external)
superfluous   adj. 多余的,过剩的(exceeding what is sufficient or necessary:extra)
superimpose   n.置于他物之上,重叠;添加(to place or lay over or above something)
supine   adj. 懒散的(exhibiting indolent or apathetic inertia,especially:mentally or morally
supple   adj. 柔软的,灵活的(easy & fluent without awkwardness);逢迎的,顺从的
supplant   v.排挤,取代(to supersede especially by force or treachery)
supplement   n. 增补,补充(something that completes or makes an addition)
supplicate   v. 恳求,乞求(to make a humble entreaty; to ask for earnestly & humbly)
supposition   n.猜想,推测(something that is supposed :hypothesis)
suppress   vt. 抑制,禁止;镇压(to restrain from a usual course or action;subdue)
surcharge   n. 超载(an excessive load or burden)
surfeit   n.(食物)过量,过度(an overabundant supply:excess)
surrender   n.v. 交出,放弃,投降(to yield to the power)
surreptitious   adj. 偷偷摸摸的;保密的(doing something clandestinely)
suspend   vi. 暂停,中止(to cause to stop temporarily);悬浮(hang)
suture   n. 缝合vt. 缝合(to unite, close, or secure with sutures)
svelte   adj. (女人)体态苗条的,优雅的(slender, lithe;urbane, suave)
swagger   v. 大摇大摆地走,吹牛(to walk with an air of overbearing)
swear   vi. 诅咒(to use profane or obscene language:curse)
sweltering   adj. 酷热的(oppressively hot)
swerve     v. 转向,突然改变方向(to turn aside abruptly from a straight line or course:deviate)
swill   v.痛饮(to drink great drafts of:guzzle)
swindle   vt.vi. 诈骗,骗取(to obtain money or property by fraud or deceit)
swing   n. 摇摆,秋千(something that swings freely from or on a support)
sybarite   n.(文语)沉于奢侈逸乐者,酒色之徒(voluptuary, sensualist)
sycophant   n.马屁精, 谄媚者, 奉承者(a servile self-seeking flatterer)
syllabus   n. 课程提纲(a summary outline of a discourse, treatise, or course of study)
syllogism   n. 三段论法,演绎;诡辩
symbiosis   n. [生]共生, 合作关系(the living together in more or less intimate
symmetry   n. 对称, 匀称(balanced proportions)
symphony   n. 交响乐,交响曲(consonance of sounds;symphony orchestra)
synchronous   adj. 同时的, 同步的(happening or arising at precisely the same time)
synergic   adj. 协作的,合作的(working together:cooperating)
synonymous   a. 同义的(alike in meaning or significance)
synopsis   n. 摘要,概要(a condensed statement or outline:abstract)
synthesis   n. 综合,合成(the composition or combination of parts or elements so as to
tacit   adj. 心照不宣的,有默契的,暗示的(expressed or carried on without words or speech)
taciturn   adj. 沉默寡言的(temperamentally disinclined to talk)
tackle   n. 传动装置,滑车(一种工具)(an assemblage of ropes & pulleys arranged to
tact   n. 机敏,圆滑(a keen sense of what to do or say in order to maintain good relations
tactile   adj. 有触觉的,能触知的(perceptible by touch:tangible)
tactless   adj. 无机智的,不老练的,不圆滑的(marked by lack of a keen sense of what to
tadpole   n. 蝌蚪
talisman   n. 护身符(an object heldto avert evil & bring good fortune)
taint   vt. 污染,使腐败(to contaminate morally·corrupt)n. 污点,感染(a moral defect
talon   n.猛禽的锐爪(the claw of an animal & especially of a bird of prey)
tamper   v. 窜改,损害(to alter improperly)
tangent   adj. 离题的,不相关的(diverging from an original purpose of course:
tangible   adj. 可感知的,明显的(capable of being perceived;palpable);切实的,
tangy   adj. 强烈的,扑鼻的(having or suggestive of a tang)
tantalize   v. 挑惹,挑逗(to tease or torment by or as if by presenting something
tantamount   adj. 与…相等的(equivalent in value, significance, or effect)
tantrum   n. 勃然大怒,发脾气(a fit of bad temper)
taper   vi.vt.(使)逐渐变细,(使)逐渐减少(progressively narrowed toward one end)
tapestry   n. 挂毯(a heavy handwoven reversible textile used for hangings, curtains,
tardy   adj. 缓慢的,迟缓的(moving slowly :sluggish)
tarnish   n.v. 失去光泽,晦暗(to dull or destroy the luster of by or as if by air, dust, or dirt)
tarpaulin   n. 涂油防水布,防水衣,防水帽(a piece of material as durable plastic used
tasty   adj. 十分吸引人的(strikingly attractive or interesting)
tatty   adj. 破旧的,褴褛的(rather worn, frayed, or dilapidated·shabby)
taunt   v. 嘲笑,讥笑(to reproach or challenge in a mocking or insulting manner·jeer at)
taut   adj.(绳子)拉紧的(having no give or slack:tightly drawn)整洁的, 紧张的
list 34   tawdry
tawdry   adj. 俗丽的, 非常华丽的(cheap & gaudy in appearance or quality; ignoble)
taxing   adj. 繁重的,费力的(onerous, wearing)
taxonomist   n.分类学家(one who study the general principles of scientific
tear   vi. 流泪;撕破;猛冲,狂奔(to move or act with violence, haste, or force)
tedious   adj. 沉闷的,冗长乏味的(tiresome because of length or dullness:boring)
teeter   vi. 摇摆,摇摇欲坠(to move unsteadily:wobble)
teetotalism     n. 禁酒(the principle or practice of complete abstinence from alcoholic drinks)
telling   adj. 有效的,显著的(carrying great weight & producing a marked
temerity   n.鲁莽,大胆(boldness; nerve)
temporize   v. 调停;见风驶舵(to draw out discussions or negotiations so as to
temperate   adj. 适度的,有节制的(marked by moderation)
tempestuous   adj. 暴风雨的,暴乱的(of, relating to, or resembling a tempest)
tenable   adj. 站得住脚的,无懈可击的(capable of being held or defended;reasonable)
tenacious   adj. 顽强的,固执的(persistent in maintaining something valued or habitual)
tendentious   adj. 有偏见的,有倾向的(marked by a tendency in favor of a
tender     adj. 纤弱的;v. 正式提出(to offer formally)
tepid   adj. 微温的,温热的,不太热心的(moderately warm, lukewarm)
terminology   n. 术语(the special terms used in a business, art, science, or special subject)
terminus   n. 终点,界标,终点站(The final point;the end)
terror   n. 恐怖,可怕的人(a state of intense fear)
terse   adj.简洁的,简明的(devoid of superfluity ; also· short, brusque)
testator   n. 立遗嘱之人(a person who dies leaving a will or testament in force)
testimony   n. 证词,声明 (a solemn declaration usually made orally by a witness under
testy   adj. 易努的,暴躁的,性急的(easily annoyed:irritable)
tether     vt.(用绳,铁链)拴系, 限定, 束缚(to fasten or restrain by or as if by a tether)
theatrical   adj. 1. 矫揉造作的2. 夸张的
theology   n.神学,宗教(the study of religious faith, practice, & experience)
therapeutic   adj. 治疗的,治疗学的(of or relating to the treatment of disease or
thorny   adj. 多刺的,棘手的, 困难多的(full of thorns;full of difficulties or controversial points)
threadbare     adj. 磨破的,陈腐的(exhausted of interest or freshness)
throng   vi. 群集,拥挤(to crowd together in great numbers)
thwart   v. 阻挠,使…受挫(to oppose successfully:defeat the hopes or aspirations of)
ticklish   adj. 易怒的,易变的,不稳定的(easily offended or upset;touchy, oversensitive)
tiff   n.v. 小争吵,生气(a petty quarrel)
tightfisted   adj. 吝啬的(reluctant to part with money)
timeworn   adj. 陈旧的,老朽的(hackneyed, stale)
timid   adj. 胆小的,羞怯的(lacking in courage or self-confidence)
timorous   adj. 胆小的,胆怯的(of a timid disposition·fearful)
tinge   vt. 微染,使带气息(to color with a slight shade or stain·tint)
tinker   n. 修补匠v. 拙劣地修补,胡乱地调整(to repair, adjust, or work with something in an
tint   n. 色彩,浅色v. 染色(to impart or apply a tint to · color)
tirade   n. 长篇攻击性的演说(a protracted speech usually marked by intemperate,
toady   n. 谄媚者,拍马屁的人(one who flatters in the hope of gaining favors·sycophant)
tonic   adj. 激励的,滋补的n. 增进健康之物,补品(increasing or restoring physical or
tong     n. 钳子;堂,帮会
tonsorial     adj. 理发师的,理发的(of or relating to a barber or the work of a barber)
topsy-turvy   adj. 混乱的,颠倒的(being in utter confusion or disorder)
topsoil     n.表层土(surface soil usually including the organic layer)
tornado   n. 旋风,龙卷风(a violent windstorm:whirlwind)
torque   n. 扭矩, 转矩(force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion)
torpid   adj. 迟钝的,缺乏兴趣的(lacking in energy or vigor · apathetic, dull)
torpor   n. 麻木,无感觉,不活泼(lethargy; sluggishness; dormancy)
torrid   adj. 酷热的(giving off intense heat·scorching)
torrential   adj. 急流的,猛烈的(caused by or resulting from action of rapid streams)
tortuous   adj.委婉的 ;曲折的(marked by devious or indirect tactics · crooked, tricky)
tourniquet   n. 止血绷带a device (as a bandage twisted tight with a stick) to check
tout   v.极力赞扬(to praise or publicize loudly or extravagantly)
toy   vi. 草率不认真地对待(to treat something casually or without seriousness:trifle)
tractable   adj. 易驾驭的,易管教的,温顺的(capable of being easily led, taught, or
tranquility   n. 宁静(the quality or state free from disturbance or turmoil)
transcend   vt. 超越,胜过(to rise above or go beyond the limits of, to triumph over
transfigure     vt. 改观,美化(to give a new & typically exalted or spiritual appearance
transgress     vt. 违反,犯罪,越规(to go beyond limits set or prescribed by·violate)
transient   adj. 短暂的,瞬时的(passing especially quickly into & out of
transitory   adj. 短暂的(tending to pass away·not persistent)
translucent   adj. 半透明的,透明的(permitting the passage of light·clear,
transparent   adj. 透明的,明显的(obvious);坦率的(free from pretense or deceit)
travail   n.vi. 辛苦劳动(work especially of a painful or laborious nature · toil)
traverse   vt. 横越,经过(to go or travel across or over)
travesty   n. 拙劣地、歪曲的模仿(a debased, distorted, or grossly inferior imitation)
treacherous   adj. 背叛的(characterized by or manifesting treachery:perfidious)
treasurer   n. 财务员, 出纳员(an officer entrusted with the receipt & disbursement of
treaty   n. 条约,谈判(an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation)
trenchant   adj. 一针见血的;锐利的(keen, incisive; sharp)
trepidation   n. 恐惧,战栗(timorous uncertain agitation:apprehension)
trespass   vi. 侵入,犯罪vt.冒犯,违反(to enter unlawfully upon the land of
tribute     n.贡物;颂词(a gift, payment, declaration)
trickle   v.一滴滴地流,徐徐地流(to issue or fall in drops)
trite   adj. 陈腐的,陈词滥调的(hackneyed or boring from much use·not fresh or original)
trivial   adj. 不值钱的,微不足道的;平凡的,平常的(commonplace, ordinary)
troupe   n. 剧团(a company or group, especially of touring actors, singers, or dancers)
trophy   n.奖品,战利品(something gained in victory)
truant   adj. 逃避责任的(shirking responsibility)n. 逃学者,逃避者
truce   n. 休战, 休战协定(a suspension of or an agreement for suspending hostilities)
list 35   truculent
truculent   adj. 残暴的,凶狠的(cruel, savage);好战的(aggressively self-assertive)
trudge   vt. 跋涉,吃力地走(to walk or march steadily & usually laboriously)
trumpet   n. 喇叭,小号(a wind instrument consisting of a conical or cylindrical usually
truncate   v. 截短(to shorten by or as if by cutting off)
twig   n.小枝,嫩枝(a small shoot)v.理解
truss   n. 构架,托架(a rigid framework, as of wooden beams or metal bars, designed to
tugboat   n.拖船(a strongly built powerful boat used for towing & pushing)
tumult   n.骚动,暴动,吵闹(commotion)情绪激动(agitation of the mind or emotions)
turbulent   adj. 骚动的,狂暴的(causing unrest, violence, or disturbance)
turgid   adj. 浮肿的,浮夸的(excessively embellished in style or language)
turmoil   n. 骚动,混乱(a state or condition of extreme confusion, agitation, or commotion)
turncoat   n. 背叛者,变节者(one who switches to an opposing side or party;
turpitude n. 奸恶, 卑鄙(inherent baseness:depravity; a base act)
turquoise   n. 绿宝石(a mineral that is a blue, bluish green, or greenish gray)
turret   n. 小塔,塔楼, 炮塔(an ornamental structure at an angle of a larger structure)
typo   n. 打字错误(an error in typed or typeset material)
tyro   n.新手,业余爱好者(a beginner in learning:novice)
ubiquitous   adj.无所不在的,普通的(being everywhere at the same time)
unassailable   adj. 无可争辩的,无法否认的(Impossible to dispute or disprove)
uncanny   adj. 离奇的,奇异的(seeming to have a supernatural character or origin)
uncouth   adj. 笨拙的,粗俗的(awkward in appearance, manner, or behavior)
unctuous   adj. 油质的(fatty, oily);油腔滑调的,假殷勤的(revealing or marked by a
undermine   v. 消弱,破坏(to weaken or ruin by degrees)
underscore   vt. 强调(emphasize, stress),划线于…底下n. 下划线(line drawn
underdog   n. 受害者,输家(a victim of injustice or persecution)
understudy   n. 预备演员, 代替之人(one who is prepared to act another's part)
unexceptionable   adj. 无懈可击的(not open to criticism·beyond reproach)
unflappable     adj.镇定的,从容不迫的(marked by assurance & self-control)
ungainly   adj.笨拙的,不雅的(lacking in smoothness or dexterity·clumsy)
unimpeachable   adj.无可置疑的,无可指责的(not to be called in question)
unkempt   adj.凌乱的,不整洁的(deficient in order or neatness)
unlettered     adj. 未受教育的,无学问的,文盲的(lacking facility in reading & writing and
unpretentious     adj. 不炫耀的, 谦逊的(free from ostentation, elegance, or affectation)
unproductive   adj.徒然的,无效的
unrequited     adj. 无报答的,无报酬的(not reciprocated or returned in kind)
unruly   adj.难驾驭的,蛮横的(not readily ruled or managed;presumptuous)
untenable   adj. 防守不住的,站不住脚的(not able to be defended)
untold     adj.数不清的,无数的(incalculable, vast)
untoward   adj. 不利的,不吉利的(not favorable:adverse, unpropitious)
unwitting   adj. 不知道的,未觉察的(not knowing·unaware)
unwonted     adj. 不习惯的,不寻常的(not accustomed by experience)
upbraid   vt.(严厉地)谴责,责骂(severely reproach;scold vehemently)
uphold     vt.支持,赞成(to support against an opponent)
urbane     adj.彬彬有礼的,文雅的(notably polite or finished in manner·polished)
usurp     v. 篡夺, 篡位(to seize or exercise authority or possession wrongfully)
usury     n. 高利贷(lending money at illegal high rates of interest)
utter   vt. 出声;发表,宣布(pronounce, speak)adj. 绝对的,完全的,十足的(absolute, total)
vaccinate     vt.vi. 预防接种(to inoculate with cowpox virus to produce immunity)
vacillate   vi.犹豫不决;摇动,摇摆(waver in opinion;fluctuate;sway to & fro)
vacuous   adj.愚蠢的, 空洞的(marked by lack of ideas or intelligence·stupid, inane)
vagary     n. 奇想,奇特行为(capricious happening; caprice)
vague     adj. 含糊的,不清楚的(not thinking or expressing one's thoughts clearly or precisely)
valediction     n.告别演说,告别词(an act of bidding farewell)
valiant     adj.勇敢的,有胆量的,英勇的(courageous;heroic)
valid   adj. 正确的(logically correct);有根据的(well-grounded);有效的(effective)
vanquish   vt. 打败,征服,克服(to defeat in a conflict or contest)
vapid     adj. 索然无味的,乏味的(lacking liveliness, tang, briskness, or force:flat, dull)
vaporize   v. 使蒸发(to convert as by the application of heat or by spraying into vapor)
variance     n. 变化,差异,不一致(difference, variation)
variegation   n.彩色,变化多样的颜色(the diversity of colors)
varnish   n. 清漆v. 涂上清漆,使有光泽(to apply varnish to)
vault     n. 有拱形天花板的地窖, 金库(a room or compartment for the safekeeping of valuables)
vaunt     v. 自夸(to make a vain display of one's own worth or attainments:brag)
veer   v.转向,改变(to change direction or course)
vehement     adj.(情感)强烈的,热情洋溢的(intensely emotional:impassioned, fervid)
venal     adj. 可用钱收买的,贪污受贿的(capable of being bribed; corrupt)
vendor     n. 小贩(one that sell especially as a hawker or peddler)自动售货机
veneer     n.镶面板,饰面(a layer of wood of superior value or excellent grain to be glued to
venerate   vt.尊敬,崇拜(regard with reverential respect)
venial     adj. 可宽恕的(forgivable, pardonable)
venom       n. 毒液(poison of an animal);强烈的憎恶或敌意(hatred)
veracious     adj.诚实的,说实话的(truthful, honest)
verbatim   adj. 逐字的,一字不差的,直译的(following the exact words)
verbose   adj. 冗长的,罗嗦的(containing more words than necessary)
verdant   adj. 翠绿的,青翠的(green with growing plants)
verify     vt. 校验,查证,证实(to establish the truth, accuracy, or reality of)
veritable     adj. 真正的,确实的(not false, unreal, or imaginary)
verisimilar   adj. 好象真实的,逼真的(having the appearance of truth :probable)
vernacular     n. 本国语,方言(the standard native language of a country or locality)
versatile   adj. 多用的,通用的,多才多艺的(having many uses or applications)
verse     n. 诗歌v. 使精通(to familiarize by study or experience)
vertigo     n. 眩晕(a disordered state in which the individual or the individual's
verve   n. 气魄, 神韵;活力, 热情(vivacity;energy, vitality)
list 36   vessel
vessel     n. 船只,容器,脉管
vestige     n .遗迹, 痕迹;(用于否定)丝毫;一点儿(the smallest quantity or trace)
vestigial   adj. 退化的,发育不全的(small & degenerate or imperfectly developed)
veteran   n. 老兵,老手(an old soldier of long service)adj. 经验丰富的
veto   vt.n. 否决,禁止(to refuse to admit or approve:prohibit)
vex     vt.使烦恼,使恼怒(to bring trouble, distress, or agitation to)
viable     adj. 能养活的,能生育的(capable of living)
vicarious   adj. 代理的,取代的(performed or suffered by one person as a substitute
vicious     adj. 邪恶的,堕落的(having the nature or quality of vice or immorality:depraved)
vicissitude     n. 自然变化,(人事)变迁兴衰(natural change or mutation visible in
victimize   v.使受骗,牺牲(to subject to deception or fraud:cheat)
vigilant       adj. 警醒的,警惕的(alertly watchful especially to avoid danger)
vignette   n.(戏剧或电影中的)小插曲(a brief incident or scene as in a play or movie)
vigorous   n. 精力旺盛的,健壮的(full of physical or mental strength or active force)
vilify   vt.诽谤, 辱骂(to utter slanderous & abusive statements against:defame)
vim     n. 活力,精力(robust energy & enthusiasm)
vindicate   vt. 为…平反,为…辩护(to free from allegation or blame)
vindictive   adj.复仇的(有寻仇倾向的)(disposed to seek revenge:vengeful)
virtuoso   n. 艺术鉴赏家,大师,专家(an experimenter in the arts & sciences:savant)
virtuous       adj. 品德高尚的,正直的(morally excellent:righteous)
virulent   adj. 有毒的,有害的
viscous   adj.粘滞的,粘性(having a glutinous consistency:viscid)
viscid     adj. 粘滞的,粘性的(having a glutinous consistency:viscous)
visionary   adj. 幻影的(illusory),空想的(utopian)
vitality   n. 活力,生命力(capacity to live & develop)
vitiate     v. 消弱,损害(to make faulty or defective:impair)
vitrify     v. 使成玻璃状(to convert into a glassy substance by heat & fusion)
vitriolic   adj.刻薄的;硫酸的(bitterly scathing; caustic)
vituperate   vt. 谩骂, 责骂(to abuse or censure severely or abusively:berate)
vivacious     adj. 活泼的,快活的(lively in temper, conduct, or spirit:sprightly)
vociferous     adj. 喧哗的,大叫大嚷的(marked by vehement insistent outcry)
volatile     adj. 反复无常的,易变的(inconstant; fickle)
volition   n.行使意志,决择(an act of making a choice or decision)
voluble     adj. 健谈的,流利的(glib, fluent);爱说话的,多话的(talkative)
voluminous   adj. 卷数多的,大量的,庞大的(having or marked by great volume or bulk)
voluptuous     adj.奢侈逸乐的,沉溺酒色的,撩人的(given to or spent in enjoyments
voracious     adj.贪婪的,狼吞虎咽的(insatiable;having a huge appetite)
votary     n. 热心者,崇拜者,信徒(enthusiast, devotee;a devout or zealous worshiper)
vouch     vi. 担保,证明(to summon into court to warrant or defend a title)
vulgar     adj. 粗俗的,无教养的,通俗的(lacking in cultivation, perception, or taste:coarse)
vulnerable     adj.易受攻击的, 易受责难的(open to attack or damage:assailable)
waddle     vi. 摇摇摆摆地走,蹒跚
waffle   vi. 闲聊,胡扯(to talk or write foolishly:blather)
waft   v.吹送, 飘荡(to move or go lightly on or as if on a buoyant medium)
wag   n. 爱说笑话的人,诙谐的人,机智的人(wit, joker)
wan   adj.苍白的,病态的, 暗淡的(suggestive of poor health·sickly, pallid)
wanderlust     n.旅行癖, 流浪癖(strong longing for or impulse toward wandering)
wane   vi.减少,衰退 (dwindle;to fall gradually from power, prosperity, or influence)
want   n. 短缺,贫困(extreme poverty that deprives one of the necessities of life)
wardrobe   n. 衣室,衣橱(a room or closet where clothes are kept:clothespress)
warmonger   n. 好战者, 战争贩子(one who urges or attempts to stir up war)
warp   v.弯曲,翘起(to twist or bend out of a plane)
warrant   vt. 担证,使有正当理由(to guarantee to a person good title to and
wary     adj. 小心的,机警的,谨慎的(very cautious; watchful)
wastrel       n. 败家子,挥霍无度的人(one who dissipates resources self-indulgently)
watershed     n. 分水岭,重要关头,转折点(a crucial dividing point:turning point)
wax   vi. 增大,增强,月亮渐满(to increase in phase or intensity ,used chiefly of the
waylay     vt.埋伏, 伏击, 抢劫(to lie in wait for or attack from ambush)
welter   n. 混乱;杂乱(a chaotic mass or jumble)
wheedle   vt. (用花言巧语)诱惑,哄骗(to influence or entice by soft words or flattery)
whet   vt.磨快,使兴奋,刺激(to make keen or more acute:excite, stimulate)
whiff     n. 轻吹(a quick puff or slight gust especially of air, odor, gas, smoke, or spray)
whimsical     adj.古怪的,反复无常的,异想天开的(resulting from or characterized by
wholesome   adj. 有益健康的(promoting health or well-being of spirit,body or morals)
wickedness   n.邪恶, 不道德(the quality or state of being morally very bad)
wince     v. 避开,畏缩(to shrink back involuntarily as from pain)
windbag   n.饶舌之人,好说话的人(an exhaustively talkative person)
windy     adj. 冗长的,吹嘘的(verbose, bombastic)
winnow   v.把(谷壳)吹掉,扬去(to remove (as chaff) by a current of air)
winsome   adj.媚人的,漂亮的(generally pleasing & engaging often because of a
wit     n. 机智(mental capability & resourcefulness·ingenuity)机智的人,妙语
withdraw   vi. 撤退,隐遁(to take back or away)
wither   v.枯萎,凋谢(to become dry & sapless;especially ·to shrivel from or as if from
withhold   vt. 压制,拒给,不允许(to refrain from granting, giving, or allowing)
wizen   v.(使)凋谢,(使)枯萎 (to become dry, shrunken, & wrinkled often as a result
wobble     vi. 摇晃,动摇,不稳定,犹豫(to move or proceed with an irregular rocking or
woo     v. 求爱(to sue for the affection of & usually marriage with·court)
worldly     adj. 世间的,世俗的(of this world rather than religion or spiritual affairs)老练的
worship   n. 崇拜,礼拜,尊敬(extravagant respect to an object of esteem)
wrangler   n. 争论者,牧马者(a ranch hand who takes care of the saddle horses)
wretched   adj.可怜的, 沮丧的(deeply afflicted, dejected, or distressed in body or mind)
wry     adj. 扭曲的(having a bent or twisted shape or condition)讽刺的(cleverly & often
yoke   vt. 给…上轭,连接,结合(to join as if by a yoke)
yokel   n.庄稼汉, 乡下人(a naive or gullible inhabitant of a rural area or small town)
zeal   n. 热心,热诚(eagerness & ardent interest in pursuit of something·fervor)
zenith   n. 顶点, 天顶, 最高点(the highest point reached in the heavens by a celestial body)
zesty   adj.热望的(having or characterized by keen enjoyment)
xiexindeboke   2010-02-17 23:57:19 评论:1   阅读:3771   引用:0





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