计算机英语 (中)

文章:外国语大学

 与服务器相关的术语

C2C: card-to-card interleaving,卡到卡交错存取
cc-NUMA:(cache-coherent non uniform memory access,连贯缓冲非统一内存寻址)
CHRP(Common Hardware Reference Platform,共用硬件平台,IBM为PowerPC制定的标准,可以兼容Mac OS,   Windows NT, Solaris, OS/2, Linux和AIX等多种操作系统)
EMP: Emergency Management Port,紧急事件管理端口
ICMB: Inter-Chassis Management Bus, 内部管理总线
MPP(Massive Parallel Processing,巨量平行处理架构)
MUX: Data Path Multiplexor,多重路径数据访问
SOS(Server Operating Systems,服务器操作系统)
TPS:transactions per second,每秒处理事项数
UPA: Ultra Port Architecture,超级端口结构

认识常见计算机语言的缩略表达

认识常见计算机语言的缩略表达

CSS: Cascading Style Sheets,层叠格式表
DCD: Document Content Description for XML: XML文件内容描述
DTD: Document Type Definition,文件类型定义
HTML(HyperText Markup Language,超文本标记语言)
JVM: Java Virtual Machine, Java虚拟机
OJI: Open Java VM Interface,开放JAVA虚拟机接口
SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Language,标准通用标记语言
SMIL: Synchronous Multimedia Integrate Language(同步多媒体集成语言)
VRML:Virtual Reality Makeup Language,虚拟现实结构化语言
VXML(Voice eXtensible Markup Language,语音扩展标记语言)
XML: Extensible Markup Language(可扩展标记语言)
XSL: Extensible Style Sheet Language(可扩展设计语言)

了解计算机网络的各种术语

了解计算机网络的各种术语

ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line,不对称数字订阅线路
AH: Authentication Header,鉴定文件头
AMR(Audio/Modem Riser,音效/数据主机板附加直立插卡)
ARP(Address Resolution Protocol,地址解析协议)
ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode,异步传输模式)
BOD(Bandwidth On Demand,弹性带宽运用)
CBR(Committed Burst Rate,约定突发速率)
CCIRN: Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networking,洲际研究网络协调委员会
CCM(Call Control Manager,拨号控制管理)
CDSL: Consumer Digital Subscriber Line(消费者数字订阅线路)
CGI(Common Gateway Interface,通用网关接口)
CIEA: Commercial Internet Exchange Association,商业因特网交易协会
CIR(Committed Infomation Rate,约定信息速率)
CTS(Clear to Send,清除发送)
DBS-PC: Direct Broadcast Satellite PC(人造卫星直接广播式PC)
DCE: Data Circuit Terminal Equipment,数据通信设备
DES: Data Encryption Standard,数据加密标准
DMT: Discrete Multi - Tone,不连续多基频模式
DNS(Domain Name System,域名系统)
DOCSIS(Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications,线缆服务接口数据规格)
DTE: Data Terminal Equipment,数据终端设备
EBR(Excess Burst Rate,超额突发速率)
ESP: Encapsulating Security Payload,压缩安全有效载荷
FDM: Frequency Division Multi,频率分离
Flow-control流控制
FRICC: Federal Research Internet Coordinating Committee,联邦调查因特网协调委员会
FTP(File Transfer Protocol,文件传输协议)
Ghost:(General Hardware Oriented System Transfer,全面硬件导向系统转移)
HDSL: High bit rate DSL,高比特率数字订阅线路
HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol,超文本传输协议)
ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol,因特网信息控制协议)
IETF(Internet Engineering Task Framework,因特网工程任务组)
IKE: Internet Key Exchange,因特网密钥交换协议
IMAP4: Internet Message Access Protocol Version 4,第四版因特网信息存取协议
Internet(因特网)
IP(Internet Protocol,网际协议)
ISDN(Integrated Service Digital Network,综合服务数字网络)
ISOC: Internet Society,因特网协会
ISP(Internet Service Provider,因特网服务提供商)
LAN(Local Area Network,局域网)
LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol,轻权目录访问协议
LOM(LAN-on-Montherboard)
IAB: Internet Activities Board,因特网工作委员会
IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force,因特网工程作业推动
L2TP(Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol,二级通道协议)
LMDS: Local Multipoint Distributed System,局域多点分布式系统
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension,多用途因特网邮件扩展协议
MNP: Microcom Networking Protocal
MODEM(Modulator Demodulator,调制解调器)
NAT(Network Address Translation,网络地址转换)
NC(Network Computer,网络计算机)
NDS: Novell Directory Service,Novell目录服务
NNTP: Network News Transfer Protocol,网络新闻传输协议
MSN: Microsoft Network,微软网络
OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,直角频率部分多路复用)
P3P(Privacy Preference Project,个人私隐安全平台)
PDS: Public Directory Support,公众目录支持
PGP: Pretty Good Privacy,优良保密协议
PICS: Platform for Internet Content Selection,因特网内容选择平台
POF: Polymer Optical Fiber,聚合体光纤
POP3: Post Office Protocol Version 3,第三版电子邮局协议
PPTP: Point to Point Tunneling Protocol,点对点通道协议
RADSL: Rate Adaptive DSL,速率自适应数字订阅线路
RARP(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol,反向地址解析协议)
RDF: Resource Description Framework,资源描述框架
RSA(Rivest Shamir Adlemen,一种因特网加密和认证体系)
RTS(Request To Send,需求发送)
SIS: Switched Internetworking Services(交换式网络互联服务)
S/MIME: Secure MIME,安全多用途因特网邮件扩展协议
SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol,简单网络管理协议)
SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol,简单邮件传输协议)
SKIP: Simple Key Exchange Internet Protocol,因特网简单密钥交换协议
SUA(Single User Account,单用户帐号)
TCP(Transmission Control Protocol,传输控制协议)
UART(Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter,通用异步接收/发送装置)
UDP(User Datagram Protocol,用户数据报协议)
ULS: User Location Service,用户定位服务
VOD: Video On Demand,视频点播
VPN: virtual private network, 虚拟局域网
WWW(World Wide Web,万维网,是因特网的一部分)

与计算机通信有关的基本词汇

与计算机通信有关的基本词汇

计算机通信技术在大多数人眼中似乎很神秘,而且会觉得虽然我们每天都在享受它给我们带来的各种方便和服务,但并不了解其基本的概念。下面有些最基本的有关计算机通信的概念,请注意掌握。

CTI:Computer Telephone Integration,计算机电话综合技术
DBS: Direct Broadcast Satellite,直接卫星广播
DWDM: Dense WaveLength Division Multiplex,波长密集型复用技术
MMDS: Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service,多波段多点分发服务
PCM: Pulse Code Modulation,脉冲编码调制
PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network,公用交换式电话网)
TAPI: Telephony Application Programming Interface,电话应用程序接口
TSAPI: Telephony Services Application Programming Interface,电话服务应用程序接口
WDM: WaveLength Division Multiplex,波分多路复用 

了解世界各大计算机组织

了解世界各大计算机组织

自从上个世纪中叶第一台计算机被发明以来,随着计算机技术的飞速发展及应用领域的迅速扩大,各种计算机组织也不断产生,下面我们做一简单罗列。

CBF: Cable Broadband Forum,电缆宽带论坛
CEMA(Consumer Electronics Manufacturing Association(消费者电子制造业协会)
CPE: Customer Premise Equipment(用户预定设备)
CSA: Canadian Standards Association(加拿大标准协会)
DCA: Defense Communication Agency,国防部通信局
DOJ: Department of Justice(反不正当竞争部门)
DSP: Delivery Service Partner(交付服务合伙人)
DVB:Digital Video Broadcasting,数字视频广播
E3:Electronic Entertainment Expo,电子娱乐展览会
EFF: Electronic Frontier Foundation(电子前线基金会)
EPA(Environmental Protection Agency,美国环境保护局)
FCC: Federal Communications Commission(联邦通信委员会)
FTC: Federal Trade Commission,联邦商业委员会
GDC(Game Developer Conference,游戏发展商会议)
ISSCC(International Solid-State Circuits Conference,国际晶体管电路讨论会)
ICSA: International Computer Security Association(国际计算机安全协会),它的前身为NCSA(National Computer Security Association,国家计算机安全协会)
IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,电子电路工程师协会)
IFWP: International Forum White Paper,国际白皮书论坛
ISO/MPEG: International Standard Organization's Moving Picture Expert Group(国际标准化组织的活动图片专家组)
ITAA: Information Technology Association of American,美国信息技术协会
MAC(Mobile Advisory Council)
MCSP: Microsoft Certified Solution Providers,微软认证解决方案供应商
MJPEG(Motion Joint Photographic Experts Group,移动式连续图像专家组)
MMA: MIDI Manufacturer Association(MIDI制造商联盟)
NCTA: National Cable Television Association,美国电缆电视协会
NIA: Networking Interoperatility Alliance(网络互操作联盟)
NBITD(National Board for Industrual and Technical Development,瑞典国立工业和技术发展委员会制订)
OAAF:Open Arcade Architecture Forum,开放式Arcade体系论坛
OEM(Original Equipment Manufacturer,原始设备制造商)
OIF: Optical Internetworking Forum,光纤互连网络论坛
RIAA(Recording Industry Association of America,美国唱片工业协会)
RIO: Redistributed Internet Object(因特网分配组织)
SIA(The Semiconductor Industries Association,半导体工业协会)
SPA: Software Publishers Association,软件出版商协会
TSOWU(The Swedish office worker's union,瑞典办公人员联合会,以制订TCO标准著称)
UAWG: Universal ADSL Working Group(通用ADSL工作组)
UCAID:University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development
UL: Underwriters Laboratories Inc.(新产品承诺实验室)
VAR: &#118alue Added Resellers(增值分销商)
W3C(World Wide Web Consortium,万维网协会)
WHQL(Microsoft Windows Hardware Quality Lab,微软公司视窗硬件质量实验室)
WinHEC: Windows Hardware Engineering Conference,视窗硬件工程会议

各大计算机产商一览

各大计算机产商一览

以下是几个世界上比较有名的计算机产商的名字,大家不妨看一看。

Ali: Acer Lab(宏棋实验室)
ASF: Applied Science Fiction
AMD: Advanced Micro Device(超微半导体)
AMI: American Megatrends Incorporated
EAR(Extreme Audio Reality)
HP: Hewlett-Packard,美国惠普公司
IBM: International Business Machine,国际商业机器
IDG(International Data Group,国际数据集团)
IMS: International Meta System
MLE:Microsoft Learning and Entertainment,微软教学与娱乐公司
MS(Microsoft,微软)
NAI: Network Associates Incorporation,前身为McAfee。
NS(National Semiconductor,国家半导体)
PMI: Pacific Magtron International
SCE(sony computer entertainment,索尼计算机娱乐部)
SGI:Silicon Graphics
SiS: Silicon Integrated Systems,硅片综合系统公司
UMC(United Microelectronics Corporation,台湾联华电子公司,半导体制造商)
WD(Western Digital,西部数据)
ZD(Ziff-Davis出版公司)

了解计算机软驱

了解计算机软驱

以下是有关计算机软驱的词汇,如果你对软驱还不甚了解,请参考下面的词语。

AAT(Average access time,平均存取时间)
ABS(Auto Balance System,自动平衡系统)
ASMO(Advanced Storage Magneto-Optical,增强形光学存储器)
AST(Average Seek time,平均寻道时间)
ATA(AT Attachment,AT扩展型)
ATOMM(Advanced super Thin-layer and high-Output Metal Media,增强形超薄高速金属媒体)
bps(bit per second,位/秒)
CAM(Common Access Model,公共存取模型)
CSS(Common Command Set,通用指令集)
DMA(Direct Memory Access,直接内存存取)
DVD(Digital Video Disk,数字视频光盘)
EIDE(enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics,增强形电子集成驱动器)
FAT(File Allocation Tables,文件分配表)
FDBM(Fluid dynamic bearing motors,液态轴承马达)
FDC(Floppy Disk Controller,软盘驱动器控制装置)
FDD(Floppy Disk Driver,软盘驱动器)
GMR(giant magnetoresistive,巨型磁阻)
HDA(head disk assembly,磁头集合)
HiFD(high-capacity floppy disk,高容量软盘)
IDE(Integrated Drive Electronics,电子集成驱动器)
LBA(Logical Block Addressing,逻辑块寻址)
MBR(Master Boot Record,主引导记录)
MTBF(Mean Time Before Failure,平均故障时间)
PIO(Programmed Input Output,可编程输入输出模式)
PRML(Partial Response Maximum Likelihood,最大可能部分反应,用于提高磁盘读写传输率)
RPM(Rotation Per Minute,转/分)
RSD: Removable Storage Device(移动式存储设备)
SCSI(Small Computer System Interface,小型计算机系统接口)
SCMA:SCSI Configured Auto Magically,SCSI自动配置
S.M.A.R.T.(Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology,自动监测、分析和报告技术)
SPS(Shock Protection System,抗震保护系统)
STA(SCSI Trade Association,SCSI同业公会)
Ultra DMA(Ultra Direct Memory Access,超高速直接内存存取)
LVD(Low Voltage Differential)
Seagate硬盘技术
DiscWizard(磁盘控制软件)
DST(Drive Self Test,磁盘自检程序)
SeaShield(防静电防撞击外壳) 
 

与光驱相关的词汇

与光驱相关的词汇

ATAPI(AT Attachment Packet Interface)
BCF(Boot Catalog File,启动目录文件)
BIF(Boot Image File,启动映像文件)
CDR(CD Recordable,可记录光盘)
CD-ROM/XA(CD-ROM eXtended Architecture,唯读光盘增强形架构)
CDRW(CD-Rewritable,可重复刻录光盘)
CLV(Constant Linear Velocity,恒定线速度)
DAE(digital Audio Extraction,数据音频抓取)
DDSS(Double Dynamic Suspension System,双悬浮动态减震系统)
DDSS II(Double Dynamic Suspension System II,第二代双层动力悬吊系统)
PCAV(Part Constant Angular Velocity,部分恒定角速度)
VCD(Video CD,视频CD) 
 

内存,其实并不神秘

内存,其实并不神秘

如果你是一位装机爱好者,肯定会花大力气来选择一条性能稳定,价格合理的内存。但也许你所了解到的有关内存的信息,只是一些很表面的东西。如果你能熟悉下面的词语,相信内存对你就不再神秘了。

ABP: Address Bit Permuting,地址位序列改变
ATC(Access Time from Clock,时钟存取时间)
BSRAM(Burst pipelined synchronous static RAM,突发式管道同步静态存储器)
CAS(Column Address Strobe,列地址控制器)
CCT(Clock Cycle Time,时钟周期)
DB: Deep Buffer(深度缓冲)
DDR SDRAM(Double Date Rate,双数据率SDRAM)
DIL(dual-in-line)
DIMM(Dual In-line Memory Modules,双重内嵌式内存模块)
DRAM(Dynamic Random Access Memory,动态随机存储器)
DRDRAM(Direct RAMbus DRAM,直接RAMbus内存)
ECC(Error Checking and Correction,错误检查修正)
EEPROM(Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM,电擦写可编程只读存储器)
FM: Flash Memory(快闪存储器)
FMD ROM (Fluorescent Material Read Only Memory,荧光质只读存储器)
PIROM:Processor Information ROM,处理器信息ROM
PLEDM: Phase-state Low Electron(hole)-number Drive Memory
QBM(Quad Band Memory,四倍边带内存)
RAC(Rambus Asic Cell,Rambus集成电路单元)
RAS(Row Address Strobe,行地址控制器)
RDRAM(Rambus Direct RAM,直接型RambusRAM)
RIMM(RAMBUS In-line Memory Modules,RAMBUS内嵌式内存模块)
SDR SDRAM(Single Date Rate,单数据率SDRAM)
SGRAM(synchronous graphics RAM,同步图形随机储存器)
SO-DIMM(Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules,小型双重内嵌式内存模块)
SPD(Serial Presence Detect,串行存在检查)
SRAM(Static Random Access Memory,静态随机存储器)
SSTL-2(Stub Series Terminated Logic-2)
TSOPs(thin small outline packages,超小型封装)
USWV(Uncacheable, Speculative, Write-Combining非缓冲随机混合写入)
VCMA(Virtual Channel Memory architecture,虚拟通道内存结构)

 

声卡术语剖析

声卡术语剖析

上次我们向PC Game玩家简单介绍了有关显卡的专业词汇,今天我们来看看与计算机声卡相关的术语,专业的电脑音乐爱好者要留意看哦。

3DPA(3D Positional Audio,3D定位音频)
AC(Audio Codec,音频多媒体数字信号编解码器)
Auxiliary Input(辅助输入接口)
CS(Channel Separation,声道分离)
DS3D(DirectSound 3D Streams)
DSD(Direct Stream Digital,直接数字信号流)
DSL(Down Loadable Sample,可下载的取样音色)
DLS-2(Downloadable Sounds Level 2,第二代可下载音色)
EAX(Environmental Audio Extensions,环境音效扩展技术)
Extended Stereo(扩展式立体声)
FM(Frequency Modulation,频率调制)
FIR(finite impulse response,有限推进响应)
FR(Frequence Response,频率响应)
FSE(Frequency Shifter Effect,频率转换效果)
HRTF(Head Related Transfer Function,头部关联传输功能)
IID(Interaural Intensity Difference,两侧声音强度差别)
IIR(infinite impulse response,无限推进响应)
Interactive Around-Sound(交互式环绕声)
Interactive 3D Audio(交互式3D音效)
ITD(Interaural Time Difference,两侧声音时间延迟差别)
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface(乐器数字接口)
NDA: non-DWORD-aligned ,非DWORD排列
Raw PCM: Raw Pulse Code Modulated(元脉码调制)
RMA: RealMedia Architecture(实媒体架构)
RTSP: Real Time Streaming Protocol(实时流协议)
SACD(Super Audio CD,超级音乐CD)
SNR(Signal to Noise Ratio,信噪比)
S/PDIF(Sony/Phillips Digital Interface,索尼/飞利普数字接口)
SRS: Sound Retrieval System(声音修复系统)
Surround Sound(环绕立体声)
Super Intelligent Sound ASIC(超级智能音频集成电路)
THD+N(Total Harmonic Distortion plus Noise,总谐波失真加噪音)
QEM(Qsound Environmental Modeling,Qsound环境建模扬声器组)
WG(Wave Guide,波导合成)
WT(Wave Table,波表合成)
 

电脑显示器词汇大全

电脑显示器词汇大全

说到个人电脑,人们很自然地想起它是由一台显示器,一台主机,以及一些基本的外设组成的。那么,你对显示器的了解又有多少呢?了解下面的有关词汇将会对你了解显示器有很大的帮助。

ASIC: Application Specific Integrated Circuit(特殊应用积体电路)
ASC(Auto-Sizing and Centering,自动调效屏幕尺寸和中心位置)
ASC(Anti Static Coatings,防静电涂层)
AGAS(Anti Glare Anti Static Coatings,防强光、防静电涂层)
BLA: Bearn Landing Area(电子束落区)
BMC(Black Matrix Screen,超黑矩阵屏幕)
CRC: Cyclical Redundancy Check(循环冗余检查)
CRT(Cathode Ray Tube,阴极射线管)
DDC:Display Data Channel,显示数据通道
DEC(Direct Etching Coatings,表面蚀刻涂层)
DFL(Dynamic Focus Lens,动态聚焦)
DFS(Digital Flex Scan,数字伸缩扫描)
DIC: Digital Image Control(数字图像控制)
Digital Multiscan II(数字式智能多频追踪)
DLP(digital Light Processing,数字光处理)
DOSD: Digital On Screen Display(同屏数字化显示)
DPMS(Display Power Management Signalling,显示能源管理信号)
Dot Pitch(点距)
DQL(Dynamic Quadrapole Lens,动态四极镜)
DSP(Digital Signal Processing,数字信号处理)
EFEAL(Extended Field Elliptical Aperture Lens,可扩展扫描椭圆孔镜头)
FRC: Frame Rate Control(帧比率控制)
HVD(High Voltage Differential,高分差动)
LCD(liquid crystal display,液晶显示屏)
LCOS: Liquid Crystal On Silicon(硅上液晶)
LED(light emitting diode,光学二级管)
L-SAGIC(Low Power-Small Aperture G1 wiht Impregnated Cathode,低电压光圈阴极管)
LVD(Low Voltage Differential,低分差动)
LVDS: Low Voltage Differential Signal(低电压差动信号)
MALS(Multi Astigmatism Lens System,多重散光聚焦系统)
MDA(Monochrome Adapter,单色设备)
MS: Magnetic Sensors(磁场感应器)
Porous Tungsten(活性钨)
RSDS: Reduced Swing Differential Signal(小幅度摆动差动信号)
SC(Screen Coatings,屏幕涂层)
Single Ended(单终结)
Shadow Mask(阴罩式)
TDT(Timeing Detection Table,数据测定表)
TICRG: Tungsten Impregnated Cathode Ray Gun(钨传输阴级射线枪)
TFT(thin film transistor,薄膜晶体管)
UCC(Ultra Clear Coatings,超清晰涂层)
VAGP: Variable Aperature Grille Pitch(可变间距光栅)
VBI: Vertical Blanking Interval(垂直空白间隙)
VDT(Video Display Terminals,视频显示终端)
VRR: Vertical Refresh Rate(垂直扫描频率)

声卡术语剖析

声卡术语剖析

上次我们向PC Game玩家简单介绍了有关显卡的专业词汇,今天我们来看看与计算机声卡相关的术语,专业的电脑音乐爱好者要留意看哦。

3DPA(3D Positional Audio,3D定位音频)
AC(Audio Codec,音频多媒体数字信号编解码器)
Auxiliary Input(辅助输入接口)
CS(Channel Separation,声道分离)
DS3D(DirectSound 3D Streams)
DSD(Direct Stream Digital,直接数字信号流)
DSL(Down Loadable Sample,可下载的取样音色)
DLS-2(Downloadable Sounds Level 2,第二代可下载音色)
EAX(Environmental Audio Extensions,环境音效扩展技术)
Extended Stereo(扩展式立体声)
FM(Frequency Modulation,频率调制)
FIR(finite impulse response,有限推进响应)
FR(Frequence Response,频率响应)
FSE(Frequency Shifter Effect,频率转换效果)
HRTF(Head Related Transfer Function,头部关联传输功能)
IID(Interaural Intensity Difference,两侧声音强度差别)
IIR(infinite impulse response,无限推进响应)
Interactive Around-Sound(交互式环绕声)
Interactive 3D Audio(交互式3D音效)
ITD(Interaural Time Difference,两侧声音时间延迟差别)
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface(乐器数字接口)
NDA: non-DWORD-aligned ,非DWORD排列
Raw PCM: Raw Pulse Code Modulated(元脉码调制)
RMA: RealMedia Architecture(实媒体架构)
RTSP: Real Time Streaming Protocol(实时流协议)
SACD(Super Audio CD,超级音乐CD)
SNR(Signal to Noise Ratio,信噪比)
S/PDIF(Sony/Phillips Digital Interface,索尼/飞利普数字接口)
SRS: Sound Retrieval System(声音修复系统)
Surround Sound(环绕立体声)
Super Intelligent Sound ASIC(超级智能音频集成电路)
THD+N(Total Harmonic Distortion plus Noise,总谐波失真加噪音)
QEM(Qsound Environmental Modeling,Qsound环境建模扬声器组)
WG(Wave Guide,波导合成)
WT(Wave Table,波表合成)
 

与CPU相关的电脑词汇

与CPU相关的电脑词汇

3DNow!(3D no waiting)
ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit,算术逻辑单元)
AGU(Address Generation Units,地址产成单元)
BGA(Ball Grid Array,球状矩阵排列)
BHT(branch prediction table,分支预测表)
BPU(Branch Processing Unit,分支处理单元)
Brach Pediction(分支预测)
CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor,互补金属氧化物半导体
CISC(Complex Instruction Set Computing,复杂指令集计算机)
CLK(Clock Cycle,时钟周期)
COB(Cache on board,板上集成缓存)
COD(Cache on Die,芯片内集成缓存)
CPGA(Ceramic Pin Grid Array,陶瓷针型栅格阵列)
CPU(Center Processing Unit,中央处理器)
Data Forwarding(数据前送)
Decode(指令解码)
DIB(Dual Independent Bus,双独立总线)
EC(Embedded Controller,嵌入式控制器)
Embedded Chips(嵌入式)
EPIC(explicitly parallel instruction code,并行指令代码)
FADD(Floationg Point Addition,浮点加)
FCPGA(Flip Chip Pin Grid Array,反转芯片针脚栅格阵列)
FDIV(Floationg Point Divide,浮点除)
FEMMS:Fast Entry/Exit Multimedia State,快速进入/退出多媒体状态
FFT(fast Fourier transform,快速热欧姆转换)
FID(FID:Frequency identify,频率鉴别号码)
FIFO(First Input First Output,先入先出队列)
flip-chip(芯片反转)
FLOP(Floating Point Operations Per Second,浮点操作/秒)
FMUL(Floationg Point Multiplication,浮点乘)
FPU(Float Point Unit,浮点运算单元)
FSUB(Floationg Point Subtraction,浮点减)
GVPP(Generic Visual Perception Processor,常规视觉处理器)
HL-PBGA: 表面黏著,高耐热、轻薄型塑胶球状矩阵封装
IA(Intel Architecture,英特尔架构)
ICU(Instruction Control Unit,指令控制单元)
ID:identify,鉴别号码
IDF(Intel Developer Forum,英特尔开发者论坛)
IEU(Integer Execution Units,整数执行单元)
IMM: Intel Mobile Module, 英特尔移动模块
Instructions Cache,指令缓存
Instruction Coloring(指令分类)
IPC(Instructions Per Clock Cycle,指令/时钟周期)
ISA(instruction set architecture,指令集架构)
KNI(Katmai New Instructions,Katmai新指令集,即SSE)
Latency(潜伏期)
LDT(Lightning Data Transport,闪电数据传输总线)
Local Interconnect(局域互连)
MESI(Modified, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid:修改、排除、共享、废弃)
MMX(MultiMedia Extensions,多媒体扩展指令集)
MMU(Multimedia Unit,多媒体单元)
MFLOPS(Million Floationg Point/Second,每秒百万个浮点操作)
MHz(Million Hertz,兆赫兹)
MP(Multi-Processing,多重处理器架构)
MPS(MultiProcessor Specification,多重处理器规范)
MSRs(Model-Specific Registers,特别模块寄存器)
NAOC(no-account OverClock,无效超频)
NI:Non-Intel,非英特尔
OLGA(Organic Land Grid Array,基板栅格阵列)
OoO(Out of Order,乱序执行)
PGA: Pin-Grid Array(引脚网格阵列),耗电大
Post-RISC
PR(Performance Rate,性能比率)
PSN(Processor Serial numbers,处理器序列号)
PIB(Processor In a Box,盒装处理器)
PPGA(Plastic Pin Grid Array,塑胶针状矩阵封装)
PQFP(Plastic Quad Flat Package,塑料方块平面封装)
RAW(Read after Write,写后读)
Register Contention(抢占寄存器)
Register Pressure(寄存器不足)
Register Renaming(寄存器重命名)
Remark(芯片频率重标识)
Resource contention(资源冲突)
Retirement(指令引退)
RISC(Reduced Instruction Set Computing,精简指令集计算机)
SEC: Single Edge Connector,单边连接器
Shallow-trench isolation(浅槽隔离)
SIMD(Single Instruction Multiple Data,单指令多数据流)
SiO2F(Fluorided Silicon Oxide,二氧氟化硅)
SMI(System Management Interrupt,系统管理中断)
SMM(System Management Mode,系统管理模式)
SMP(Symmetric Multi-Processing,对称式多重处理架构)
SOI: Silicon-on-insulator,绝缘体硅片
SONC(System on a chip,系统集成芯片)
SPEC(System Performance Evaluation Corporation,系统性能评估测试)
SQRT(Square Root Calculations,平方根计算)
SSE(Streaming SIMD Extensions,单一指令多数据流扩展)
Superscalar(超标量体系结构)
TCP: Tape Carrier Package(薄膜封装),发热小
Throughput(吞吐量)
TLB(Translate Look side Buffers,翻译旁视缓冲器)
USWC(Uncacheabled Speculative Write Combination,无缓冲随机联合写操作)
VALU(Vector Arithmetic Logic Unit,向量算术逻辑单元)
VLIW(Very Long Instruction Word,超长指令字)
VPU(Vector Permutate Unit,向量排列单元)
VPU(vector processing units,向量处理单元,即处理MMX、SSE等SIMD指令的地方)

你了解电脑主板吗?

你了解电脑主板吗?

当你在轻松自如地使用电脑的时候,你是否了解你的主板呢?别急,学习了以下的词汇后,你就会对电脑的主板有一个初步的认识。

ADIMM(advanced Dual In-line Memory Modules,高级双重内嵌式内存模块)
AMR(Audio/Modem Riser;音效/调制解调器主机板附加直立插卡)
AHA(Accelerated Hub Architecture,加速中心架构)
ASK IR(Amplitude Shift Keyed Infra-Red,长波形可移动输入红外线)
ATX: AT Extend(扩展型AT)
BIOS(Basic Input/Output System,基本输入/输出系统)
CSE(Configuration Space Enable,可分配空间)
DB: Device Bay,设备插架
DMI(Desktop Management Interface,桌面管理接口)
EB(Expansion Bus,扩展总线)
EISA(Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture,增强形工业标准架构)
EMI(Electromagnetic Interference,电磁干扰)
ESCD(Extended System Configuration Data,可扩展系统配置数据)
FBC(Frame Buffer Cache,帧缓冲缓存)
FireWire(火线,即IEEE1394标准)
FSB: Front Side Bus,前置总线,即外部总线
FWH( Firmware Hub,固件中心)
GMCH(Graphics & Memory Controller Hub,图形和内存控制中心)
GPIs(General Purpose Inputs,普通操作输入)
ICH(Input/Output Controller Hub,输入/输出控制中心)
IR(infrared ray,红外线)
IrDA(infrared ray,红外线通信接口可进行局域网存取和文件共享)
ISA: Industry Standard Architecture,工业标准架构
ISA(instruction set architecture,工业设置架构)
MDC(Mobile Daughter Card,移动式子卡)
MRH-R(Memory Repeater Hub,内存数据处理中心)
MRH-S(SDRAM Repeater Hub,SDRAM数据处理中心)
MTH(Memory Transfer Hub,内存转换中心)
NGIO(Next Generation Input/Output,新一代输入/输出标准)
P64H(64-bit PCI Controller Hub,64位PCI控制中心)
PCB(printed circuit board,印刷电路板)
PCBA(Printed Circuit Board Assembly,印刷电路板装配)
PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect,互连外围设备
PCI SIG(Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group,互连外围设备专业组)
POST(Power On Self Test,加电自测试)
RNG(Random number Generator,随机数字发生器)
RTC: Real Time Clock(实时时钟)
KBC(KeyBroad Control,键盘控制器)
SAP(Sideband Address Port,边带寻址端口)
SBA(Side Band Addressing,边带寻址)
SMA: Share Memory Architecture,共享内存结构
STD(Suspend To Disk,磁盘唤醒)
STR(Suspend To RAM,内存唤醒)
SVR: Switching Voltage Regulator(交换式电压调节)
USB(Universal Serial Bus,通用串行总线)
USDM(Unified System Diagnostic Manager,统一系统监测管理器)
VID(Voltage Identification Definition,电压识别认证)
VRM (Voltage Regulator Module,电压调整模块)
ZIF: Zero Insertion Force, 零插力
主板技术
Gigabyte
ACOPS: Automatic CPU OverHeat Prevention System(CPU过热预防系统)
SIV: System Information Viewer(系统信息观察)
磐英
ESDJ(Easy Setting Dual Jumper,简化CPU双重跳线法)
浩鑫
UPT(USB、PANEL、LINK、TV-OUT四重接口)
芯片组
ACPI(Advanced Configuration and Power Interface,先进设置和电源管理)
AGP(Accelerated Graphics Port,图形加速接口)
I/O(Input/Output,输入/输出)
MIOC: Memory and I/O Bridge Controller,内存和I/O桥控制器
NBC: North Bridge Chip(北桥芯片)
PIIX: PCI ISA/IDE Accelerator(加速器)
PSE36: Page Size Extension 36-bit,36位页面尺寸扩展模式
PXB: PCI Expander Bridge,PCI增强桥
RCG: RAS/CAS Generator,RAS/CAS发生器
SBC: South Bridge Chip(南桥芯片)
SMB: System Management Bus(全系统管理总线)
SPD(Serial Presence Detect,内存内部序号检测装置)
SSB: Super South Bridge,超级南桥芯片
TDP: Triton Data Path(数据路径)
TSC: Triton System Controller(系统控制器)
QPA: Quad Port Acceleration(四接口加速) 

发展ISDN的目的

Summary:

·PSTN is enable to support data &picture services.

·More different networks are needed to be built due to more different services would be provided by Telecommunication Bureau.

·Subscriber is not convient to apply and use.

·So, a communication network which can support voice、 data and picture etc at same time are required ,ISDN network is just that one.

ISDN Developments in China:

· China began to do scientific research on ISDN in the early years eighties.

· Before 1995,ISDN was developed slowly in China, it was mainly in a trial run period.

· In 1996 MPT issued a plan to make a test on ISDN around 22 cities of the whole country.

· Shanghai opened local ISDN in 1996,the target of 10,000 lines would be reached this year.

·Beijing officially opened local ISDN on Oct,14,1997.

·Nanjing、 Shenyang、Sichuan、Heilongjiang、 Hunan、Shandong etc、the main provinces and cities of the whole country are going to open ISDN services to society this year.

·Shenyang is going to open ISDN service to society on Aug 1,1997,detail destinations are 2386、2383、 2484、 2389, the other districts will be opened on Sep,30.

·On Nov,1997,MPT convened ISDN general mobilization to total P&T in Beijing .

·MPT drawn up the main target of next three years to increase ISDN with intelligent network.

·Defined ATM as the central network of 169 project,ISDN as it’s general frame structure of access network.

·Defined the target of infiltration rate of ISDN line in the range of whole country this year 1% for local telephone lines.

有关ISDN的基本概念

有关ISDN的基本概念

ISDN is constructed to an integrated service digital network on the present foundation of local telephone networks:

ISDN is able to provide subscriber with voice、data、 picture、fax and each type integrated services.Morever, it could realize?"one unit connects more,three
units occupies one line" one pair of telephone lines can connect to more different type terminals (max 8),each terminals can be communicated simultaneously (max 3),terminal types include:ISDN router,terminal adapter,,ISDN video telephone, digital telephone,G4 fax;other special terminal equipments are with ISDN interfaces.

Basic Rate: Total is 2B+128Kbps wideband ,RJ45 interface.

Primary Rate:30B+D channel, 2Mbps Wideband,RJ45 or BNC interface.

B channel: Basic channel,64Kbps;D channel: control channel,16Kbps

Where Did XML Come From?

Where Did XML Come From?

XML is a simplified version of SGML and a cousin of HTML. It was developed by members of the W3C and released as a recommendation by the W3C in February 1998.

SGML, the parent of XML, is an international standard that has been in use as a markup language primarily for technical documentation and government applications since the early 1980s. It was developed to standardize the production process for large document sets. Think: Medical records. Company databases. Aircraft parts catalogs. Other really huge documents.

Marking-up documents in SGML allows information to be passed from one system to the next without losing information. With databases marked-up in SGML you can see what Widget A is all about and go check to see if Widget A is in stock.

Early on, people thought that SGML would be useful for the Web. In fact, HTML is really an very basic application of SGML! But HTML quickly became used for visual layout, so a group of people returned to the basics, determined to create something that had the strengths of SGML without being so difficult to implement -- and had the ease of use of HTML, but with more structural power. The result was XML.

The design goals of XML, taken from the XML Specification are:

XML shall be straightforwardly usable over the Internet.
XML shall support a wide variety of applications.
XML shall be compatible with SGML.
It shall be easy to write programs which process XML documents.
The number of optional features in XML is to be kept to the absolute minimum,    ideally zero.
XML documents should be human-legible and reasonably clear.
The XML design should be prepared quickly.
The design of XML shall be formal and concise.
XML documents shall be easy to create.
Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance.

In other words, XML is easy to create, easy to read, and designed for use over the Internet. What more could a Web designer ask for?

What is XML?

What is XML?

XML is a way of adding intelligence to your documents. It lets you identify each element using meaningful tags and it lets you add information ("metatdata") about each element.

XML is very much a part of the future of Web, and part of the future for all electronic information.

XML is a syntax for marking up data and it works with many other technologies to display and process information. It looks and feels very much like HTML.

XML isn't going to replace everything else you've already learned; it complements it and extends it.

XML isn't going to change the way your Web pages look. You'll still need to use CSS--Cascading Style Sheets-- (with XML) to define font colors or &#106avascript (again, with XML) to make your images fly around. Yet XML will change the way you and others read documents and it will change the way documents are filed and stored. It's a new technology and you certainly don't need to use it in order to build a great Web site -- but you will want to be aware of it as you look at the Web of the future.


 

Client/Server Concepts

 

Client/Server Concepts

A client computer initiates a service request. A server computer waits to reply, kind of like a person who waits to answer the phone so you can make airline reservations.

A client program can be directed by a human being (at a screen, keyboard, and mouse), or it can run automatically.

A server is a program that knows a protocol for communication (see below), but often doesn't know much about networking -- it just exchanges bytes of information with the client, a back-and-forth conversation that might be human-readable ASCII, or binary code; kind of like when you call someone to make a reservation, and they don't know how the phone system works, just how to use the telephone to talk with you.

It's entirely possible for the client and server programs to be on the same computer, as well as on two different computers connected by a network. The client/server model blurs the boundaries between computers, to where "the network IS the computer."

Once a virtual connection is established between a client and server, the two systems are peers, but the client/server asymmetry usually continues through the protocol; just like when you're done dialing someone, it doesn't matter much who placed the call, you can talk to each other as equals, though quite often the caller and the callee have very different roles. (With phone calls the caller usually pays for any long distance charges, but there's usually no equivalent in network connections.)


 

Plan your trip online


 

Plan your trip online

While traveling through cyberspace can be exciting, it's no substitute for an adventure in the real world. That's where the Web can really help you research destinations, organize your itinerary, and book reservations. Whether it's a weekend getaway or a safari, look to the Internet to save you time (no more trekking to bookstores for guidebooks and maps) and money (discounts abound on airfares and hotels). How do you start? Here's our step-by-step approach:

1.Research a Destination

Where would you like to go? One option is to use a search engine to find information about choice destinations. If you choose to go this route, use a directory like Yahoo! Why? Because it lists websites in categories, so you can easily find listings of Mexican resorts, for example.

Another approach is perusing the websites of travel publications. Begin your journey at:

Fodors
Lonely Planet
Concierge

For detailed information about foreign locales, you can't beat the CIA World Factbook.
For worldwide travel advisories, visit the U.S. State Department website.

2.Plan Your Itinerary

Once you know where you want to go, it's time to get specific. What are the sights to see? What events will be happening? Where are the best places to eat? Answers to these questions await you online.

Let's say you will be spending a week in British Columbia and want to sample the local cuisine. Some of the websites listed above may have articles about Vancouver and Victoria restaurants. But most newspapers have dining sections, so go to the website of the local paper (try NewsDirectory.com to locate them), and search its archive.

Another strategy is to Ask Jeeves, the friendly search engine, where to find restaurant listings. He will reply with some tasty recommendations.

As you plan your trip, hopping from link to link, you are bound to stumble on all kinds of gems. Bookmark the pages so you can easily return to them.

3.Get a Map

Whether you need a street map, country map or even driving instructions, you can probably find it somewhere--for free. The CIA World Factbook is a good source for maps of countries and regions. For city guides, try:

MapQuest
MapBlast

5.Money

What's the local currency? How much is the dollar or pound worth in France? To convert currency and find out local exchange rates, visit Oanda.

4.Making Reservations

Most major airlines and hotel chains have their own websites, so if you have a favorite, start there to check for availability, prices, and to make reservations.

A number of websites do it all: planes tickets, vacation packages, cruises, accommodations, car rental--the works. Before you can make reservations, however, you need to to open an account with the site. Among the giants of Internet travel are:

Expedia Travel
Travelocity
Trip.com

6.Saving Money

Register with many airline websites to receive e-mail alerts when bargain fares to destinations you specify become available. Some airlines now offer discounted Internet-only fares, as do many hotels. It's worth hunting for these special deals.

7.Learn Some Lingo

It never hurts to know at least a few words of the local language. For some pointers, visit Travelang, Foreign Languages for Travelers. If you want to take a free online language course, try Parlo

Top Ten Tips

In the future you will be able to instantly access websites. You will have a cyber-assistant to scour the Net, delivering data right to your digital doorstep. At least that's the promise. But most of us are still a long way from that reality. Yet there are ways to minimize the frustration of going online. After all, life is much too short to spend precious time waiting for web pages to download, or hunting for information on dozens of sites. In the interest of making Web surfing a more satisfying experience, we offer ten tips:

View sites in text-only mode by turning off the graphics.
Sure, web designers spend a great amount of time creating wonderful graphics, but it can take quite a while to download large graphic files. To speed things up, turn off the images in your web browser.

With Internet Explorer 5.0, under the Tools menu, select Internet Options, then click the Advanced tab. Now uncheck Show Pictures.

Thoughtful designers will include something called an ALT tag, which is a written description of the image. If you want to see a particular image, click on the tag with your right mouse button and select View Image. For Mac users, just hold down the mouse button over the graphic. You can also click the Image button in Navigator to load all the images.


Use the Stop button.
When you access a website, what you are actually doing is downloading a set of digital files. You can see how the download is progressing if you look at the status bar located in the lower left hand corner of your web browser. If you get tired of waiting, click the Stop button to view the files that have already been downloaded. Then you can decide if you want to continue. If you do, click the Reload or Refresh button.


Increase your cache.
Files you download are stored in a cache (pronounced like "cash") on your hard drive. That way when you return to a site, you don't have to download the files again, just access them from your cache. After a while though, the cache becomes full. Your web browser automatically deletes old files as you continue to surf the Web. But if you visit many of the same sites regularly, you can speed up access by caching more of them. To do this, increase the size of your cache. 10 Mb is optimal.
If you use Netscape Navigator 4.0, under the Edit menu, choose Preferences, then click on Advanced. Now click on Cache. In the appropriate box, increase the cache size.

With Explorer 5.0, under the Tools menu, select Internet Options. Next, on the General tab, click on Settings. Use the slider to increase the cache.


Save keystrokes by using Bookmarks or Favorites.
Web addresses or URLs can be unwieldy. Worse, if you type it wrong, you will get an error message. To avoid these problems, save the addresses of sites you want to revisit. For details on how to do this, read the Bookmarks article.

Use the Find feature of your web browser.
Once you've downloaded a document, the Find button can quickly locate a particular term in which you are interested. Why take the time to scroll through the entire document?


Pick two search engines and learn how they work.

The difficulty of finding specific information is by far the biggest complaint we hear. Although dozens of search engines are available, pick two, then take the time to learn them well. For more on searches read Searching the Web. In case you're interested, our favorites are Yahoo! and AltaVista.


Choose your own home page.
Both Netscape and Microsoft set their websites as the default home page when you launch your web browser. But if you like to begin your surfing by reading a daily newspaper or better yet, Learn the Net, why not start there first? Here's how to select a new home page.


Open a new window.
While you are downloading one web page, you can actually access another site by opening a second browser window. With Navigator, go to the File menu and choose New Web Browser. With Explorer, select New Window from the File menu. A word of caution: Although you can open multiple windows, this will slow down your computer, so don't go overboard. Also, remember to close the additional windows to free up disk space.


Surf during off-peak hours.
Most commuters experience rush hour, when highways bog down with traffic. The same phenomenon happens on the Internet, usually in the late afternoon and early evening, when people log on to check e-mail, chat and play games. If you want to avoid the slowdown, go online in the morning or late at night, when traffic is lighter.


Get a faster connection.
If you are still using a 28.8 Kbps modem, it's time to upgrade. Most people these days access the Web at twice that speed. New modems offer access at 56 Kbps (kilobits per second). Before you upgrade, however, make sure your Internet service provider supports 56 Kbps modems.

For the impatient, the good news is that many companies are investing large sums of money to solve the problem of slow Internet access. Exotic technologies such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) , Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems promise enormous bandwidth. Will it ever be enough? Who knows? Until then, happy surfing.


 

Auction Online

Every day, beanie babies, Depression glassware, and thousands of other items change hands via online auctions. eBay has been the darling of bargain hunters, as well as Wall Street investors. But hundreds of other sites now offer auctions as well. Unlike buying treasures in the real world, however, e-auctions pose some unique risks. To prevent rip-offs, proceed with caution.

How Auction Sites Work

As with online stores, the exact procedure varies by site, so make sure you understand the site's policy before you begin. In general, to participate, both sellers and buyers must register with the site. Sellers typically pay a flat fee or a percentage of the final sales price to list merchandise. Buyers pay the sellers directly and also pay the shipping costs. Auctions are usually time-based, meaning that the highest qualified bid at the end of the predetermined period--say a week--wins the item.

Of course, as a buyer, you can't actually see what you are bidding on. The best you can hope for is a full description and a photo. You must trust that it's accurate and that you receive your purchase in the stated condition. That's where the potential for fraud is greatest. Typically, auction sites claim no liability, although some do provide limited guarantees. So it's up to you to be a smart consumer. Here's how:


Avoiding Auction Fraud
  • Read the auction site's policy carefully before you bid.
  • Contact the seller directly and question him or her about the merchandise.
  • Get the seller's vital information, including name, address and phone number.
  • Check the auction site to see if there is any negative postings about the seller.
  • If possible, pay by credit card for the same protection you have when making purchases in the real world. Otherwise, consider using an escrow service.
  • Print a copy of your transaction for your records.

  注释:
  
auction: n.拍卖 v.拍卖
  
shopping cart: 购物篮
  
delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  
myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  
assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  
vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  
skeptical:adj. 怀疑

Online Learning

Would you like to hone(*) your professional skills from the comfort of your home or get a college degree without setting foot on campus? Sound too good to be true? There are now thousands of online classes available on the World Wide Web and that number will soon mushroom(*) into tens of thousands.

For decades(*), students have turned to distance learning to further their educational goals. From correspondence(*) courses to tele-classes, distance learning has served the needs of people who cannot physically attend classes. With the explosion of information technology and the Internet, you can now have a virtual classroom right on your desktop. In most cases, to take a course you need only your computer, a web browser and Internet access.

A New Kind of Education

Online learning, also known as Web-based training or WBT, makes it possible to deliver instructional content to your personal computer via the World Wide Web. You access a website, where you will find most, if not all of the materials you need--a course outline and lessons, information about the instructor (if there is one), lecture notes, a list of activities, tests, and inks to other online resources. In some cases, additional materials may be required, such as textbooks or videotapes. Some WBT class are self-paced, others are led by an instructor. Most are what is known as asynchronous(*) classes--you study at your convenience--although there may be a period of time in which you must complete the course.

WBT offers a number of advantages over classroom-based instruction:

  Take a class anywhere. Learn at home or at the office, because you only need a computer and Internet access.
  Take a class anytime. Access material 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  You decide when to attend. Take courses according to your own schedule and pace.
  Lower costs. Eliminate(*) travel, parking, childcare and all the other costs of physically attending a class.
  Instant feedback(*). Tests can be graded and returned to you within seconds.
  Access to the latest materials. Instructors can easily update teaching materials as new information becomes available. Most textbooks are out-of-date(*) before they are even printed.
  An interactive(*) learning environment. Online technologies enable interaction with other students and course instructors.

Online learning has disadvantages too, the main one being that students work in isolation. To overcome this problem, many WBT classes incorporate features that invite student participation and collaboration(*) including:
  E-mail for submitting homework and communicating with the instructor and other students.
  Message boards where students can post messages relating to class content and group activities.
  Chat rooms, audio conferencing and videoconferencing for real-time conversation.
  Screen-sharing, which allows students to see what an instructor demonstrates on his or her computer screen.
  Class websites for posting of charts, graphics, links to other resources, etc.

Not all classes require student participation. Most use only a few of the features just discussed. Since education on demand is so new, course providers are trying to figure out what works best. And since people learn in different ways, classes vary in style. With self-paced classes, you study the course material and possibly take some online quizzes(*). Either no instructor is involved, or there may be a "teaching assistant" who can answer questions via e-mail. Because little human intervention is required, enrollment(*) is open to any number of students and you can begin the course as soon as you register.

Instructor-led classes are more demanding, often requiring that you submit homework assignments, meet online periodically with other students enrolled in the class, and participate in real-time class discussions with an instructor. These types of classes generally limit enrollment (perhaps to under 50 students) and have a start and end date. Upon completion of a class you may receive a grade. Classes offered by universities typically follow this model.

Subjects and prices vary enormously(*), ranging from accounting to zoology; some classes are free, while others cost hundreds of dollars.

Is Online Learning for You?

Typically, online classes are targeted(*) to working adults--people who want to get an advanced degree or acquire new skills for their jobs, but don't have time to regularly attend classes. Classes are open to anyone, but you may need some prerequisites(*) before you can enroll in certain courses. The requirements are usually listed along with class descriptions.

Online learning works best for people who are self-motivated, enjoy working alone at their computer and feel comfortable using technology. Beyond that, it's just one of those things you have to try.

  注释:

  hone:磨练 ;用磨刀石磨
  mushroom:vi. 迅速生长, 迅速增加, 采蘑菇
  decade:十年
  correspondence: n. 相应, 通信, 信件
  asynchronou:不同时,异步
  eliminate: vt. 排除, 消除 v. 除去
  feedback:回授, 反馈, 反应
  out-of-date:过时
  interactive:交互式的
  collaboration:协作
  quizzes:被检测者
  enrollment:登记,注册
  enormously:非常地,巨大地
  targeted:n. 目标, 对象, 靶子
  prerequisites:特权

Shopping Online

E-commerce has become a fact of modern life, with millions of people now regularly shopping from the convenience of their computers. Many retailers, from Abercrombie to Z Gallery, have websites where you can purchase products online, including flowers, pet food, and tonight's dinner. Why this explosion? Shopping online can save time and money, and people are more willing to give out their credit card numbers as online security has improved.

Let's say you are looking for a bestselling novel. You can comparison shop to find the best price, order the book, and arrange to have it shipped to you overnight. The whole transaction can be done in minutes, saving a trip to the store. Better yet, you may pay less than 50% of the cover price and no sales tax.

How To Buy Online

While every site is a bit different, you will find many similarities. Most sites are like electronic catalogs(1). You browse for merchandise in various categories or search for specific items. Once you find something you want to buy, you add it to your electronic "shopping cart(2)," and continue shopping. When you're done, you review the contents of your cart, deciding whether you want to purchase all of them, or just a few. Your purchases are then totaled. Now it's time to check out.

To buy the items you selected, you fill out a form, providing information such as your name, e-mail address, shipping information, and credit card number. Usually, you are advised how long it will take for delivery(3). Some sites e-mail you an order confirmation along with a tracking number.

Within this general procedure, there are myriad(4) variations. Some sites, like computer e-stores, will build a computer to your specifications. At certain apparel sites, you can "try on" clothes using a virtual model. Many sites have customer service representatives who you can e-mail or chat with in real time, should you need assistance(5). Since customer service has become as vital(6) to online shopping as it has in the real world, expect to see a greater emphasis on making e-commerce a more shopper-friendly experience.

There are too many shopping sites to begin to list them here. Start with LTN stores, online merchants that have our endorsement. If you are looking for a particular store, brand, or type of product, use a search engine to find the right site.


Avoid Scams(7)
  • Shop with businesses you already know and trust.
  • Pay by credit card for the same protection you have when shopping in the real world.
  • Don't send your credit card number by e-mail.
  • Be skeptical(8) of deals that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
  • Check the shipping costs, which could make the total purchase price more than what you would pay in a retail store.
  • Print a copy of your order for your records.

  注释:
  
catalogs: n.目录、目录册、编目
  
shopping cart: 购物篮
  
delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  
myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  
assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  
vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  
skeptical:adj. 怀疑

Shopping Online

E-commerce has become a fact of modern life, with millions of people now regularly shopping from the convenience of their computers. Many retailers, from Abercrombie to Z Gallery, have websites where you can purchase products online, including flowers, pet food, and tonight's dinner. Why this explosion? Shopping online can save time and money, and people are more willing to give out their credit card numbers as online security has improved.

Let's say you are looking for a bestselling novel. You can comparison shop to find the best price, order the book, and arrange to have it shipped to you overnight. The whole transaction can be done in minutes, saving a trip to the store. Better yet, you may pay less than 50% of the cover price and no sales tax.

How To Buy Online

While every site is a bit different, you will find many similarities. Most sites are like electronic catalogs(1). You browse for merchandise in various categories or search for specific items. Once you find something you want to buy, you add it to your electronic "shopping cart(2)," and continue shopping. When you're done, you review the contents of your cart, deciding whether you want to purchase all of them, or just a few. Your purchases are then totaled. Now it's time to check out.

To buy the items you selected, you fill out a form, providing information such as your name, e-mail address, shipping information, and credit card number. Usually, you are advised how long it will take for delivery(3). Some sites e-mail you an order confirmation along with a tracking number.

Within this general procedure, there are myriad(4) variations. Some sites, like computer e-stores, will build a computer to your specifications. At certain apparel sites, you can "try on" clothes using a virtual model. Many sites have customer service representatives who you can e-mail or chat with in real time, should you need assistance(5). Since customer service has become as vital(6) to online shopping as it has in the real world, expect to see a greater emphasis on making e-commerce a more shopper-friendly experience.

There are too many shopping sites to begin to list them here. Start with LTN stores, online merchants that have our endorsement. If you are looking for a particular store, brand, or type of product, use a search engine to find the right site.


Avoid Scams(7)
  • Shop with businesses you already know and trust.
  • Pay by credit card for the same protection you have when shopping in the real world.
  • Don't send your credit card number by e-mail.
  • Be skeptical(8) of deals that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
  • Check the shipping costs, which could make the total purchase price more than what you would pay in a retail store.
  • Print a copy of your order for your records.

  注释:
  
catalogs: n.目录、目录册、编目
  
shopping cart: 购物篮
  
delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  
myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  
assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  
vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  
skeptical:adj. 怀疑

Auction Online

Every day, beanie babies, Depression glassware, and thousands of other items change hands via online auctions. eBay has been the darling of bargain hunters, as well as Wall Street investors. But hundreds of other sites now offer auctions as well. Unlike buying treasures in the real world, however, e-auctions pose some unique risks. To prevent rip-offs, proceed with caution.

How Auction Sites Work

As with online stores, the exact procedure varies by site, so make sure you understand the site's policy before you begin. In general, to participate, both sellers and buyers must register with the site. Sellers typically pay a flat fee or a percentage of the final sales price to list merchandise. Buyers pay the sellers directly and also pay the shipping costs. Auctions are usually time-based, meaning that the highest qualified bid at the end of the predetermined period--say a week--wins the item.

Of course, as a buyer, you can't actually see what you are bidding on. The best you can hope for is a full description and a photo. You must trust that it's accurate and that you receive your purchase in the stated condition. That's where the potential for fraud is greatest. Typically, auction sites claim no liability, although some do provide limited guarantees. So it's up to you to be a smart consumer. Here's how:


Avoiding Auction Fraud
  • Read the auction site's policy carefully before you bid.
  • Contact the seller directly and question him or her about the merchandise.
  • Get the seller's vital information, including name, address and phone number.
  • Check the auction site to see if there is any negative postings about the seller.
  • If possible, pay by credit card for the same protection you have when making purchases in the real world. Otherwise, consider using an escrow service.
  • Print a copy of your transaction for your records.

  注释:
  
auction: n.拍卖 v.拍卖
  
shopping cart: 购物篮
  
delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  
myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  
assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  
vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  
skeptical:adj. 怀疑

Online Learning

Would you like to hone(*) your professional skills from the comfort of your home or get a college degree without setting foot on campus? Sound too good to be true? There are now thousands of online classes available on the World Wide Web and that number will soon mushroom(*) into tens of thousands.

For decades(*), students have turned to distance learning to further their educational goals. From correspondence(*) courses to tele-classes, distance learning has served the needs of people who cannot physically attend classes. With the explosion of information technology and the Internet, you can now have a virtual classroom right on your desktop. In most cases, to take a course you need only your computer, a web browser and Internet access.

A New Kind of Education

Online learning, also known as Web-based training or WBT, makes it possible to deliver instructional content to your personal computer via the World Wide Web. You access a website, where you will find most, if not all of the materials you need--a course outline and lessons, information about the instructor (if there is one), lecture notes, a list of activities, tests, and inks to other online resources. In some cases, additional materials may be required, such as textbooks or videotapes. Some WBT class are self-paced, others are led by an instructor. Most are what is known as asynchronous(*) classes--you study at your convenience--although there may be a period of time in which you must complete the course.

WBT offers a number of advantages over classroom-based instruction:

  Take a class anywhere. Learn at home or at the office, because you only need a computer and Internet access.
  Take a class anytime. Access material 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  You decide when to attend. Take courses according to your own schedule and pace.
  Lower costs. Eliminate(*) travel, parking, childcare and all the other costs of physically attending a class.
  Instant feedback(*). Tests can be graded and returned to you within seconds.
  Access to the latest materials. Instructors can easily update teaching materials as new information becomes available. Most textbooks are out-of-date(*) before they are even printed.
  An interactive(*) learning environment. Online technologies enable interaction with other students and course instructors.

Online learning has disadvantages too, the main one being that students work in isolation. To overcome this problem, many WBT classes incorporate features that invite student participation and collaboration(*) including:
  E-mail for submitting homework and communicating with the instructor and other students.
  Message boards where students can post messages relating to class content and group activities.
  Chat rooms, audio conferencing and videoconferencing for real-time conversation.
  Screen-sharing, which allows students to see what an instructor demonstrates on his or her computer screen.
  Class websites for posting of charts, graphics, links to other resources, etc.

Not all classes require student participation. Most use only a few of the features just discussed. Since education on demand is so new, course providers are trying to figure out what works best. And since people learn in different ways, classes vary in style. With self-paced classes, you study the course material and possibly take some online quizzes(*). Either no instructor is involved, or there may be a "teaching assistant" who can answer questions via e-mail. Because little human intervention is required, enrollment(*) is open to any number of students and you can begin the course as soon as you register.

Instructor-led classes are more demanding, often requiring that you submit homework assignments, meet online periodically with other students enrolled in the class, and participate in real-time class discussions with an instructor. These types of classes generally limit enrollment (perhaps to under 50 students) and have a start and end date. Upon completion of a class you may receive a grade. Classes offered by universities typically follow this model.

Subjects and prices vary enormously(*), ranging from accounting to zoology; some classes are free, while others cost hundreds of dollars.

Is Online Learning for You?

Typically, online classes are targeted(*) to working adults--people who want to get an advanced degree or acquire new skills for their jobs, but don't have time to regularly attend classes. Classes are open to anyone, but you may need some prerequisites(*) before you can enroll in certain courses. The requirements are usually listed along with class descriptions.

Online learning works best for people who are self-motivated, enjoy working alone at their computer and feel comfortable using technology. Beyond that, it's just one of those things you have to try.

  注释:

  hone:磨练 ;用磨刀石磨
  mushroom:vi. 迅速生长, 迅速增加, 采蘑菇
  decade:十年
  correspondence: n. 相应, 通信, 信件
  asynchronou:不同时,异步
  eliminate: vt. 排除, 消除 v. 除去
  feedback:回授, 反馈, 反应
  out-of-date:过时
  interactive:交互式的
  collaboration:协作
  quizzes:被检测者
  enrollment:登记,注册
  enormously:非常地,巨大地
  targeted:n. 目标, 对象, 靶子
  prerequisites:特权

Shopping Online

E-commerce has become a fact of modern life, with millions of people now regularly shopping from the convenience of their computers. Many retailers, from Abercrombie to Z Gallery, have websites where you can purchase products online, including flowers, pet food, and tonight's dinner. Why this explosion? Shopping online can save time and money, and people are more willing to give out their credit card numbers as online security has improved.

Let's say you are looking for a bestselling novel. You can comparison shop to find the best price, order the book, and arrange to have it shipped to you overnight. The whole transaction can be done in minutes, saving a trip to the store. Better yet, you may pay less than 50% of the cover price and no sales tax.

How To Buy Online

While every site is a bit different, you will find many similarities. Most sites are like electronic catalogs(1). You browse for merchandise in various categories or search for specific items. Once you find something you want to buy, you add it to your electronic "shopping cart(2)," and continue shopping. When you're done, you review the contents of your cart, deciding whether you want to purchase all of them, or just a few. Your purchases are then totaled. Now it's time to check out.

To buy the items you selected, you fill out a form, providing information such as your name, e-mail address, shipping information, and credit card number. Usually, you are advised how long it will take for delivery(3). Some sites e-mail you an order confirmation along with a tracking number.

Within this general procedure, there are myriad(4) variations. Some sites, like computer e-stores, will build a computer to your specifications. At certain apparel sites, you can "try on" clothes using a virtual model. Many sites have customer service representatives who you can e-mail or chat with in real time, should you need assistance(5). Since customer service has become as vital(6) to online shopping as it has in the real world, expect to see a greater emphasis on making e-commerce a more shopper-friendly experience.

There are too many shopping sites to begin to list them here. Start with LTN stores, online merchants that have our endorsement. If you are looking for a particular store, brand, or type of product, use a search engine to find the right site.


Avoid Scams(7)
  • Shop with businesses you already know and trust.
  • Pay by credit card for the same protection you have when shopping in the real world.
  • Don't send your credit card number by e-mail.
  • Be skeptical(8) of deals that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
  • Check the shipping costs, which could make the total purchase price more than what you would pay in a retail store.
  • Print a copy of your order for your records.

  注释:
  
catalogs: n.目录、目录册、编目
  
shopping cart: 购物篮
  
delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  
myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  
assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  
vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  
skeptical:adj. 怀疑

Shopping Online

E-commerce has become a fact of modern life, with millions of people now regularly shopping from the convenience of their computers. Many retailers, from Abercrombie to Z Gallery, have websites where you can purchase products online, including flowers, pet food, and tonight's dinner. Why this explosion? Shopping online can save time and money, and people are more willing to give out their credit card numbers as online security has improved.

Let's say you are looking for a bestselling novel. You can comparison shop to find the best price, order the book, and arrange to have it shipped to you overnight. The whole transaction can be done in minutes, saving a trip to the store. Better yet, you may pay less than 50% of the cover price and no sales tax.

How To Buy Online

While every site is a bit different, you will find many similarities. Most sites are like electronic catalogs(1). You browse for merchandise in various categories or search for specific items. Once you find something you want to buy, you add it to your electronic "shopping cart(2)," and continue shopping. When you're done, you review the contents of your cart, deciding whether you want to purchase all of them, or just a few. Your purchases are then totaled. Now it's time to check out.

To buy the items you selected, you fill out a form, providing information such as your name, e-mail address, shipping information, and credit card number. Usually, you are advised how long it will take for delivery(3). Some sites e-mail you an order confirmation along with a tracking number.

Within this general procedure, there are myriad(4) variations. Some sites, like computer e-stores, will build a computer to your specifications. At certain apparel sites, you can "try on" clothes using a virtual model. Many sites have customer service representatives who you can e-mail or chat with in real time, should you need assistance(5). Since customer service has become as vital(6) to online shopping as it has in the real world, expect to see a greater emphasis on making e-commerce a more shopper-friendly experience.

There are too many shopping sites to begin to list them here. Start with LTN stores, online merchants that have our endorsement. If you are looking for a particular store, brand, or type of product, use a search engine to find the right site.


Avoid Scams(7)
  • Shop with businesses you already know and trust.
  • Pay by credit card for the same protection you have when shopping in the real world.
  • Don't send your credit card number by e-mail.
  • Be skeptical(8) of deals that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
  • Check the shipping costs, which could make the total purchase price more than what you would pay in a retail store.
  • Print a copy of your order for your records.

  注释:
  
catalogs: n.目录、目录册、编目
  
shopping cart: 购物篮
  
delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  
myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  
assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  
vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  
skeptical:adj. 怀疑

weiking   2006-02-26 13:04:20 评论:20   阅读:131429   引用:0
计算机英语 (中) @2017-07-09 04:43:44  Kathi
邮箱数据购买?找老杨好啦.7年专注于邮件群发,一流的服务。

邮件营销
www.acneonimportancejp.org,スピカ @2013-05-14 03:57:53  daydriviara
逃すことはありません彼らは任意の単一の上の優れた見える。 ので筋肉を増強しどんなスタイル·ジーンズ彼の体は彼の原点を燃やす炎の中心からあなたは以下のためにあなたの冬の摩耗の必需品のすべてを得ることを意味することができます。

  シューでの大規模な範囲がdayブーツ風力 上部のブートは メタリックカラーのアッパーとは対照的であるsの署名のロゴパターンをUggのから作られていますそれは、オーシャン(薄紫)とソフト金にしています長い顔を上下にように着用することが何であるかレビューを見ることができているサイトの一つが完成品はeBayで競売にかけ、その収益は、セントジュードに寄付されます。 2005年には、イベントは、$ 40,000以上に上昇し、博愛の世界の注目を集めた。 2007年には、芸術、Soleはアクセサリーマガジン、通常キラキラパーティーやゴルフトーナメントのために予約偉業によって最優秀チャリティイベントに選ばれました。 イベントの開始以来、参加した有名人はシャロン·ストーン、ジョン·トラボルタ、リース·ウィザースプーンとドナルド·トランプがあります。 店や路上でどちらか雑誌で紹介され、それはほとんどの人々がUGGののペアを見てきたことは驚くべきことではない。 有名な履物はオプラなど、世界で最もよく知られている人々のいくつかの足の上に撮影されている。 最新のUGGの有名人の目撃情報がStyleの内側で紹介されて どこで取得することはできますか? 機能 - 女優ジェシカ·アルバの非常に美しい足に。 InTouchの雑誌カメラマンは発泡グウェンステファニーのショットを得た;持ち歩く息子キングストンは、幼児のブーツの会社の有名なベビーブーラインのペアを身に着けている。 すべてTasminaサンダルUGGののペアでドレスアップスウィンギーな赤ちゃん人形のドレスで気取っ米国雑誌斑点のある女優のリヴ·タイラー、スターパパラッチは、女性のクラシックトールブーツ、UGGの署名のいずれかの行の見事なペアの路上でカルメンエレクトラを鳴らした。 明らか
褍 屑械薪褟 胁芯锌褉芯褋 @2013-01-08 07:16:42  FammaGarcrava
Del, 褋芯褉褉懈 薪械 褌褍写邪 薪邪锌懈褋邪谢
袩芯写褋泻邪卸懈褌械, 泻邪泻 胁褋褌邪胁谢褟褌褜 褎芯褌芯 @2012-09-16 00:01:26  klimartews
袩芯写褋泻邪卸懈褌械, 泻邪泻 褌褍褌 胁褋褌邪胁懈褌褜 褎芯褌芯?
携 胁芯褌 锌褉芯斜褍褞, 薪芯 薪懈泻邪泻 薪械 胁褘褏芯写懈褌 :(
小芯褋芯褌邪胁褜 褋胁芯泄 锌械褉褋芯薪邪谢褜薪褘泄 谐芯褉 @2012-08-25 16:58:04  vashgoroskop
袩械褉褋芯薪邪谢褜薪褘泄 谐芯褉芯褋泻芯锌 芯锌褉械写械谢褟械褌 褋邪屑褍褞 锌芯谢薪褍褞 懈 褢屑泻褍褞 泻邪褉褌懈薪褍 芯褋薪芯胁薪褘褏 锌褋懈褏芯谢芯谐懈褔械褋泻懈褏 褏邪褉邪泻褌械褉懈褋褌懈泻. 袛邪薪薪邪褟 屑械褌芯写懈泻邪 薪邪懈斜芯谢械械 褋械褉褜褢蟹薪邪褟 懈 谐谢褍斜芯泻邪褟. 袨薪邪 褍褔懈褌褘胁邪械褌 胁褋械 胁芯蟹屑芯卸薪芯褋褌懈 懈 胁邪褉懈邪薪褌褘 胁蟹邪懈屑芯写械泄褋褌胁懈褟 褋 芯泻褉褍卸邪褞褖懈屑 屑懈褉芯屑 薪邪 芯锌褉械写械谢械薪薪褘泄 锌械褉懈芯写.
袩芯写褉芯斜薪械械 锌芯褋芯屑褌褉械褌褜 懈 褋芯褋褌邪胁懈褌褜 谐芯褉芯褋泻芯锌 屑芯卸薪芯: http://bit.ly/Ow35Sh
袥褍褔褕懈泄 芯薪谢邪泄薪 褋械泻褋褕芯锌! @2012-08-20 04:20:58  Pypopyarromia
袥褍褔褕懈泄 芯薪谢邪泄薪 褋械泻褋褕芯锌! <a href=http://mmm24.info/>胁邪泻褍褍屑薪褘械 锌芯屑锌褘</a>
小邪泄褌 薪邪褋褌芯褟褖懈褏 屑褍卸褔懈薪 @2012-06-24 11:28:14  ReaScoonry
<a href=http://realfellow.ru/8-vsem-lyubitelyam-ekstremalnogo-seksa-posvyaschaetsya.html>袙褋械屑 谢褞斜懈褌械谢褟屑 褝泻褋褌褉械屑邪谢褜薪芯谐芯 褋械泻褋邪, 锌芯褋胁褟褖邪械褌褋褟</a>
袦械薪褟 蟹芯胁褍褌 袨谢械谐 袦懈褏邪泄谢芯胁懈褔 袦懈 @2012-05-06 08:59:05  Broorsmat
袗薪薪邪 效邪锌屑邪薪   袙邪屑 斜褍写械褌 懈薪褌械褉械褋薪芯 蟹薪邪褌褜 褔褌芯 褟 袨谢械谐 袦懈褏邪泄谢芯胁懈褔 袦懈褉芯薪芯胁  21-08-1959   谐芯胁薪芯斜谢芯谐谐械褉, 芯斜屑邪薪褖懈泻 懈 谐芯斜谢懈薪-懈屑锌芯褌械薪褌 :)))袗泻褋械薪芯胁 懈褞薪褜 2008 袗褉褏懈锌 olmironov - 锌懈蟹写芯斜芯谢!; "褋褍写械斜薪邪褟 锌褉邪泻褌懈泻邪" 2012 袝袪楔袨袙 袧袠袣袨袥袗袡 袧袠袣袨袥袗袝袙袠效 懈 袣袪袝孝袨袙 袝袙袚袝袧袠袡 袙袥袗袛袠袦袠袪袨袙袠效 懈蟹写邪褌械谢褜褋褌胁芯 斜懈薪芯屑. 袙褋械胁芯谢芯写;褉邪褋褋泻邪蟹 袪芯褋褋懈褟  写芯谢谐懈 薪邪胁芯写薪械薪懈械 锌褉芯谐褉械褋褋 笑褍薪邪屑懈 袗孝肖 胁褘斜芯褉褘 褉褘薪芯泻 芯斜褉邪蟹芯胁邪薪懈械 械写邪 褎懈谢褜屑褘 屑邪褉邪蟹屑 , 袙芯械薪薪邪褟 褋谢褍卸斜邪   协褋褌芯薪懈褟  . 小袦袠  斜谢芯谐芯褋褎械褉邪  小芯斜褟薪懈薪  褋邪屑芯谢械褌褘 :) 袘邪谐懈褉芯胁 斜褍写褍褖械械 褋 01.07. 鈥� 06.12.2002谐. 鈥� 泻芯屑屑械褉褔械褋泻懈泄 写懈褉械泻褌芯褉 袨袗袨 芦协谢褜写芯褉邪写芯 袦禄; 小褍褉泻芯胁  
袗 械褖械 褟 袦懈褉芯薪芯胁 袨.袦.   谐芯谢懈屑褘泄 斜芯谢芯斜芯谢 懈 褕懈蟹懈泻 :-)
袟写褉邪胁褋褌胁褍泄褌械 褟 蟹写械褋褜 薪芯胁械薪褜泻懈泄 @2012-05-04 17:12:35  PreeroLoxia
袙褋械屑 锌褉懈胁械褌! 啸芯褌械谢 锌芯褏胁邪谢懈褌褜 袙邪褕 褋邪泄褌. 袦薪械 蟹写械褋褜 芯褔械薪褜 锌芯薪褉邪胁懈谢芯褋褜.
袙褘斜芯褉 锌褉芯褎械褋褋懈芯薪邪谢褜薪芯泄 屑芯褌芯褝泻懈 @2012-04-07 05:35:30  shoeibesti
小 锌芯褟胁谢械薪懈械屑 胁褋械 斜芯谢械械 斜褘褋褌褉芯泄 屑芯褌芯褌械褏薪懈泻懈 胁械褋褜屑邪 邪泻褌褍邪谢褜薪褘屑 褋褌邪薪芯胁懈褌褋褟 胁芯锌褉芯褋 斜械蟹芯锌邪褋薪芯褋褌懈 胁芯写懈褌械谢褟, 泻芯褌芯褉褍褞 芯斜械褋锌械褔懈胁邪械褌 胁 褋谢褍褔邪械 邪胁邪褉懈懈 谐谢邪胁薪褘屑 芯斜褉邪蟹芯屑 屑芯褌芯褕谢械屑. 袩芯褝褌芯屑褍, 锌芯泻褍锌邪褟 褎懈褉屑械薪薪褘泄 屑芯褌芯褑懈泻谢, 薪械 褋褌芯懈褌 褝泻芯薪芯屑懈褌褜 薪邪 http://motoshoei.ru/ - 褕谢械屑械 shoei 鈥� 胁褘斜懈褉邪泄褌械 褕谢械屑 屑芯褌芯褑懈泻谢械褌薪褘泄 懈蟹胁械褋褌薪褘褏 泻芯屑锌邪薪懈泄 褋 褏芯褉芯褕懈屑懈 褉械泻芯屑械薪写邪褑懈褟屑懈, 泻 锌褉懈屑械褉褍, 褟锌芯薪褋泻芯泄 泻芯屑锌邪薪懈懈 Shoei.
肖懈薪邪薪褋芯胁邪褟 褋械褌褜 袦袦袦-2011 写谢褟 锌 @2012-04-06 04:56:31  etexMictevild
袩褉懈谐谢邪褕邪械屑 袙邪褋 胁 褋芯褑懈邪谢褜薪褍褞 褎懈薪邪薪褋芯胁褍褞 褋械褌褜 袦袦袦-2011 小. 袩. 袦邪胁褉芯写懈.
袦袦袦-2011 褉邪斜芯褌邪械褌 褋 褟薪胁邪褉褟 2011 谐芯写邪, 褌芯械褋褌褜 褍卸械 16 屑械褋褟褑械胁.
袟邪 褝褌芯 胁褉械屑褟 胁褋械 褍褔邪褋褌薪懈泻懈 褍褋锌械褕薪芯 锌芯谢褍褔邪褞褌 胁褘锌谢邪褌褘, 锌褉懈褌芯屑 薪械屑邪谢械薪褜泻械.
袙褋械 械褖械 写械泄褋褌胁褍械褌 邪泻褑懈褟 泻邪卸写芯屑褍 薪芯胁芯屑褍 褍褔邪褋褌薪懈泻褍 20 写芯谢谢邪褉芯胁 胁 锌芯写邪褉芯泻.
袝褋谢懈 褏芯褌懈褌械 胁谢芯卸懈褌褜 褋胁芯懈 写械薪褜谐懈, 褌芯 褋褍褖械褋褌胁褍褞褌 写械锌芯蟹懈褌褘 褋 褉邪蟹薪芯泄 褋褌械锌械薪褜褞 写芯褏芯写薪芯褋褌懈
芯褌 20% 写芯 75% 胁 袦械褋褟褑!
袝褋谢懈 褉邪蟹屑械褖邪械褌械 胁泻谢邪写 薪邪:
3屑械褋褟褑邪, 褍胁械谢懈褔械薪懈械 胁泻谢邪写邪 胁 3 褉邪蟹邪.
6 屑械褋褟褑械胁, 褍胁械谢懈褔械薪懈械 胁泻谢邪写邪 胁 13 褉邪蟹.
12 屑械褋褟褑械胁, 褍胁械谢懈褔械薪懈械 胁泻谢邪写邪 胁 407 褉邪蟹.
袣邪卸写褘泄 褋邪屑 写谢褟 褋械斜褟 锌褍褋褌褜 褉械褕懈褌, 褋褌芯懈褌 懈谢懈 薪械 褋褌芯懈褌 胁褋褌褍锌邪褌褜 胁 袦袦袦-2011, 褝褌芯 袙邪褕 胁褘斜芯褉.
袦袦袦-2011 褝褌芯 褎懈薪邪薪褋芯胁邪褟 锌懈褉邪屑懈写邪, 芯褋薪芯胁邪薪薪邪 薪邪 褋芯褑懈邪谢褜薪褘褏 胁蟹邪懈屑芯芯褌薪芯褕械薪懈褟褏 谢褞写械泄, 薪械褌 械写懈薪芯谐芯 褑械薪褌褉邪
褋褉械写褋褌胁邪 褉邪褋锌褉械写械谢褟褞褌褋褟 屑械卸写褍 褍褔邪褋褌薪懈泻邪屑懈. 袦褘 袦芯卸械屑 袦薪芯谐芯械!
袩芯写褉芯斜薪械械 http://mmm-invest.biz
袩褉芯写胁懈卸械薪懈械 褋邪泄褌芯胁 @2012-04-02 02:26:29  drigstesz
孝褉械斜褍械褌褋褟 泻芯屑锌谢械泻褋薪芯械 锌褉芯写胁懈卸械薪懈褟 褋邪泄褌邪?
袪械泻芯屑械薪写褍褞 芯褌谢懈褔薪褘泄 褋械褉胁懈褋 <a href=http://allsab.ru/>(褋褋褘谢泻邪 褉械褎.)</a>. 袪械斜褟褌邪 蟹薪邪褞褌 褋胁芯械 写械谢芯, 蟹邪 薪械斜芯谢褜褕懈械 写械薪褜谐懈 锌芯谢褍褔邪械褕褜 屑邪泻褋懈屑邪谢褜薪褘泄 褉械蟹褍谢褜褌邪褌
袣邪泻 胁械褉薪褍褌褜 谢褞斜懈屑芯谐芯 褔械谢芯胁械泻邪 @2012-03-02 05:28:05  TatianaMarlek
袥褞写懈, 锌芯写褋泻邪卸懈褌械 薪邪写械卸薪芯谐芯 锌褉芯胁械褉械薪薪芯谐芯 屑邪谐邪, 泻芯褌芯褉褘泄 薪邪胁械褉薪褟泻邪 锌芯屑芯卸械褌 胁械褉薪褍褌褜 谢褞斜懈屑芯谐芯 褔械谢芯胁械泻邪!  
袩褘褌邪谢邪褋褜 芯斜褉邪褖邪褌褜褋褟 蟹邪 锌芯屑芯褖褜褞 懈 褔械褉械蟹 懈薪褌械褉薪械褌 懈 褔械褉械蟹 谐邪蟹械褌褍, 薪芯 褌芯 泻懈写邪谢芯胁芯, 褌芯 褉邪蟹胁芯写!
袞邪谢褜, 褌邪泻 薪褍卸薪邪 锌芯屑芯褖褜!
袨褌泻谢懈泻薪懈褌械褋褜! 袠谢懈 薪邪锌懈褕懈褌械 胁 谢懈褔泻褍!
袣邪泄褌褋械褉褎懈薪谐, 褕泻芯谢邪 泻邪泄褌褋械褉褎懈薪谐 @2009-07-01 10:18:04  袣邪泄褌褋械褉褎懈薪
袣邪泄褌褋械褉褎懈薪谐, 褕泻芯谢邪 泻邪泄褌褋械褉褎懈薪谐邪, 芯斜褍褔械薪懈械 泻邪泄褌褋械褉褎懈薪谐褍,泻邪泄褌懈薪谐, 泻邪泄褌懈薪谐 芯斜褍褔械薪懈械, 泻邪泄褌 褕泻芯谢邪, 泻邪泄褌 褕泻芯谢邪 胁褜械褌薪邪屑.
褟 袨谢械谐 袦懈褏邪泄谢芯胁懈褔 袦懈褉芯薪芯胁 195 @2002-01-01 22:28:58  NumnInins
袣薪褟卸械褋褌胁芯  -  袙邪屑 斜褍写械褌 懈薪褌械褉械褋薪芯 蟹薪邪褌褜 褔褌芯 褟 袦懈褉芯薪芯胁 袨.袦. 袦芯褋泻胁懈褔 1959谐褉 - 邪褎械褉懈褋褌, 泻芯锌褉芯褎懈谢 懈 褉械写泻懈泄 屑褍写邪泻 !!!袥效 芯泻褌褟斜褉褜 2006 袠锌锌芯谢懈褌 褋褍写 谐.袝泻邪褌械褉懈薪斜褍褉谐 2012,械谐芯褉芯胁 薪懈泻芯谢邪泄 薪懈泻芯谢邪械胁懈褔 泻褉械褌芯胁 械胁谐械薪懈泄 胁谢邪写懈屑懈褉芯胁懈褔 袚芯褉写械泄,挟泻芯褋 效褍斜邪泄褋  锌芯谢懈褑懈褟 锌褉械蟹懈写械薪褌 袪芯褋褋懈懈 褔懈褋谢邪 卸褍褉薪邪谢懈褋褌褘 袩芯蟹薪械褉 效械褉薪芯斜褘谢褜 袚.袗. 袛褉械屑谢褞谐邪 褋屑械褉褌褜 袧邪褉芯写薪褘泄 褎褉芯薪褌 写芯斜褉芯褌邪   褉邪褋褋泻邪蟹褘  , 褝屑懈谐褉邪褑懈褟   袠谐芯褉褜 袘邪泻褍谢懈薪  袧邪褑懈芯薪邪谢褜薪芯褋褌褜  携薪写械泻褋  斜谢芯谐械褉褘 !!! 袩褉芯薪褜泻芯 效褍斜邪泄褋 褋 01.07. 鈥� 06.12.2002谐. 鈥� 泻芯屑屑械褉褔械褋泻懈泄 写懈褉械泻褌芯褉 袨袗袨 芦协谢褜写芯褉邪写芯 袦禄; 袘褘泻芯胁 ,
锌谢褞褋 泻 褝褌芯屑褍 褟 袦懈褉芯薪芯胁 袨谢械谐 袦懈褏邪泄谢芯胁懈褔  1959  屑械谢泻芯械 写械褉褜屑芯 懈 泻芯薪褔械薪邪褟 谐薪懈写邪 :)

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